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MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS 



WESTMINSTER ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS 



WESTMINSTER ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES 

WHILE ENGAGED IN PREPARING THEIR 

DIRECTORY FOR CHURCH GOVERNMENT, 

CONFESSION OF FAITH, AND 

CATECHISMS 

(NOVEMBER 1644 TO MARCH 1649) 



JTrom transcripts of tfyc rtgtnals 

PROCURED BY 
A COMMITTEE OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



EDITED FOR THE COMMITTEE BY THE 

REV. ALEX. F. MITCHELL, D.D. 

PROFESSOR OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS 



REV. JOHN STRUTHERS, LL.D. 

MINISTER OF PRESTONPANS 



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS 

EDINBURGH AND LONDON 

l8 74 



TO THE 



VENERABLE THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



PUBLISHED BY THEIR DESIRE 



IS MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED 



2210718 



PREFACE. 



THE Manuscript Minutes of the Assembly of Divines, 
of which a transcript has been made for the Church of 
Scotland, are at present contained in three volumes of not 
quite equal-sized foolscap folio, and are in the custody 
of the Trustees of Dr. Williams' Library, lately removed 
to Grafton Street, Fitzroy Square, London. The volumes 
are plainly bound, in a style which was common in the 
latter half of last century. They have, in a modern hand, 
at the beginning of the first and second, the title, ' Minutes 
of the Sessions of the Assembly of Divines, from August 
4th, 1643, to April 24th, 1652.' At the beginning of the 
third volume is found the more strictly accurate title, 
' Minutes of the Sessions of the Assembly of Divines, from 
August 4th, 1643, to March 25th, 1652.' It is not very 
precisely ascertained how they came into the hands of 
their present custodiers. It was supposed by the Rev. 
R. Brooke Aspland, the late Chairman of the Trustees, 
that they were included in the rare and valuable collection 
of Dr. William Bates, which was purchased by Dr. 
Williams for his Library. In the unprinted catalogue of 
the MSS. in the Library, it is merely said, ' It does not 
appear when these volumes were deposited in this Library. 
They came, most probably, with Morrice's MSS.' 

The volumes are pronounced by several competent 
judges to be almost entirely in the handwriting of Ado- 
niram Byfield, one of the scribes of the Assembly of 
Divines. His name is written several times on the first 



VI PREFACE. 

page of the second volume, apparently in the same hand- 
writing as the greater part of the volumes ; and on the 
occasions when he can be shown to have got temporary 
leave of absence, the scroll minutes are continued in a 
different hand. 

Though the Minutes are now collected into three 
volumes, each volume appears to consist of two or more 
fasciculi, which may originally have been separate. On 
this account, some who have not inspected them have 
sought to identify them with the fourteen or fifteen vol- 
umes of notes of the Assembly's proceedings which Dr. 
Thomas Goodwin is reported to have written. But Dr. 
Goodwin's son, who states that his father did write such 
notes, states also that they were in octavo ; 1 while those 
in Dr. Williams' Library are, as already mentioned, in 
folio, and cannot in many cases be described as brief. 
Besides, full accounts of the proceedings, and even of 
speeches delivered in sessions when we know that Good- 
win was not present, are given in the same hand as the 
other minutes. 

The first volume consists of three fasciculi. The first 
of these extends from folio I to folio 149, and from session 
45 to session 86; the second extends from folio 150 to 
folio 295, and from session 87 to session 119; the third 
begins with folio 296, and ends with folio 443, extending 
from session 155 to 198. The volume accordingly embraces 
part of the debates on the revision of the English Articles, 
and the first part of those on Church Government ; but it 
has no record of proceedings from 1st July to 3d August, 
during which interval forty-four sessions must have been 
held ; nor of those from December 2Oth, 1643, to Febru- 
ary 1 5th, 1643-4, during which thirty-six sessions were 
held, and debates of considerable importance carried on. 

1 ' I shall only take notice that he took a brief account of every day's trans- 
actions, of which I have fourteen or fifteen volumes in 8vo, wrote with his 
own hand.' Memoir of Goodwin, by" his Son. 



PREFACE. Vll 

The second volume appears to be formed of two fasci- 
culi bound together. The first ends at folio 148, which 
is a blank leaf, having its outside soiled, as if by exposure 
and use before it was bound up in its present form. The 
second begins at folio 149, and ends at folio 297, and, like 
the first one, has blank leaves at the beginning and end. 
It is a continuous record of the sessions from April I2th, 
1644, to November I5th, 1644, and contains the main part 
of the Assembly's debates on Church Government and on 
the Directory for Public Worship. 

The third volume appears to be formed of tour fasciculi, 
three only of which, however, are connected with the West- 
minster Assembly. The first, consisting of 140 folios, 
contains memoranda of the several sessions from 324 to 
604, or from November iSth, 1644, to March i6th, 1645-6. 
The last thirteen pages are blank, and the notes of the 
proceedings are occasionally very meagre, though at other 
times pretty full notes of speeches are inserted. The 
second, consisting of 97 folios, numbered from 141 to 238, 
contains similar but generally more full memoranda 
(written out with some formality) of the sessions from 601 
to 900, under dates from March 9th, 1645-6, to August 
1 6th, 1647. In this fascicle six pages at the beginning and 
eight at the end are blank. The third, consisting of 148 
folios, numbered from 239 to 387, and apparently a con- 
tinuation of fascicle I, contains somewhat similar, but 
usually more brief, memoranda of the sessions from 604 to 
1163, under dates from March i6th, 1645-6, to February 
22d, 1648-9, as well as of the sessions which are not 
numbered, and which extend from March ist, 1648-9, to 
March 25th, 1652. These last record little more than the 
bare names of the persons examined and approved by the 
Assembly. The fourth fascicle, consisting of 40 folios, 
written in a younger and more distinct hand, or perhaps 
in several such hands, contains what appear to be scroll 
minutes of the Provincial Assembly or Synod of London. 



Vlll . PREFACE. 

The third volume is in many respects the most important 
of all. If it contains generally less copious notes of 
speeches, it has, especially in its middle fascicle, more 
regular minutes of the meetings, and is the only known 
record of the Assembly's proceedings while engaged in 
the formation of its Directory for Church Government, 
Confession of Faith, and Catechisms. 

The ' Minutes/ with the exception of the second fascicle 
of this third volume, are written in a peculiarly hurried 
and indistinct hand, hardly more easy to be deciphered 
at times, as Dr. Stoughton has remarked, than the short- 
hand occasionally employed by the scribe. They are, 
with the same exception, rather notes of speeches and 
debates jotted down by the scribe during the session, along 
with the resolutions of the Assembly respecting them, 
than formal and carefully extended minutes. Still these 
notes, as proceeding from an official person, are at least 
of equal value with those of Gillespie and Lightfoot, and 
often enter orders and resolutions of the Assembly in a 
fuller and more formal way than they have done. The 
record in the second fascicle is more carefully composed 
and more legibly written, and may fairly claim to be 
received in the strictest sense as the 'Minutes of the 
Sessions of the Assembly of Divines' from March Qth, 
1645, to August 1647, though even in it many documents 
or parts of documents sanctioned are not entered at 
length. It is round this, its central portion, that the main 
interest of the volume is gathered ; and to the illustration 
of it, and the recovery from the Journals of Parliament of 
as many of the omitted documents as possible, that most 
attention has been given. In regard to the other portions 
which contain notes of debates, it is hardly necessary to 
add that the Assembly is to be held responsible only for 
its own resolutions and declared conclusions, not for the 
sentiments of individual speakers. These, when the senti- 
ments expressed by many, may be a help to the interpre- 



PREFACE. IX 

tation of resolutions, though even then the Assembly is 
responsible for the resolutions alone ; but when they are 
those of one or a few, they are not to be so used with any 
confidence. What the Sub-committee on Accommodation 
asserted in their reply to the Dissenting Brethren must be 
admitted to have a general application, 'This we know, 
that no member of the Assembly could give any other 
sense but their own as single persons, nothing berhg the 
sense of the Assembly but what appears to be so by their 
order or resolve ; and that if one speak anything as his 
sense, the rest being silent, their silence is not to be taken 
for a consent 1 (p. 109). 

The transcripts from which this volume has been printed 
were made by E. Maunde Thompson, Esq., Assistant 
Keeper of MSS. in the British Museum, and the Rev. Dr. 
Struthers of Prestonpans. But the Minutes throughout 
stand in the text as, after repeated and careful revision, 
it was fixed by Mr. Thompson, save that irregularities in 
spelling have not generally been preserved. Various 
readings or conjectural emendations which either editor 
thinks worthy of mention are given in the notes. Those 
who wish to see what the spelling is deemed to be 
by a most competent judge, may consult his transcripts 
deposited in the Library of the Church. At the meeting 
of the Committee in May 1872, a unanimous wish was 
expressed that the portion of the Minutes published should 
be so in modern spelling. Though not altogether without 
reluctance, we acquiesced 1st, Because, from the frequent 
abbreviation of words or parts of words, and the running 
of certain letters into one another, the spelling is to a 
certain extent conjectural, and must be given in modern 
form ; 2d, Because even where it can be incontrovertibly 
ascertained, it is not that of the speakers, nor by any 
means the same as that used in their published writ- 
ings, and notes of speeches preserved by themselves ; 
$d, Because a similar course appears to have been fol- 



X PREFACE. 

lowed in editing the contemporary Journals of Parlia- 
ment. 

Where proper names nearly resemble the forms still in 
common use, they have been retained. With respect to 
some which vary further from the forms now used, the 
example set by the learned editor of Baillies Letters and 
Journals has been followed. 1 Accordingly, Chillingworth 
has been substituted for Shillingworth, Cheynell generally 
for Channell, Chanel, and Cheinel ; and the names of the 
Scotch Commissioners especially have been given in the 
forms which most nearly resemble those still used in 
Scotland. 

The best thanks of the editors are due to the Trustees 
and Librarian of Dr. Williams' Library, Grafton Street, 
London, for their great courtesy and kindness in allowing 
free access to the original Minutes ; and to E. M. Thomp- 
son, Esq., for the great labour he bestowed in securing a 
thoroughly accurate transcript ; also to David Laing, Esq., 
LL.D., of the Signet Library, for much valuable counsel ; 
and to Professor Birrel, St. Andrews, for kind aid in 
revising the proof-sheets. 

The Index to the volume has been prepared by Dr. 
Struthers. Professor Mitchell alone is responsible for the 
Introduction, and also for the notes to the Minutes, unless 
when these have the initials of the transcriber or of Dr. 
Struthers. 

1 ' Here, and in the subsequent account of the Assembly of Divines at West- 
minster, the incorrect orthography of the names of persons, as written by 
Baillie's amanuensis, has not been retained.' Baillie's Letters, vol. ii. p. 1 02. 



INTRODUCTION. 



' ON Saturday last, the Assembly of Divines began at 
Westminster, according to the Ordinance of both the 
Houses of Parliament, where Dr. Twist of Newbery, in 
the county of Berks, their Prolocutor, preached on John 
xiv. 18: "I will not leave you comfortless; I will come 
unto you," a text pertinent to these times of sorrow, 
anguish, and misery, to raise up the drooping spirits of 
the people of God who lie under the pressure of Popish 
wars and combustions. But we shall forbear to relate any 
of the points thereof, because we suppose his said sermon 
will be published in print for the satisfaction and comfort 
of all that desire to read it. The number that met this 
day were threescore and nine, the total number being 
(including the members of both the Houses of Parliament, 
which are but thirty) 151, whereof if only forty meet the 
first day, it maketh the Assembly valid according to the 
Ordinance.' 1 

Such is the brief and modest account given in the 
Parliamentarian newspaper for the week of the opening 
of the Westminster Assembly. To that great meeting of 

1 Certain Information from several parts of the Kingdom, etc., No. 25, from 
3d to loth July 1643. The Royalist account is subjoined from Mercurius 
Aulicus for Friday, July 7, 1643 : ' It was advertised this day, that the 
Synod, which by the pretended Ordinance of the two Houses was to begin 
on the 1st of July, was put off till the Thursday following, being the sixth of 
this present month, that matters might be prepared for them whereupon to 
treat, it being not yet revealed to my Lord Say, Master Pym, and others 
of their associates in the Committee for Religion, what gospel 'tis that must 
be preached and settled by these new evangelists. Only it is reported that 
certain of the godly ministers did meet that day in the Abbey Church to a 
sermon, and had some doctrines and uses, but what else done, and to what 
purpose that was done, we may hear hereafter. ' 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

divines and laymen many of the worthiest sons of Britain 
had looked forward with eager expectation for the removal 
of acknowledged abuses, and the restoration of peace as 
well as purity to the distracted churches. To it, not- 
withstanding many admitted shortcomings, not a few still 
look back with veneration and gratitude, as having nurtured 
Puritanism for the terrible conflict through which it had 
soon to pass, and moulded it into the form it has so long 
retained in Britain and America. 

It is not my intention in the present Introduction to 
enter into the general history of that eventful period, or 
even of this memorable Assembly. That has been fully 
and ably, candidly and impartially, done of late by men 
of various schools of thought j 1 and to be done again in ac- 
cordance with the materials at my disposal, would require 
a volume to itself. Besides, it will come in time enough, 
if it come at all, along with the parts of the Assembly's 
Minutes which yet remain to be published. At present 
my observations may fairly be limited to that department 
of the Assembly's work with which this volume is chiefly 
occupied the doctrinal standards prepared by it. The 
history of these, and their relation to the theological 
opinions of the time at which, as well as of the time before, 
they appeared, has never yet been made the subject of 
very detailed examination, nor could well be till these 
Minutes were again deciphered. It appears to me, that it 
may be treated of quite apart from the history of those 
discussions regarding the polity and worship of the Church 
which occupied much of the time of the Assembly, and 
which bulk largely in all accounts of its proceedings during 
the years 1643 and 1644. It should be of far more general 
interest than the other. It was the department of its 
work in which Presbyterians, Independents, and evan- 
gelical Episcopalians were most nearly agreed. The 
simple history of it should tend to remove misunderstand- 
ings which have long alienated those who were then so 

1 Marsden's History of the Later Puritans, Stoughton's Church of the 
Civil Wars, Masson's Life of Milton in connection -with the History of his 
Timr, and M'Crie's Annals of English Presbytery. 



INTRODUCTION, Xlll 

closely associated, and lead them again to think and 
speak more kindly of the Westminster divines, and the 
work they sought to forward, of uniting all true Protes- 
tants in the defence of the principles of the Reformation. 
I am not without hope that it may lead others to be less 
confident than some of them have lately been, that ' the 
Westminster Confession stands at an extreme point in 
the development of Calvinism,' and, 'though not like the 
Fonmila Consensus Helvetici, a special polemic against 
the via media, was still as explicit and decided in its 
antagonism.' I only regret that I cannot well take up 
the subject without special reference to a paper on 'The 
Westminster Confession of Faith and Scotch Theology/ 
by the Rev. A. M. Fairbairn, which appeared in the Con- 
temporary Review rather more than a year ago. 

The facts brought to light in these Minutes have a rather 
intimate bearing on the question whether that Confession 
of Faith is ' so sectional that the most latitudinarian terms 
of subscription could not catholicize it,' and I trust may 
lead not a few in England to entertain a more favourable 
view of the Westminster Assembly and its symbolical 
books than for a long time past they have done. It may 
be admitted that 'the cultured intellect of the day/ 
especially in the southern division of our island, has to 
a very considerable extent changed the matter and form 
of its beliefs, and lost firm faith in much that we Cal- 
vinists still contend for, and in not a little besides which 
good Arminians were wont to maintain. But the question 
remains, whether the decisions of this cultured intellect 
must now be accepted as final, and at its bidding a theory 
of the authority of Scripture alien to the conceptions not 
only of the Westminster Assembly, but of all the Protes- 
tant churches, and subversive of the things most surely 
believed in them, must forthwith be accepted ; or whether, 
as in the past, the cultured intellect may not again see 
cause to modify the views which for a time it has ac- 
cepted. To those who are conversant with the history of 
opinion in our own or other countries, such revivals or 
reactions are not unknown. In the end of last century, 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

a celebrated professor in Germany, writing of the history 
of doctrine as developed by the Reformers, confidently 
affirmed that the subject before him was one in which the 
theological public of his time could hardly be expected 
to take a real interest, since not only had most of the 
doctrinal questions themselves about which the Reformers 
and their successors contended 'entirely lost for our 
present theology the importance they once possessed, 
but their history also has lost for the spirit of our age 
even the negative interest with which the slowly maturing 
aversion to these questions could for a long time clothe 
it. Ten years ago they might have been dwelt upon with 
some interest, because ten years ago they had not wholly 
lost their power over the mind of the age ; . . . but now 
this bond also is gone, and an entirely new theology has 
arisen. Not only those forms, but many of the old funda- 
mental ideas, have been left behind ; nor have we any fear 
that the spirit of our theology can ever return of itself or 
be forced back to them ; and we view them accordingly 
as perfectly indifferent antiquations.' 1 Yet these dry bones 
have been made to live again. What to Planck and to 
many of his contemporaries seemed perfectly indifferent 
antiquations, have again come to be regarded as questions 
of engrossing interest and vital importance, to the illustra- 
tion of which a Dorner, a Winer, and a Hagenbach have 
devoted themselves with zest and good success, and to 
the formal proof of which even ' cultured ' theologians 
have not been ashamed again to contribute. Is it vain 
to hope that some similar change may yet pass on the 
cultured intellect nearer home, that under the combined 
influence of deeper piety, sounder philosophy, and more 
impartial critical research, the Church of the future may 
return to its former faith in many of those great truths 
which have been the life and strength of the Church in 
ages past ; and that even in England the theology of 
Augustine and Anselm, of Bradwardine and Wycliffe, 
of Hooker, Bacon, and Ussher, as well as of Calvin and 

1 Planck's Geschichte der Protestantischen Theologie, vol. iv. pp. vi. vii. 
The translation is Dr. Schaff 's. 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

Knox and their Puritan disciples, may be again more 
highly valued and more generally followed ? 

I do not believe that the influence of these last has yet 
sunk so low as Mr. Fairbairn seems to suppose. I can 
say but little of Twisse's sermons, for it has not been my 
lot to fall in with them ; but Fuller, who was no blind 
admirer, said of him that ' his plain preaching was good, 
solid disputing better, pious living best of all good.' ' With 
respect to Rutherford, it is so far from being the case, that 
any Scotch Calvinist who should deliver a sermon of his 
would have good cause to fear that the people would either 
refuse to listen, or would listen only to execrate, that I 
can testify that one of his discourses republished in our 
own day has been more than once read in public with 
great acceptance. With all their faults of prolixity and 
quaintness, no writings in practical divinity have been so 
extensively read, none have so long maintained their hold 
on the minds of the religiously disposed in Britain and 
America, as those of the great Puritan divines of the 
seventeenth century. In their own day the power of their 
preaching was widely felt, and we fall very far short of 
the true conception of that time unless we remember that 
it was a season of spiritual revival as deep and extensive as 
any that has since occurred in the history of the British 
Churches. Neither have their doctrines lost their power 
in the hands of their like-minded successors in more recent 
days ; nor have any enjoyed a wider or more deserved 
popularity than Chalmers and some others, in Britain and 
America, who have adhered closely to them, and to whom 
even men of cultured intellect have not disdained to listen. 

Mr. Fairbairn says, that ' rightly to appreciate the his- 
torical position and significance of the Westminster Con- 
fession, we must first look at certain tendencies operative 
throughout Protestantism in general, and the Reformed 
Churches in particular, in the century that succeeded the 
Reformation.' I admit that we must do so, and I regret 
that I cannot at once accept his own statement as to these 
tendencies. The earlier Protestant theology was no doubt 

1 Worthies of England, vol. i. p. 93. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

more spontaneous than the later, but it was at the same 
time less carefully drawn, and often more polemically ex- 
pressed. The later, if more logical, was also more critically 
exact and more carefully balanced. The main difference 
between Luther and Calvin arose from the fact that the 
latter came after the former, and had his experience and 
the counsels of others to guide and sustain him in those 
conflicts through which he had to pass?- But that he as well 
as Luther was first drawn towards the truth by the felt 
wants of his spiritual nature, and that it was only after 
the work of grace had made some progress in his soul that 
he set himself to the systematic study of the word of God, 
and that quite as much for practical as for scientific 
purposes, has been established beyond the possibility of 
doubt by his recent biographers. That his theology was a 
living growth, and not a series of additions without any 
organic connection, must be granted by every one who 
studies it ; but that it was an early arrested growth, can 
be imagined only by those who forget that his Institutes, 
as originally published, were a very different book from 
what they ultimately became, and that it was not till his 
fiftieth year he brought them into the shape in which they 
are now. 2 If some, in their abhorrence of one of his dogmas, 
will overlook all that Hales, and Hooker, and Horsley 
have said in his honour, they must not expect to be allowed 
to ignore what impartial men among their contemporaries 
have freely granted. The Rationalistic Professors of 

1 ' What brought Luther to doubt in Romanism was the feeling of sin, and the 
impossibility of finding peace in the expiations indicated to him by the Church. 
He sought, and was in torment till he found, peace. . . . Calvin in this re- 
spect had not to seek-; Olivetan perhaps, and Wolmar certainly, told him 
what Luther had found, and justification by faith was early pointed out as the 
solution of the grand problem. But to know the solution was a small thing ; 
it was requisite that it should become true for him, for his own soul. ... It 
was on this ground that the conflict took place, and to it apparently the Re- 
former alluded in the somewhat vague details he gave of the state of his soul 
at that epoch, in his preface to his Commentary on the Psalms. ' Bungener's 
Calvin, p. 22. See also Dr. Merle D'Aubigne's interesting and exhaustive 
account of Calvin's earlier life. 

2 ' During twenty-four years the book increased in every edition, not as an 
edifice to which additions are made, but as a tree which developes itself freely, 
naturally, and without compromise of its unity.' Bungener's Calvin, p. 43. 



INTRODUCTION. XV11 

Strassburg, who are no blind admirers, and who in the edi- 
tion of his works they are publishing are rearing a noble 
monument to his memory, have not shrunk from acknow- 
ledging him as ' theologorum principem et antesignanuin" J 
The earliest edition of the Institutes contained less of dis- 
tinctively Augustinian teaching than the earlier editions of 
the Loci Communes of Melanchthon; and the remark might, 
with far more appearance of truth, have been made of him 
than of Calvin, that his early theology was not so much a 
product of his spiritual experience as of his logical faculty, 
a deduction a priori, and tha 'he assumed from Augus- 
tine certain principles as to the natures and relations of God 
and man, and built on these, by the aid of syllogism and 
exegesis, his entire system.' The Strassburg Professors 
call special attention to the fact, that those 'loci' on which 
the whole system is said by Mr. Fairbairn to be built, are 
barely touched on in the earliest edition of the Institutes?' 
Calvin's theology, therefore, must have had a basis and 
a character independent of them ; and it is vain to deny 

1 Si Lutherum virum maximum, si Zuinglium civem Christianum nulli 
secundum, si Melanthonem prasceptorem doctissimum merito appellaris, 
Calvinum jure vocaris theologorum principem et antesignanum. In hoc enim 
quis linguarum et literarum praesidia, quis disciplinarum fere omnium non 
miretur orbem? De cujus copia doctrinae, rerumque dispositione aptissime 
concinnata, et argumentorum vi ac validitate in dogmaticis, de felicissima 
perspicuitate, sobrietate ac sagacitate in exegeticis, de nervosa eloquentia et 
libertate in parseneticis ; de prudentia sapientiaque legislatoria in ecclesiis 
ordinandis ac regendis incomparabili, inter omnes viros doctos, et de rebus 
evangelicis libere sentientes jam abunde constat. . . . Quas cuncta . . . 
prascipue relucent in immortali ilia Institutione religionis Christianae quse 
omnes ejusdem generis expositiones inde ab apostolorum temporibus con- 
scriptas, adeoque ipsos Melanthonis Locos theologicos, absque omni contro- 
versia longe antecellit, atque eruditum et ingenuum lectorem, etiamsi alicubi 
secus senserit, hodieque quasi vinctum trahit et vel invitum rapit in admira- 
tionem. Prafatio, pp. ix. x. 'Calvin succeeded because he was the most 
Christian man of his age.' Renan, as quoted by Bungener. 

2 Plurima eaque non parvi momenti vix obiter attinguntur, quod et in 
Melanthonis locis observari nemo est qui nesciat. . . . Hac pertinent apud 
Calvinum locus qui est de Dei natura et operibus et quse de hominis natural! 
indole dicenda erant, turn trinitatis, christologiae, psedobaptismi pr<zdestina- 
tionis formula et fundamenta, in quibus omnibus, aliisque ejusdem generis haud 
paucis hae theologiae Calvinianas primitise eo minus tibi rem confecisse vide- 
buntur, quo diligentius postea et subtilius autor ipse illas retractavit. Prole- 
gomena, p. xxxi. 

b 



XV111 INTRODUCTION. 

that, leaving out of sight these mysterious topics altogether, 
there is much in his book and his system for which the 
Church of Christ has abundant cause to be grateful to 
him. Complementary truths are often found stated by 
him more exactly than either by Luther or Melanchthon. 
Even in the latest edition of the work revised by him, I 
question if there is any passage so strongly assertive of 
the doctrine of necessity as some which occur in the earlier 
editions of Melanchthon's Loci, and especially in that edi- 
tion of which Luther said that it was an unanswerable book. 1 
It is with Calvin's teaching, and with the earlier rather 
than the later forms of it, that the Confessions of the 
Reformed Churches are most closely to be identified; and 
though subsequent developments at Geneva, Heidelberg, 
and Leyden may not be unworthy of attention, it must 
never be forgotten that these, so far as they were supra- 
lapsarian, were only the teaching of individual professors, 
and did neither legally narrow the creeds of their respec- 
tive churches, nor at any period command general assent 
in the Reformed Churches. At the Synod of Dort, the 
Professors of Heidelberg, in common with all the foreign 
deputies, expressed themselves decidedly in favour of the 
infralapsarian theology. Pareus, who was too old to be 
present, wrote a long letter, in which he not only expressed 

1 Nay, the most recent historian of the Reformation tells us that ' predesti- 
nation is asserted by Luther in his book on the Servitude of the Will, even in 
relation to wickedness, in terms more emphatic than the most extreme state- 
ments of Calvin. Melanchthon for a considerable period wrote in the same 
strain ; and Zuingle, in his metaphysical theory, did not differ from his brother 
Reformers.' He holds that 'Calvin was not a speculative philosopher, who 
thought out a necessitarian theory and defended it, for the reasons that he 
considered it capable of being logically established. . . . The direct grounds 
and sources of his doctrine were practical. Predestination to him was the 
correlate of human dependence ; the counterpart of the doctrine of grace ; the 
antithesis to salvation by merit ; the implied consequence of man's complete 
bondage to sin, In election, it is involved that man's salvation is not his own 
work, but wholly the work of the grace of God ; and in election also there is 
laid a sure foundation for the believer's security under all the assaults of temp- 
tation. It is practical interests which Calvin is sedulous to guard ; he clings 
to the doctrine for what he considers its religious value ; . . . and whether 
consistently or not, there is the most earnest assertion of the- moral and respon- 
sible nature of man.' The Reformation, by G. P. Fisher, D.D., of Yale 
College, pp. 200, 20 1, 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

his concurrence in the views of his colleagues, but went 
nearly as far as some of the Bremen divines in the same 
direction as Davenant. 1 The Heidelberg Catechism, which 
was approved by the Synod, has generally been regarded 
as one of the most moderate and cautious of the Reformed 
symbolical books, as it certainly was one of the most 
widely received. 

Besides the mere logical evolution of its principles, 
various outer events are referred to by Mr. Fairbairn, 
which 'combined to make Calvinism, on the one hand, 
define and ground its first principles, and on the other, 
apply and defend its conclusions.' ist, It is said that the 
persecutions and civil wars in France and Holland natu- 
rally prepared men to accept a high and stern Calvinism as 
their religious faith. But it may be replied that they were 
Calvinists before the wars began, and that there is at least 
much more appearance of truth in the remark of Michelet, 
that it was their religious faith mainly which nerved them 
for the terrible conflicts through which they had to pass. 
2d, It is said, and may be granted, that the tendency of 
the Tridentine teaching was not quite in harmony with 
the ' Paul of Augustine ;' but it must be added that the 
Council of Trent in its decrees did not venture to condemn 
much, save certain supposed excesses of Luther and Calvin, 
and that the opponents of Augustinianism were so care- 
fully watched by its defenders, that they gained but little 
direct advantage over them at that time. $d, It is said, 
and may be granted, that the Arminian controversy did 
lead not a few Calvinists to carry their principles to a more 
extreme length; but it must be added that the controversy 
had an opposite effect on many in England as well as in 

1 ' Mors Christi enim ratione amplitudinis atque potentiae suse remedium est 
peccatis omnium et singulorum hominum expiandis sufficientissimum ; neque 
ad realem reconciliationem deest quicquam omnibus et singulis earn fide accipien- 
tibus. Hoc sensu Christus pro omnibus et singulis hominibus mortuus esse 
dici potest : eodemque dicta Scripturae, ubi Christus dicitur mortuus esse pro 
.omnibus (i Tim. ii. 6) gustasse mortem pro omnibus (Heb. ii. 9) propitiatio 
esse pro peccatis totius mundi (i John ii. 2) vulgo non incommode intelli- 
guntur; licet ctiam strictius accipi possint.' Acta Synodi Nationalis Dor- 
drechtaruz, p. 302. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

France. The letters written to the English ambassador 
at the Hague by Balcanquhal, one of the British deputies 
to the Synod of Dort, clearly show that these deputies 
were to a certain degree divided in opinion as to the exact 
extent of the death of Christ Part were satisfied with the 
old distinction, that while sufficient for all, it was efficient 
only for the elect ; and part, not fully satisfied with this, 
advocated views which it is difficult to distinguish from 
those of Cameron and the more liberal Calvinists in 
France. These last appear to have had the support of 
the ambassador, and they claim to have moderated the 
decisions of the Synod on the subject of the extent of the 
Saviour's death, as well as on that of reprobation. Their 
views were advocated with great ability by Ussher, Hall, 
and Davenant. They were accepted by many who were 
accounted good Calvinists, and among others by Dr. 
Edmund Calamy and Dr. John Arrowsmith. 

To me it does not seem altogether so clear as Mr. Fair- 
bairn would have it, that the Westminster Assembly meant 
definitively to pronounce against, or peremptorily to refuse 
to tolerate, these more liberal views advocated in its debates 
by Calamy and others. In fact, it was not till several years 
after the Confession was completed, and the star of Owen 
was in the ascendant, that, under the spell of a genius and 
learning only second to Calvin's, English Puritanism so 
generally identified itself with what is termed the less 
liberal view. This, I am inclined to think, may be attri- 
buted more to Owen's influence than to the direct teaching 
of the Confession ; and among the early English Presby- 
terians there were not wanting several who adhered to the 
views of Calamy and Arrowsmith. 

Let us now turn to a narrower field of inquiry, and 
following in the track of Mr. Fairbairn, endeavour to 
'ascertain the relation of the Westminster divines to the 
course of religious thought at home.' It is granted to. us 
that the original Reformed theology, both in England and 
Scotland, had been on the whole moderate, but moderate 
Calvinism or Augustinianism. Tyndall, it is admitted, 
was a pronounced Augustinian, and he, it is now coming 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

to be recognised, was one of the main authors of the 
English Reformation. Bucer and Martyr, who, under the 
sanction of Edward VI. and of Archbishop Cranmer, were 
brought over to teach divinity in Oxford and Cambridge, 
and train the future ministers of the English Church, were 
both high Augustinians. Their published Commentaries 
on the Romans and on the Ephesians, which embody the 
substance of their University lectures, contain a predesti- 
narian doctrine quite as high as has been generally taught 
in Scotland. ' Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, were no 
doubt very mild predestinarians.' But Hooper and Becon, 
as well as Bradford, Dean Nowell, and Bishops Jewell, 
Sandys, and Pilkington, were more decided, and certainly 
mentioned election for other purposes than ' to warn the 
people against trusting to it.' A large number of the 
bishops and archbishops, during the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James, held similar opinions. The Irish bishops not 
only accepted the Lambeth Articles, but in 1615 drew 
up those fuller Calvinistic Articles of their own, which 
were afterwards taken as the basis of the chapter in the 
Westminster Confession respecting God's eternal decree. 
Thomas Rogers, the chaplain of Archbishop Bancroft, 
whose CatJiolic Doctrine of the Church of England is, so 
far as I know, the first detailed exposition of the XXXIX. 
Articles, gives a distinctly Calvinistic interpretation to 
Article XVII. His book passed through several editions, 
and was dedicated to the Archbishop. No one who re- 
members this, as well as what was asserted by the English 
deputies at the Synod of Dort, and what was admitted by 
Bishop Burnet considerably later, will be greatly moved 
by what is said of Archbishop Lawrence having proved 
the Article to be Arminian. 

'In Scotland,' it is said, 'the earliest Protestant theology 
was of the milder Lutheran type.' But it appears to be 
forgotten that Lutheranism, when Scotchmen first came in 
contact with it, was not of the milder type it ultimately 
assumed. The teaching of Patrick Hamilton was no doubt 
substantially that of Luther; but both Luther and Melanch- 
thon were at that time Augustinians, and Tyndall and 



XX11 INTRODUCTION. 

Lambert, with whom Hamilton was more intimately asso- 
ciated at Marburg, were still more decided Augustinians. 
There is nothing in Hamilton's recorded teaching incon- 
sistent with the theology which came ultimately to prevail 
in Scotland; and among the articles laid to his charge by 
Archbishop Beaton, there is one which seems to show that 
he held that doctrine l at least in germ, and another which 
is only explicable on the supposition that he favoured the 
views at that time inculcated by Luther and Melanchthon, 
*de servo libero arbitrio.' 2 The position of Wishart is 
more significant still. It was not Anglican in any dis- 
tinctive sense, or else he was an Anglican before the 
Anglicans themselves ; nor was it the early Lutheran so 
much as the early Swiss. He translated into English the 
earlier Swiss Confession, and by a few words he inserted 
in the title-page, has shown unmistakeably what churches 
he deemed most worthy to be followed by his countrymen. 
The position of Erskine of Dun may be still more deter- 
minately fixed. Whatever sympathy he may have had 
either with Anglicans or with Lutherans, he not only 
accepted the old Scotch Confession, and answered in the 
affirmative the questions put to superintendents and mini- 
sters, when admitted as superintendent of Angus and 
Mearns, and again when collated to the parsonage of Dun ; 
but he also, along with other superintendents and ministers 
of the Church, met in General Assembly at St. Andrews 
in 1566, expressed his assent to the later Swiss Confession 
as 'most faithfully, holily, piously, and indeed divinely,' 
explaining all that he and his colleagues had been teach- 
ing during the eight years preceding. 3 The incident just 
mentioned would suffice to fix Knox's position also, if 
there could be supposed to be any serious dubiety respect- 
ing it It may be admitted that he was not so much a 
theologian as a statesman and patriot, a prince not so 

* 

1 'That none be saved but they are before predestinated.' Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments, vol. iv. p. 560, Seeley's edition. 

2 'That no man by the power of his will can do any good,' or 'that man 
hath no free will. ' 

3 Knox's Works, vol. vi. p. 546 ; Zurich Letters, 2d series, p. 362. 



INTRODUCTION. XX111 

much in speculation as in polity and action, and still it 
may be contended that his acceptance of the prcdestinarian 
doctrine was the result of his own independent study of 
the Scriptures and the writings of St. Augustine, long 
before he came under the fascinating influence of ' the 
calm clear intellect of Calvin.' The suggestion that it was 
his love of the church polity and discipline of Calvin 
which led him to adopt as his own the theological system 
which was the basis of that order, as well as the assertion 
that 'he never held that system in its principles and de- 
tails, with the comprehension and tenacity of its author 
and his more distinguished scholars,' could not have been 
hazarded by any one who had carefully examined his 
treatise, Concerning God's Predestination^- the largest and 
most important theological treatise he composed. If he 
has stated the doctrine in more general terms in some of 
his confessions, he has in this only followed the example 
of Calvin himself. Indeed, I am not sure that, in any of the 
confessions drawn up or sanctioned by the Genevese Re- 
former, there is to be found a more terse and pronounced 
statement of the doctrine than Knox has given in the 
Confession prepared for his English congregation at 
Geneva, which is said to have been received and approved 
by the Church of Scotland, and continued occasionally to 
be bound up with Scotch Bibles as late as 1638. The 
following is the brief but significant statement to which I 
refer: 'Which church is not seen to man's eye, but only 
known to God, who of the lost sons of Adam hath ordained 
some as vessels of wrath to damnation, and hath chosen 
others as vessels of his mercy to be saved.' 2 

The most eminent among the early theological teachers 
of the Reformed Church of Scotland was Andrew Melville. 
It might have been supposed that, as the attached friend 
and pupil of Beza, he would have been tempted to take up 
an extreme position on the subject of predestination. But 
from his Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, lately 
published by the Wodrow Society, it is evident that he, like 

1 It has been reprinted in vol. v. of Dr. Laing's edition of Knox's Works. 

2 Dunlop's Confessions, vol. ii. p. 8. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Knox, held by the more old-fashioned doctrine, and that his 
views on this head were not less moderate * than his views 
on the article of justification had been long known to be. 
With respect to the latter, Dr. M'Crie tells us that some 
of the ministers of the French Protestant Church had dis- 
approved of the doctrine of Piscator, that it was the passive 
obedience only of Christ which was imputed to believers in 
justification, and consulted Melville about it. He replied 
that the opinion was one which might fairly enough be 
tolerated among those who were agreed in other respects 
on the doctrine of justification by faith, and his reply, 
with others, contributed to restore peace to the distracted 
churches. No one had more influence in training the 
future ministers of the Church for half a century than 
Melville, and we cannot doubt that he imbued them in a 
good measure with his own views. Mr. Robert Bruce, one 
of the most famous and influential of his pupils (and one 
who, like himself, suffered much at the hands of King 
James), certainly held the infralapsarian doctrine. 8 It 
is so far from being the case that covenanting Scotland 
could not tolerate the infralapsarianism of Strang, 8 that it 
hardly admits of question that the same views were taught 
by Baillie in Glasgow and Leighton in Edinburgh, and by 
one if not both the colleagues of Rutherford in St. Mary's 

1 Quos enim indurat Deus in suis sordibus, nisi sua culpa conspurcatos ? 
Itaque induratio hie prsesupponit voluntariam corruptionem et antegrediens 
peccatum. Melville on Rom. ix. 

2 ' When all men and women suld have died for ever, it pleasit him of his 
infinite mercy to select out of all, and to elect, a certain number out of the lost 
race of Adam, that suld have perished forever.' . . . 'He selects a certain 
number out of this rotten race.' Bruce' 's Sermons, p. 118. 

3 It was something less even than infralapsarianism that Strang was charged 
by some with holding. Yet his dictates were not condemned by the Assembly, 
and Baillie expresses himself in the following sensible and liberal terms respect- 
ing the differences between him and his opponents : ' I do not like his withdraw- 
ing from the divine decree the act and entity of any sin, much less of free and 
indifferent actions. In this I think he sways too much to the one hand. But 
I fear those he refutes shall be found in alse dangerous errors. He indeed 
handles these questions in such a way that I do prize the man's ingyne and 
learning much more than before, and think him now among the best scholars 
in the Reformed Church. It will be my endeavour that our Assembly meddle 
not with such subtle questions, but leave them to the schools. ' Baillie' s Letters, 
vol. iii. pp. S> 6. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

College itself. It is quite true that the intercourse between 
the Church of Scotland and the Reformed Churches of 
France and Holland was very close and cordial, and was 
not without its influence on the theological opinion of the 
North. Yet the case of Melville above referred to shows 
that the Scotch divines could think for themselves, and, 
when occasion called, could give effective expression to 
their views; and that the foreign churches did not disdain 
to consult them in their difficulties, and to defer to their 
counsels, as well as to take several of their theological 
teachers and professors from among them. Considering 
how small the Scottish Church was, and how few theological 
scholars of any eminence the country had produced before 
the Reformation, I do not think we have any cause to be 
ashamed of our Melvilles, Rollocks, Calderwoods, Came- 
rons, Boyds, and Colvilles (for these last three taught in 
Scotland as well as in France). Their repute in their 
own day, and while Latin continued to be the language 
of learned Europe, was quite as great as that of most of 
their contemporaries in South Britain. Principal Smeton's 
defence of the Reformed Church of Scotland against the 
calumnies of the apostate Hamilton, 1 is appreciably diffe- 
rent in its views from similar works published on the Con- 
tinent, and yet it was highly valued there. Calderwood's 
Altare Damascenum was still more highly valued there, 
and it will not be thought meanly of yet by any who have 
the patience to read it. The Commentaries of Rollock 
were republished at Geneva and elsewhere on the Continent. 
Several of Cameron's minor works were deemed worthy of 
being translated into English, and published at Oxford ; 
and Bishop Hall has admitted that this distinguished 
scholar was an honour to his country. Boyd, in his Com- 
mentary on the Ephesians, which doubtless formed in part 
at least the substance of his theological lectures, draws far 
more largely on Augustine, Prosper, and Fulgentius, than 
on Calvin or Beza, for the confirmation of his predesti- 

1 ' Ad virulentum Archibald! Hamiltonii apostatse Dialogum de confusione 
Calvinianae sectae apud Scotos impie conscriptum Orthodoxa Responsio.' 
Thoma Smetonio Scoto auctore. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

narian views, as does also Dr. John Forbes of Aberdeen, 
who, though deposed for refusing to take the Covenant, 
was not charged with unsoundness in doctrine. Nay, in 
Holland itself opinion had considerably moderated before 
the meeting of the Westminster Assembly, and \\\e Synopsis 
Purioris Theologies, a decidedly infralapsarian treatise, 
then in its third edition, was generally accepted in Britain 
as fairly representing the opinions of the Dutch divines. 1 
Even the opinions of more liberal French Calvinists were 
so far from being decisively pronounced against by the 
English -Puritans, that Baillie in the most express terms 
admits they were viewed with favour by many in the West- 
minster Assembly itself; and though he may not have 
made sufficient allowance for the fact that there were 
native influences predisposing to these opinions, and that 
they were derived from Davenant and Ussher more than 
from Cameron or his pupil, his testimony must be accepted 
as substantially correct. 2 



1 ' Diligenter notandum est hanc praeteritionem non omnem gratiam in prse- 
teritis tollere aut negare, sed earn tantum quse electis est peculiaris. Ea vero, 
quae per communis providentias administrationem, sive sub lege naturae sive 
sub gratia Evangelica, hominibus vario dimenso dispensatur, per hunc proe- 
teritionis actum non adimitur, sed potius prasupponitur ; quia non electi, sub 
ilia communi providentias divinae gubernatione et arbitrii sui exercitio relin- 
quuntur. Hsec autem communis providentias administratio earn beneficiorum 
externorum atque internorum communicationem semper conjunctam habet, 
quae in natura quidem integra ad salutem sufficiebat, ut in angelis rejectis et 
genere humano toto in primo parente ante lapsum considerato manifestum est ; 
in natura vero corrupta, tanta reliqua facta est, aut natures sub Evangelio super- 
addita, ut omni excusationis praetextu coram divino judicio nudati ac privati 
sint. ' That was the avowed teaching, not of Amyraut, but of Rivet and the 
other Leyden Professors, at the time of the Westminster Assembly. Has Dr. 
Crawford done anything more than state the same thing in other words, when 
he says that on our principles the atonement does as much for ALL, as on 
the principles of our opponents it does for ANY, and that ' the common bene- 
fits held by' Arminians and semi-Arminians 'to flow from the Redeemer's 
sacrifice to all mankind, are really no other than those which we, who differ 
from them respecting the destination of the atonement, do nevertheless admit 
to have flowed from it with the same unrestricted and indiscriminate univer- 
sality'? See his Fatherhood of God, p. 369. 

2 ' Unhappily Amyraut 's questions are brought in on our Assembly. Many 
more loves their fancies here than I did expect. It falls out ill that Span- 
heim's book is so long a-coming out ; whileas Amyraut's treatise goes in the 
Assembly from hand to hand.' Baillifs Letters, vol. ii. p. 324. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

The Westminster Assembly was called together chiefly 
for two purposes: viz. ist, To vindicate the doctrine of 
the Church of England from misrepresentation, and to 
show that it was in harmony with that of the other 
Reformed Churches ; and, 2d, To effect such changes 
on her polity and worship as would bring her into closer 
union with the Church of Scotland and the Reformed 
Churches on the Continent. Of course the Assembly was 
not intended to embrace those who were charged with 
having corrupted the doctrine of the English Reformers, 
enforced the observance of the old ceremonies with a 
rigour which had not been attempted in former times, 
and imposed many new ones, which, if not meant, like 
the Scotch Prayer-Book 1 and Canons, to widen the gulf 
between them and their Puritan brethren, and to prepare 
the way for the restoration of semi-Popish doctrines and 
practices, were, to say the least, singularly ill-timed. 

' One, of whom no friend of the Church of Scotland will speak save in 
terms of honour and esteem, even when constrained to differ from him, has 
maintained that, with one exception, this Prayer-Book was not, as is often 
erroneously supposed by both sides, more Roman and less Protestant than 
the English, but in all essential points more Protestant and less Roman. It 
has been replied to him that it does not much matter if it were so, as at any 
rate it was attempted to be forced in without the authority of the Kirk. 
This, however, was not the chief argument then put in the foreground, nor was 
it that which united the nation almost as one man against it. Much was said 
by Baillie and Gillespie of the character of the book and its ceremonies, and, 
it humbly appears to me, can be no more gainsaid than can the fact that 
it was from this source several alterations favouring High Church views were 
introduced into the English Prayer-Book of 1661. It maybe admitted that 
in the Scottish Prayer-Book of 1637, commonly known as Laud's Liturgy, 
several important concessions were made to Scottish feelings and prejudices, 
and that one or two substantial improvements were introduced. The epistles, 
gospels, and the prose psalms were all taken from King James' version, and 
not from the earlier versions retained at that time in the English book. The 
lessons from the Apocrypha, if not altogether omitted, were certainly reduced 
to a minimum, though, while the principle of reading it as Holy Scripture 
was asserted, the question of maximum or minimum was one of little 
moment. The word 'presbyter' was also substituted for that of 'priest,' 
and required to be so to give the book a chance in Scotland ; but if ever 
there was a case in which new presbyter was but old priest writ large, it was 
in this book. The rubric of the Edwardian Liturgy, 'The absolution or 
remission of sins to be pronounced by the minister alone, ' was changed into, 
' The absolution or remission of sins to be pronounced by the presbyter alone, 
he standing up and turning himself to the people, but they still remaining 



XXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

They who had pledged themselves to the policy of Laud 
in these matters, and regarded themselves as bound by 
oath not to consent to any alteration of the government 
and doctrine of the Church, could hardly expect to be 
asked to attend ; but all other parties within the Church 
were meant to be fairly represented in the Assembly. 
The prevailing opinion has been, that the members of it 
were chosen from the several counties by the members 
of Parliament for these counties, and the burghs within 
them. The balance of the evidence seems to me to be 
in favour of this opinion. Yet, in a pamphlet bearing 
date 1 6th May 1642, and entitled His Majesty's Resolu- 
tion concerning the Establishment of Religion and Church 
Government, I find it stated that he ' hath consented that 
the main matters of difference which have occasioned all 

humbly upon their knees ; ' and this, with the change of presbyter into priest, 
is substantially in the English book now. The prayer, ' Almighty and ever- 
lasting God, who alone workest great marvels,' etc., was furnished with the 
title, ' A Prayer for the holy Clergy ; ' and for ' bishops and curates ' it read, 
'bishops, presbyters, and curates.' The petition in the Edwardian Litany, 
and in the prayer for ' the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in 
earth, ' for ' all bishops, pastors, and ministers of the Church, ' was changed 
into one for all 'bishops, presbyters, and ministers of the Church ;' and this 
in the English book of 1661 passed into 'all bishops, priests, and deacons,' 
in which form it has ever since continued. The Scottish form of ordination 
composed in 1620, which 'left out the most essential words in conferring 
priests' orders,' or rather which did not profess to confer priests' orders at 
all, but only to ordain ministers, was so far from being approved of by Laud, 
that it was ordered to be superseded on that very account. It is, however, 
in the Communion office that the true character and tendency of the book 
especially comes out. Beyond all question, it was modelled on, and in a great 
measure taken from, that in the first Prayer-Book of Edward vi. That was 
so far from being more Protestant than the communion office in his Second 
Book, that it had been definitely objected to by Knox and others as not being 
sufficiently Protestant. The prayer of oblation which it is said embodies the 
true doctrine of spiritual sacrifice, makes with the ' holy gifts ' the memorial 
which, it says, Christ willed to be made. In the formula addressed to each 
communicant, the words which the Scotch Reformer got inserted in the Second 
Prayer-Book of Edward vi. were left out, and those he regarded as counte- 
nancing the old superstition of a material presence were alone retained. 
The rubric he contended for as necessary to render kneeling even allowable 
was, as in Elizabeth's Book, left out. The intention of these things, and the 
tendency of the whole office against Knox's as well as Melville's opinions, 
and towards what we would now term Anglo-Catholic, or what our fathers 
termed Popish views, is unmistakeable. The communion table, according 
to the English Book, might stand in the body of the church, whereas accord- 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

these distractions shall be framed and discussed by a 
number of grave, wise, and religious divines, which shall 
be thought fit by the Houses of Parliament ; every county 
electing two for this so great and weighty a business, that 
so all things being, according to God's true word, scanned 
and examined by the judicious and religious judgments 
of those worthy persons, the truth may appear, light and 
instruction may be given unto authority, and by their 
power an uniformity of government and worship, agreeable 
to God's word, may be settled in the Church.' From 
this it would seem as if it had been intended that the 
members of the Assembly were rather to be selected by 
the several counties than merely nominated by their 
representatives in Parliament ; and we know that by 
this time there were in several of the counties committees 

ing to the Scotch Book it was to stand in the chancel or upper part of the 
church. It was, according to the English Book, to have on it a fair linen 
cloth; according to the Scotch, 'a carpet, with a linen cloth upon it,' and 
' other decent furniture meet for tJie high mysteries there to be celebrated^ 1 which 
one can hardly doubt was meant to permit both crosses and candles. Accord- 
ing to the Scotch office, as Laud wished it to be, the presbyter was to stand 
'before the altar,' that is, with his back to the people, when consecrating the 
elements; according to the Book as ultimately adjusted, he was to be 'at 
liberty to stand at such a part of the holy table as he may with more ease and 
decency use both his hands.' This granted virtually all that ancient and 
modern Ritualizers of the extremest type desire, though the Scotch bishops 
shrank from granting it openly and in express terms. In the latter, as in the 
communion office in the First Prayer-Book of King Edward, the lawfulness 
of using wafer bread is incidentally asserted, no doubt to leave the way open 
for its introduction if that should be found practicable. And, finally, while 
the Second Book of Edward vi. gave no direction what was to be done 
with the elements that remained after all had communicated, the Scotch did, 
and required that till the service was over they should be covered with a fair 
linen cloth or corporal. This last word could not have come there without 
full intention, for it does not occur in this place in the First Liturgy of King 
Edward. What did it mean, if no real presence in the High Church sense 
was implied? Was Laud likely to insert such words without meaning what 
they naturally suggest? If a Ritualism and semi-Romanism, unknown in 
Scotland since the Reformation, were not meant to be tolerated, nay, even 
encouraged, it had ill luck to be so like it. There can be no clearer proof 
than this office of the truth of King James' saying, that Laud ' did not know 
the stomach of the Scotch,' and that in his anxiety to gratify a little knot of 
innovators in Scotland, and to take away from Puritans in England the sup* 
port the customs of the Scottish Church still afforded them, he provoked a 
storm which all his efforts and those of his royal master were powerless to 
allay, and the sad effects of which on British Protestantism are not yet exhausted. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

with whom the members of Parliament were wont to 
consult in other matters of difficulty. The other course, 
however, was advocated at the time in a very remarkable 
Latin treatise, and most believe it was in the end adopted. 1 
However this may be, no one who remembers that the 
ordinance embraced the names of Archbishop Ussher, 
Bishops Prideaux, 2 Brownrigg, and Westfield, Drs. Feat- 
ley, Hammond, Holdsworth, Sanderson, Morley, and 
Downing, as well as those of Drs. Twisse, Temple, Mr. 
Gataker, and several others who were in favour of a 
reduced Episcopacy, can doubt that it was fairly enough 
constituted, and that, had the King only allowed the 
Royalist divines to attend its meetings, some happier 
and for England more lasting compromise as to the future 
constitution of the Church might have been devised. 
Even in 1647, the King and his advisers do not appear to 
have thought the Assembly so radically defective that 
more was needed to ensure such a compromise than the 
addition of nearly the same number of Royalist divines 
as had been originally summoned to it. 

But Mr. Fairbairn objects to its constitution, and says 
that nothing but a sectional creed could have been ex- 
pected to proceed from it. From what he says, one would 
imagine that the usual practice in preparing creeds which 
have stood the test of time, had been singularly violated 
in this case. But is it indeed so ? Did the Thirty-nine 
Articles proceed from such a carefully selected Assembly, 
or the old Scotch Confession of Faith, or that Confession 

1 Ubi ipse clerus . . . virulentis contentionibus, et mutuis odiis inter fratres 
laborat ; atque corruptissimi quique tarn in moribus quam in doctrina sugges- 
tum invaserunt ; non dubium est quin Magistratus Christianus . . . teneatur 
malo urgent! adhibere remedium petitum quidem non ab iis a quibus frustra 
exspectes sanationem morbi, quern accersent . . . sed ab iis quibus non 
tantum morbus est oneri, sed et curatio cordi. Hie hodie res agitur nostra ; 
cum enim illustrissimi Senatores observassent Archiepiscopi Laudi ejusque 
sectatorum artibus, non uno in loco Angliae sufFectos viros de religione male 
sentientes et Papismo addictos, prudenter cavent ne ab ejusmodi deputantibus 
ejusdem farinse deputati subnascantur. Quid ? an altaricola qui citari debet 
ad Synodum rationem redditurus malse suse doctrinse . . . allegabitur ut 
Synodi fiat membrum ? Consilium de ReformandA EcclesiA Anglicand. 

2 Prideaux's name appears to have been 'omitted in the Ordinance as finally 
passed in June 1643. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

by which the Scotch bishops tried to supersede it ? So 
far from it, that Cranmer could not have hoped to secure 
the full assent of a majority of his brethren to his Articles 
had he submitted them to free discussion. An objection 
similar in kind was taken by the Remonstrants against 
the constitution of the Synod of Dort, of which Hales of 
Eton gives the following pithy account : ' The second 
part of their oration was a mere chimera saltans in vacua 
a strange fancy of such a Synod as never was nor can be. 
I had thought to have taken an abstract of it, but the 
tediousness of it deterred me. I will give your Honour 
a taste or two of it. There were but two ways of insti- 
tuting a Synod for the ending of these quarrels. The first 
was by seeking out everywhere certain select men who 
all this time of contention had taken part with neither 
side, but kept themselves impartial. Secondly, if a Synod 
of such could not be found (as I think it could scarcely be 
found in the Netherlands, though the sun itself should 
seek it), then such a Synod should be framed as in which 
should be an equal number of both parties each with their 
several praeses and assessors, and they should debate the 
matter betwixt themselves ; and if they could not agree 
(as it is likely they would not), what then, thought I ? 
Shall they part as they came ? No, forsooth. The civil 
magistrate tanquam Deus e machina\\e must come in, 
and prescribe the moderamen, from which neither party 
must appeal ; provided always that he laboured only for 
accommodation, and not to determine decisively for one 
part. And so I azvoke! 1 If ever on earth an attempt 
was made to bring together a Synod of men of different 
judgments in all non-essential matters, it was in the case 
of that of Westminster. 2 If the Parliament- which sum- 

1 Hales' Letters from the Synod of Dort, pp. 37, 38. Edition of 1673. 

2 ' What you have done hath been done with much prudence, in that you 
have given way for the admittance of divines of different judgments to be 
chosen, to whom a liberty is not denied to plead every one for his own party. 
And not only so, but you have also embodied divers of your worthy ones of 
both Houses as members of our Assembly, by which privilege we have many 
and singular advantages.' Bowies' Sermon preached before the Assembly of 
Lords, Commons, and Divines, at their solemn fast, July 7th, 1643, in the 
Abbey Church. 



XXX11 INTRODUCTION. 

moned it did not bind itself to keep within the limits 
suggested by the Remonstrants, it in fact observed them. 
It secured to all liberty of discussion, required that dis- 
sents, and the reasons of them, should be reported along 
with the resolutions of the Assembly, and enacted almost 
nothing in matters of faith which had not been passed 
unanimously by the divines. Though few of the Royalist 
divines attended the meetings, the Minutes of the As- 
sembly show that Dr. Featley did attend regularly for 
a time, and take a prominent part in the debates on the 
revision of the English Articles perhaps as important 
doctrinal debates as any which appear to have occurred 
in the Assembly. If Ussher, the greatest of all these 
divines, was conspicuous by his absence, yet did the 
Assembly give the most incontrovertible proof of its high 
regard for him, and its earnest desire to comprehend 
within the Church those who agreed with him in doctrine, 
by drawing its statement of several of the most important 
doctrines mainly from the Articles prepared under his 
superintendence by the Irish Church. And though the 
Parliament, on his declining to attend in 1643, appointed 
another in his place, yet when he came to London in 
1647, and was admitted as preacher at Lincoln's Inn, he 
was again appointed a member of the Assembly. 1 

With all admitted defects, then, this was no ordinary 
Assembly. In one important respect it resembled the 
celebrated Council of Nicaea itself. Not a few of those 
who composed it had been honoured to suffer in defence 
of the truths to which they clung, and many of them had 
the courage afterwards to brave suffering, insult, and 
poverty, rather than renounce their creed and their views 
of church polity and discipline. Nay, they may be said, 
by the very act of their meeting, to have put their livings, 

1 'The humble petition of Dr. James Usher was read. Resolved, etc., 
That Dr. James Usher shall have leave to preach at Lincoln's Inn, according 
to the desire of his petition. Resolved, etc., That Dr. James Usher shall 
have leave to go to sit with the Assembly of Divines as one of the said 
Assembly. ' Journals of House of Commons, vol. v. p. 423. By a previous 
resolution of the House (p. 393), he had been required to take the negative 
oath. There is some doubt, however, whether he actually did so. 



INTRODUCTION. XXX111 

if not their lives, in jeopardy, and so to have given the 
strongest proof of their deep sense of the necessity of 
the work to which they then addressed themselves ; for 
the King by proclamation had prohibited their meeting, 
and had vehemently threatened them with the loss of all 
their ecclesiastical livings and promotions if they disobeyed 
his injunctions. 

Even the twenty names of special eminence with which 
Mr. Fairbairn credits the Assembly, would be a larger 
proportion of the whole than may at first sight appear ; 
for they are the names of men who were regular in their 
attendance, and form nearly a third of those who were 
so. But more may fairly be claimed for them and several 
of their companions than has been conceded. Twisse, 
the Prolocutor, was a man not only of subtle and specu- 
lative genius, but of profound learning, and also one of 
the most influential theologians of his day, held in honour 
by all the Reformed Churches. Sir John Savile, who had 
sought the assistance of Hales for his edition of Chry- 
sostom, was not ashamed to call in the aid of Twisse in 
preparing for the press Bradwardine's great work, De 
Causa Dei adversus Pelagium ; and Bishop Hall did not 
hesitate to say of him that he was ' a man so eminent in 
school divinity that the Jesuits have felt, and for aught I 
see shrunk, under his strength.' Yet, with all his eminence, 
he did not claim, nor, proud as his brethren were of him, 
did they consent to have inserted in their Confession his 
peculiar views either as to the order of the divine decrees, 
or as to the power of God to have pardoned sin without 
requiring an atonement to be made for it. He had 
suffered greatly in the war, and though Prolocutor of the 
Assembly, he died in great straits. Dr. Edward Reynolds 
was a divine 'eloquent, learned, cautious;' and this may 
have been the reason why the Assembly devolved on a 
Committee of which he had charge, the adjusting of that 
much-maligned sentence in their Confession respecting 
Reprobation. 1 Calamy was a more liberal and cautious 
Calvinist still ; and no one can read the Minutes of 

1 Minutes of Sessions of the Assembly of Divines, p. 161. 
C 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

the Assembly's debates on the extent of Redemption, 
without acknowledging that he was a true disciple of 
Ussher and Davenant, and feeling thankful that he and 
Baxter saw fit to hold by their Nonconformist brethren 
when Reynolds and Wallis abandoned them. Lightfoot, 
Coleman, and Gataker were all distinguished Oriental 
scholars ; and the last-named was not only a distinguished 
classical scholar, 1 but also one of the first in Britain to 
write in defence of the opinion, then much questioned, 
but now universally received, that the Greek of the New 
Testament was of a different character from that of the 
classical authors, and abounded in Hebraisms. 2 He was 
the friend of Ussher and Selden, and after them was 
accounted the most learned man then in England. He 
was, besides, an eminent and acceptable preacher, and 
was distinguished by the quaint richness of his style, and 
the argumentative power of his controversial works. In 
the Antinomian controversy, on which he brought all his 
powers to bear, and for his services in which he repeat- 
edly received the thanks of the Assembly, 3 Mr. Marsden 
says that he answered the leaders, as Hooker answered 
his adversary, ' with the same profound love of truth, the 
same ponderous and varied learning, the same gentle 
spirit, . . . and the same devoted adherence to evan- 
gelical doctrine, which he showed to be as much opposed 
to formalism on the one hand, as to these excesses on the 
other.' Like Twisse, he seemed as anxious to shun pre- 
ferment as others to obtain it. The age is acknowledged 
to have been an age of great preachers ; 4 and in the first 

1 Hallam says of his edition of Marcus Antoninus, that his annotations 
' evince a very copious learning, and the edition is still perhaps reckoned the 
best that has been given of this author. ' 

2 Thomae Gatakeri Londinatis, de Novi Instrument! stylo Dissertatio ; qua 
viri doctissimi Sebastiani Pfochenii de linguae Grsecae Novi Testamenti 
puritate . . . diatribe ad examen revocatur. Londini, 1648. 

3 Minutes of the Sessions of the Assembly, pp. 281, 443. 

4 ' The pulpit of the metropolis displayed a galaxy of light and genius such 
as it had never before, and perhaps has never since, exhibited. Its influence 
was never greater. The printed sermons of the great Puritan preachers in 
vast numbers are still extant, and these sufficiently vindicate their reputation. 
They were no adventurers. They had been brought up in the Church of 
England ; they were entitled to its best preferments ; and they might have 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

rank of these there fall to be numbered Dr. Gouge, ' the 
father of the London Puritan ministers,' on whose preach- 
ing Ussher and other scholars then congregated in the 
metropolis did not disdain at times to attend ; Dr. Manton, 
in whom 'clear judgment, rich fancy, and happy eloquence 
met ; ' Stephen Marshall, whose yet more impressive 
eloquence as a preacher is said to have secured him 
greater influence with the Parliament than ever Laud 
enjoyed with the Court ; Calamy, who ' delighted in that 
experimental strain of discourse which ever touches the 
hearts of men ; ' Palmer, who could preach to purpose 
in French as well as in English ; Burroughes and Green- 
hill, ' the morning and the evening stars ' of Stepney ; 
Caryl, long popular with the learned audience of Lincoln's 

held them in their youth from Laud, in their grey hairs from Charles II., 
had not their own consciences forbidden.' The Later Puritans, p. no. 

In the Conformists' plea for Nonconformists, the power of their preaching 
is often and gratefully acknowledged. ' I am obliged to acknowledge the 
efficacy of the Holy Spirit upon the preaching of several of them towards 
my salvation ; and having known the proof and power of Christ speaking in 
them, I dare not deny thein before men, lest I also deny Christ Jesus my 
Saviour in them. There are several learned, holy, laborious, and successful 
ministers that were our instructors in our younger time, who have conformed, 
but not so many as refused to conform, within my knowledge, . . . and in 
these times all these seemed to be of one mind in the Lord. I and many 
more rejoiced in their light ; and some of them were among preachers as the 
apple-tree is among the trees of the wood. We sat under their shadow with 
great delight, and their fruit was pleasant to our taste. I could name the wise 
master builders that laid the foundation other than which no man can lay ; 
I could name the Paul, and the Apollos, and the Peter, that preached to the 
heart ; the Barnabas and the Boanerges ; the friends of the Bridegroom that 
wooed and besought us, and would not be denied till our souls had received 
Christ Jesus the Lord. Some of them are at rest in the Lord, and let their 
names be blessed ; and others are in the cloud, and storm, and warfare, and 
to add bonds to their many afflictions is no small unkindness to religion.' 
Third Plea for Nonconformists, p. 34. 

' Who maintained Protestant doctrines, preached for conviction, conver- 
sion, holiness, and righteousness more than they? Who vindicated all 
ordinances from some that pretended to live above them ? from others that 
denied the necessity and use of them? and from the profanation of sacred 
things? And who did more forwardly assist and concur to settle the govern- 
ment upon ancient foundations, and in the inheritor of the Royal throne? 
Who were more hated by impious sects, and laboured more to convince and 
reduce them, than they?' Ib. p. 45. 

Such was the effect of their preaching and life on those who witnessed and 
could appreciate both, and pled for them on other than latitudinarian grounds. 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 

Inn ; and Dr. Thomas Goodwin, eminent as a scholar and 
divine, and one of the most successful expository preachers 
of the age. These are not more shadowy to the cultured 
even yet than Whitaker, White, and Harris, whom Mr. 
Fairbairn singles out ; and to the humble, pious Puritans 
of England and Scotland, they, along with Howe, Owen, 
Ambrose, Baxter, and Bunyan, have ever since furnished 
their chief spiritual nourishment. Arrowsmith and Tuck- 
ney, Professors of Divinity at Cambridge, were not 
merely clever college tutors, but, as several of their pub- 
lished works clearly indicate, men of high scholarship and 
considerable mental breadth, and not without influence as 
preachers. With these University men must be conjoined 
Dr. Hoyle, the friend of Ussher, and Professor of Divinity, 
first at Dublin and afterwards at Oxford, who is admitted 
to have been profound in the faculty of divinity and in 
patristic learning ; as well as Dr. Wallis, Savilian Professor 
of Geometry at Oxford, whose attainments as a theologian 
were only cast into the shade by his greater attainments 
as a mathematician, and these last are said to have been 
only inferior to those of Newton himself. He was the 
friend of Boyle, Gregory, and Newton, the untiring oppo- 
nent of Hobbes and the Socinians, and one of the authors 
as well as of the earliest expounders of the Shorter Cate- 
chism. His works were republished at the expense of 
the University of Oxford in 1699, and his manuscripts are 
said to be still preserved in .the public library there, and 
in the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. 

Hallam, therefore, has done the members of the West- 
minster Assembly nothing more than justice, when he 
admits that they were ' perhaps equal in learning, good 
sense, and other merits, to any Lower House of Convoca- 
tion that ever made a figure in England. '* It cannot be 
denied, moreover, that in two important respects they had 
the advantage of any Lower House of Convocation which 
has yet been constituted. There were called in to the aid 
of the divines some of the laymen of England, distin- 

1 Constitutional History of England, vol. ii. p. 198, note. What he says 
about their intolerance will be noticed subsequently. 



INTRODUCTION. XXX VI 1 

guished among their fellows in Parliament as statesmen, 
scholars, or lawyers. Selden himself did not disdain for a 
time to take an active and not unkindly part in their pro- 
ceedings ; and if, after repeated keen combats with George 
Gillespie, he chose rather to watch from his place in the 
House of Commons than to mingle actively in the debates, 
there were others who followed a different course. One 
well-known member of the House of Commons, Francis 
Rouse, not only took an intelligent interest in the debates, 
but put his special gifts at the service of the Assembly. 
In accordance with suggestions made by its members, he 
revised his metrical version of the Psalms, which, after some 
further changes made in the North, was to be for so long 
the book of praise for the churches in Scotland. Then, 
when under the Solemn League and Covenant the origi- 
nal purpose of the Assembly was extended, there were 
associated with these English divines and laymen the 
very elite of the Scottish ministers and elders, Hender- 
son, whose learning and culture even Royalists admit ; 
Rutherford, twice invited to a professorship in Holland ; 
Gillespie, the prince of disputants, who 'with the fire of 
youth had the wisdom of ages ;' and Baillie, who has 
embalmed in graphic narrative their debates and gossip ; 
together with Johnstone of Warriston, and the great Mar- 
quis of Argyle, who both suffered afterwards on account 
of their principles ; Loudon, the Chancellor of the king- 
dom, and the engaging but versatile Lord Maitland. 

No doubt Clarendon has spoken of the members of the 
Assembly with great contempt, and Milton in terms of 
lofty scorn. 1 But it was only after their difference on the 
question of divorce that Milton expressed himself so 
bitterly respecting them, and on that question at least 

1 The anonymous satirists of the day, of course, followed the example of 
the great poet, and aimed their keenest shafts at the obnoxious Assembly. 
Several specimens of bitter satire may be found in the Catalogue of Prints and 
Drawings in the British Museum, Division I, vol. i. published in 1870. The 
following comparatively mild specimen is copied from one of the volumes of 
the King's Pamphlets : 

' Pretty Synod does it sit, But such as Ordinance are called, 

Voyd of grace as well of wyt Which have the very souls enthralled 

And make no canons. Of every man on's. 



XXXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

they have carried with them the judgment of succeeding 
times. Clarendon's account, again, did not see the light 
till after he had got their aid for the restoration of 
his master and his friends, had failed to make good the 
promise of ' ease to tender consciences ' that he had given, 
and had striven in vain both by kindness and threats, both 
by promotion offered and punishment inflicted, to bend 
them to his purposes. He who has dealt such scrimp justice 
to others, who did not belong to his own exclusive circle, 
could hardly be expected to give any other than a partial 
and prejudiced judgment of the leaders of a party which 
he had treated unfairly, and which, when all other con- 
stitutional means proved ineffectual, continued by passive 
resistance and patient endurance to bear testimony against 
his policy, and meekly to plead for the indulgence it had 
done so much to merit. 

Even so decided an Episcopalian as Bishop Hall did 
not disdain, under an assumed name, to address a respect- 
ful letter to his ' learned and reverend brethren ' l of the 
Assembly. Some, more moderate than he, took a deep 
interest in its proceedings, and also lauded its Confession 
of Faith. The Independents, moreover, and the Baptists, 
too, bore most emphatic testimony to its value. The 
former in 1658 approved the Confession substantially 
in the form in which it passed the English Houses of 
Parliament, and said that they and their brethren in New 

Now from black Tom and blacker From the Synod's nonsense and their 

Noll, treason, 

That kill and flay without control, And from their catechistick reason 

Thereby to end us, Good Heaven defend us.' 

1 So he styles them at the commencement of his letter ; and after confess- 
ing, like Ussher, that in some things there was ' fault enough to ground both 
a complaint and Reformation,' pleading earnestly for a modified Episcopacy, 
and showing how far that might be brought into harmony with the practice 
of the Church of Scotland, he concludes as follows : ' The rest to the wise 
application of the powerful and judicious. It is enough for me to have thus 
boldly shot my bolt amongst you, and to have thus freely discovered my 
honest and well-meant thoughts to so Me judgments. What I want in my 
poor endeavours shall be supplied in my prayers. ' The letter was written 
in September 1644, or more than a year after the Assembly began its 
work. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

England 'fully assent' to the substance of it. 1 The latter 
in 1688 followed a similar course, 'the more abundantly 
to manifest their consent/ both with the Assembly and 
those of the Congregational way, ' in all the fundamental 
articles of the Christian religion.' 2 

Considerable weight is also due to the admissions frankly 
made by the five Dissenting Brethren and the Scotch Com- 
missioners. If the former had not had a high regard for 
the character and attainments of those with whom they 
were associated in the Assembly, and a hopeful expecta- 
tion of 'a happy latitude and agreement' by their means, 
they would, as themselves tell us, ' have declined this 
theatre, of all others the most judicious and severe, an 
Assembly of so many able, learned, and grave divines, 
where much of the piety, wisdom, and learning of two 
kingdoms are met in one, honoured and assisted with the 
presence of the worthies of both Houses.' 3 If the latter, 
again, had not held their English associates in high esteem, 
they would neither have spoken of them nor acted towards 
them as they did, nor have cherished such a warm affec- 
tion for them in after years. 

Finally, the opinion of Baxter, who more than almost 
any other clergyman then living was competent to form 
a calm and unprejudiced judgment of the matter, is un- 
equivocally favourable. His words, though often quoted, 
may be here repeated : ' The divines there congregate 
were men of eminent learning and godliness, and mini- 
sterial abilities and fidelity ; and being not worthy to be 
one of them myself, I may the more freely speak that 
truth which I know, even in the face of malice and envy, 
that, as far as I am able to judge by the information of all 
history of that kind, and by any other evidences left us, 
the Christian world, since the days of the apostles, had 
never a Synod of more excellent divines (taking one thing 
with another) than this Synod and the Synod of Dort 

1 Declaration of the Faith and Order owned and practised in the Congre- 
gational Churches in England, agreed on at the Savoy, 1658. 

2 Confession of Faith put forth by the elders and brethren of many congrega- 
tions of Christians (Baptists), agreed on at London, 1688. 

3 Apologetical Narration, p. 27. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

were.' x ' This,' as Dr. Stoughton well observes, ' is high 
praise ; but it comes nearer the truth than the condem- 
natory verdicts pronounced by some others. . . . The 
Westminster divines had learning scriptural, patristic, 
scholastical, and modern enough and to spare ; all solid, 
substantial, and ready for use. . . . Moreover,' he adds, 
'in the perception and advocacy of what is most character- 
istic and fundamental in the gospel of Jesus Christ, they 
were as a body considerably in advance of some who could 
put in a claim to equal and perhaps higher scholarship.' 2 

But it is said that, however good those who attended the 
Westminster Assembly may have been, there were men 
better fitted to frame a Confession for British Protestants 
who were not invited, or at least were not present there. 
After what I have already stated regarding Ussher, I 
should hope that no more needs to be said about his 
absence. There was no theologian for whom the English 
Puritans had a higher regard than for him ; and had the 
King only allowed him to gratify the wishes of the Parlia- 
ment by attending the Assembly, perhaps his scheme for 
a union of Episcopacy and Presbytery would have met 
with only less favour at its hands than his system of 
doctrine did. Perhaps the difficulties of his master him- 
self would have been greatly lessened, and many of the 
succeeding troubles have been avoided. Whether the 
others Mr. Fairbairn singles out are really to be deemed 
better fitted to frame a Confession and Form of Govern- 
ment for the Church than those summoned to do so, would 
depend very much on the character the Confession was 
to assume, and in regard to that there was pretty general 
agreement among moderate Episcopalians and Puritans. 
If the doctrine taught by Anselm, Bradwardine, Wycliffe, 
Tyndall, Ussher, Whitgift, and Abbot, and more mode- 
rately by a host of others in England, was not then to be 
pronounced false at the foundation, or to be ignored ; if 
the Church, which up to the time of Laud had been in 
doctrinal harmony with the Reformed Church abroad, was 

1 Baxter's Life and Times, Pt. i. p. 73. See also Neal, vol. iii. p. 57. 

2 Stoughton's Church of the Civil Wars, p. 453. See also Marsden, p. 82. 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

not to be revolutionized, then the Assembly may not have 
suffered so much as he supposes from the absence of the 
men he names. If credence is to be given to Baillie, that 
' pleasantest of letter gossips/ there was in the Assembly 
no lack of men of sharpness, quickness, and subtlety of 
wit, nor, while Twisse, Lightfoot, Coleman, Gataker, Gil- 
lespie, and Rutherford were there, was there lack of others 
who were walking libraries. We do not read that the quiet 
recluse of Eton was called to any of the Convocations held 
by his patron Laud ; and even after he bade good-night 
to John Calvin, there is, as has been said, no evidence that 
he ever said good-morning to Arminius. It is known that, 
on the important point of the right of the Church to 
require the observance of things in their own nature in- 
different, his judgment remained with the Assembly rather 
than with its opponents. 1 He suffered for a time, I admit 
with sorrow, from the Parliamentary troops, though not 
more than Dr. Twisse and others did at the hands of the 
Royalists. But it has yet to be clearly made out whether 
it was then that he was finally deprived of preferment, or 
whether, after the first excitement of the war was over, he, 
like many others, was allowed to enjoy his fellowship in 
peace till after the execution of the King, and then, along 
with not a few loyal Presbyterians, was dispossessed for 
not taking the oath of fidelity to the new regime. At least 
I have failed to find his name in the Journals of the 
Houses among the fellows who were deprived in 1644-5, 

1 Prayer, confession, thanksgiving, reading of the Scriptures, and admini- 
stration of the sacraments in the plainest and simplest manner, were matter 
enough to furnish out a sufficient liturgy, though nothing either of private 
opinion or of church pomp of garments or prescribed gestures, of imagery, of 
music, of matter concerning the dead, of many superfluities which creep into 
the church under the name of order and decency did interpose itself. To 
charge churches and liturgies with things unnecessary was the first beginning 
of all superstition ; and when scruple of conscience began to be made or pre- 
tended, there schism began to break in. If the special guides and fathers of 
the Church would be a little sparing of encumbering churches with superfluities, 
or not over-rigid either in reviving obsolete customs or imposing new, there 
would be far less cause of schism or superstition ; and all the inconvenience 
were likely to ensue would be this : they should in so doing yield a little to the 
imbecility of their inferiors, a thing which St. Paul would never have refused 
to do. Meanwhile, wheresoever false or suspected opinions are made apiece of a 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

and that of Penwarden, who was his successor, among those 
appointed ; and Chalmers says expressly that it was for 
refusing the engagement he was finally deprived. 1 

Complaint is made of the absence of Chillingworth from 
the Assembly. But he was even a keener Royalist than 
Hales, and had been a member of the notorious Convo- 
cation of 1640, in which the innovations of Laud were 
sanctioned, and severe penalties decreed against Puritans 
of every grade. I can find no evidence that he there at- 
tempted to give practical effect to his principles, or that he 
dissented from or actively opposed the extreme measures 
then resolved on. From the circumstances of his life, it is 
not to be wondered at that he should have been left out, 
or that his works did not immediately command the rever- 
ence and esteem that has been accorded to them in suc- 
ceeding times. But it is altogether a mistake to represent 
the Westminster Assembly as in any sense responsible for 
the follies of Cheynell, his erratic antagonist Chilling- 
worth is at least once referred to in its debates, and on 
that occasion his views in regard to 'fundamentals' are 
mentioned 2 in such a way as to show that he was held in 
respect by members of Assembly more influential than 
Cheynell. Neither was Ralph Cudworth in the Assembly ; 
but both he and Whichcott were held in high esteem by 
its members, and in 1645 both were approved by the 
Assembly 3 as worthy of the appointments in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, to which they had been designated 
by the Earl of Manchester. It is acknowledged, I think, 

church liturgy, he that separates is not the schismatic ; for it is alike unlawful 
to make profession of known or suspected falsehood, as to put in practice un- 
lawful or suspect actions. Tract concerning Schism, p. 45. Hales's authority 
was pleaded, and this passage specially referred to, in the papers prepared by 
the Puritans in connection with the Savoy Conference. There is much in 
his sermons on John xiv. 27 and I Tim. iv. 8 to incline one to the opinion, 
that on other points his sympathies were rather with Martinius of Bremen 
than with Episcopius, as Chalmers had inferred from his letters. 

1 He continued in his fellowship at Eton although he refused the covenant, 
but was ejected upon his refusal to take the engagement ' to be faithful to the 
Commonwealth of England, as then established without a King or a House of 
Lords.' Chalmers' Biographical Dictionary, vol. xvii. p. 36. 

* Minutes of the Sessions of the Assembly, p. 25. 

3 Ibid. pp. 59, 91, sessions 382, 434. 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

by one whose authority Mr. Fairbairn will not call in 
question, that at that time they were both moderate 
Calvinists. In Cudworth's noble discourse before the 
House of Commons, to which he has definitely referred, 
I can see nothing really inconsistent with this view, and 
there are some passages in it which he and his friends 
would do well to note. 1 Bryan Walton also was absent, 
and at the time the Assembly met he was known chiefly 
as one skilled in the law of tithes. But there were other 
scholars there no way inferior to him in any learning 
needed for the formation of a Confession of Faith, and 
safer guides as to the comparative trustworthiness of the 
Hebrew original and the Septuagint version of the Old 
Testament than he ultimately became. It is quite possible 
that, though a great scholar, Walton may, in his youth, 
and while absorbed in the study of tithe-law, have been 
but indifferently attentive to the ordinary duties of a parish 

1 ' The great mystery of the gospel, it doth not lie only in Christ without us 
(though we must know also what he hath done for us), but the very pith and 
kernel of it consists in Christ inwardly formed in our hearts. . . . We can 
receive no virtue from it till it be inwardly digested and concocted into our 
souls ; till it be made ours, and become a living thing in our hearts. . . . 
Christ, indeed, hath made an expiation for our sins upon his cross, and the 
blood of Christ is the only sovereign balsam to free us from the guilt of them ; 
but yet, besides the sprinkling of the blood of Christ upon us, we must be 
made partakers also of his Spirit. Christ came into the world as well to 
redeem us from the power and bondage of our sins, as to free us from the 
guilt of them. . . . The end of the gospel is life and perfection, 'tis a divine 
nature 'tis to make us partakers of the image of God in righteousness and 
true holiness, without which salvation itself were but a notion. Christ came, 
indeed, into the world to make an expiation and atonement for our sins, but 
the end of this was that we might eschew sin, that we might forsake all un- 
godliness and worldly lusts. The gospel declares pardon of sin to those that 
are heavy laden with it, and willing to be disburdened, to this end, that it 
might quicken us to new obedience ; whereas otherwise the guilt of sin 
might have detained us in horror and despair, and so have kept us still more 
strongly under the power of it, in sad and dismal apprehensions of God's 
wrath provoked against us, and inevitably falling on us. ' Sermon before House 
of Commons, p. 42. He does not seem to me to give up the doctrine of 
predestination any more than that of the atonement. The differences between 
him and his most pronounced Puritan colleagues were small in amount com- 
pared with the differences between him and later latitudinarians. When the. 
school which is so eager to claim him shall accept this noble sermon as a 
summary of the things most surely believed by it, Puritans and Broad Church- 
men may be content to forget their differences. 



xllV INTRODUCTION. 

minister, or that he may have been so actively hostile to 
the Parliament, that their committee, on this ground alone, 
may have deemed themselves warranted to mete out far 
harder measure to him than calmer times will approve. 
At any rate, those who deem it necessary to bring up this 
should not have forgotten to mention what Cromwell and 
his Puritan brother-in-law Wilkins did to help forward 
the publication of Walton's great work ; nor what that 
' pleasantest of letter gossips,' Baillie, has said of him in a 
work which perhaps only a Dr. Dryasdust may be supposed 
now to have the patience to master, though no one who 
aspires to write with accuracy on the men of that time, 
and to guide opinion in regard to their character and work, 
has a right jauntily to dispose of it and many others of the 
same class with a sneer or a sarcasm. ' Brianus Waltonus/ 
says Baillie, after referring to some other advocates of the 
superior claims of the Septuagint chronology, ' Prolego- 
menorum suorum nono in fine, etsi multo modestius, acriter 
tamen satis, et quam potest serio, eadem oberrat chorda, 
quod mihi permolestum accidit. Nam Waltono, ob in- 
signem et laudatissimam suam operam in nobilissimorum 
polyglottorum Bibliorum, Londini, editionem valde faveo, 
doleoque serio virum tanti in omnes Ecclesias meriti, istius 
Novaturientium sectae laqueis ullatenus irretitum.' 1 Is 
there not more charity and kindliness shown here to 
Walton, than some of Walton's friends seem yet prepared 
to concede to Baillie and his Puritan colleagues ? 

But, after all that may be said on such points, it is 
mainly by their work that the Westminster Assembly 
must submit to be judged. If it really be the case that 
that is of so extreme a kind as Mr. Fairbairn and others 
assert, and that it is intentionally so, no argument from 
the general character and attainments of its members will 
avail in arrest of the judgment he pleads for against them ; 

1 Operis Historici et Chronologici Libri Duo, p. 7. Nay, at the time of the 
Restoration, when the old man was still deluding himself with the vision of a 
Covenanting King and Presbyterian Church, he expressed to Sharp in Lon- 
don his desire that Dr. Walton, though bitterly Episcopal, should, on account 
of his great work, be cherished, and have some such place as the Provostry of 
Eton College bestowed on him. See his Letters, vol. iii. p. 401. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

while, if it be not the case that their work is of such a kind, 
it would matter but little though their general character 
and attainments were less clearly established. Is, then, 
the view he takes of the Assembly borne out by its 
Minutes or its symbolical books, or by the private writings 
of the more prominent of its members ? So far from it, 
that, on the contrary, it may be clearly shown that hardly 
any Synod since the first Council of Nicea has taken 
more care that all its decisions in matters of faith, deemed 
worthy of a place in its Confession, should be practically 
unanimous, and all its regulations in matters of polity 
should admit of very considerable latitude and variation 
in points of detail. With respect to matters of discipline 
and government, the Assembly strove earnestly to secure 
an accommodation wherever serious differences of opinion 
emerged among its members ;' and if it sometimes failed 
in its efforts, the blame rests quite as much with the Par- 
liament as with it. Gillespie, in his speech to the As- 
sembly, before going down to Scotland in 1644, expressly 
advocated this course. 2 The Assembly followed it, with 

1 In particular, the Scotch Commissioners take credit to themselves for 
having earnestly followed this course. In their paper, entitled The Refor- 
mation of Church Government in Scotland cleared from some Mistakes, 
they say : ' This our profession, we are confident, will find credit with all 
that know us, and have observed our ways since our coming into this king- 
dom, which have been, and so far as the truth will suffer us, ever shall be, to 
unite and not to divide, to compose rather than to create differences, which 
we conceive to be also one principal end of the calling of the Assembly of 
divines, and which all the members of the Assembly, against all particular 
interests, are after a special manner engaged to aim at ' (p. 2). 

2 See p. 28 of these Minutes. He hoped that common opposition to Eras- 
tianism would draw together many who differed on subordinate points of 
Church government, and was willing to make as well as ask concessions for 
the sake of union. In his controversy with Coleman, he said : ' We will 
never despair of an union with such as are sound in the faith, holy in life, 
and willing to a Church-refining and sin-censuring government in the hands 
of Church officers' (Nihil Respondes, p. n); and in a sermon before the House 
of Lords he expresses himself still more earnestly : ' When I speak against 
liberty of conscience, it is far from my meaning to advise any rigorous or 
violent course against such as, being sound in the faith, holy in life, and not 
of a turbulent or factious carriage, do differ in smaller matters from the common 
rule. "Let that day be darkness; let not God regard it from above, neither 
let the light shine upon it," in which it shall be said that the children of God 
in Britain are enemies and persecutors of each other. He is no good Christian 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

the full approval of the Scotch Commissioners, in its 
resolutions with regard to the office and duties of elders, 
and strove hard to carry it out in the important matter 
of Church censures, 1 so as to allow the Independents, as 
one has said, ' to have their chapels apart, if they would 
only consent to enter them by the door of the great 
national cathedral.' Nay, even in regard to Presbytery 
itself, they were content to determine that it was lawful 
and warrantable rather than that it was absolutely im- 
perative. A similar course was followed, only still more 
decidedly, in their Directory for Public Worship, many 
of its regulations being recommendations rather than 
injunctions, and that on the express ground lest they 
should impose a burden on weak consciences, or, as 
Gillespie on one occasion expressed it, should ' cross the 
principles of the good old Nonconformists.' 2 Did they 
act in a different spirit in framing their Confession of 
Faith ? I think we are now in a position to pronounce 
that they did not 

Some time ago, I endeavoured to show that the As- 
sembly's Confession was not derived from foreign sources, 
either Genevan or Dutch, but that, both in its general 
plan and in the tenor of its more important articles, it 
was drawn from native sources other than Scotch, and in 

who will not say Amen to the prayer of Jesus Christ, that all who are his 
may be one in him. If this be heartily wished, let it be effectually en- 
deavoured ; and let those who will choose a dividing way rather than a 
uniting way bear the blame.' 

1 In the last paper given in by them to the Sub-committee on Accommoda- 
tion, in answer to the proposals of the majority, that they should statedly join 
in the ordinary worship -of the parochial congregations where they lived, and 
be under the congregational eldership, but should not be obliged to receive 
the Lord's Supper there, nor to be subject to the censures of Classes or 
Synods, they reply that this supposes what is contrary to their professed 
judgment, viz. that they should be members and pastors of parishes as then 
constituted ; but as the Houses had not thought meet as yet to give power by 
a law to purge the congregations, and as the rule for purging proposed by the 
Assembly was not only short, but exclusive of what they thought was required 
in Church members, the object they had in view was not how the parishes 
should be reformed, so far as would satisfy their consciences, but how they 
might be considered for forbearance apart. 

2 His letter is given in vol. ii. pp. 505, 506, of Dr. Laing's edition of 
Baillie's Letters. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlvii 



particular from those confessedly Augustinian or Calvin- 
istic Articles, 1 which, even before the Synod of Dort was 
summoned, or the Arminian controversy had become so 
embittered, had been adopted by the Convocation of the 
Irish Church. An examination of the Minutes of the 



1 These Articles, agreed to by the archbishops, bishops, and Convocation of 
the Irish Church, and approved of by the Viceroy in 1615, were held in high 
repute by almost all the sound Protestant ministers in England and Scotland. 
They embodied the mature opinions of Ussher, then Professor of Divinity at 
Dublin, and of several other learned and orthodox divines who scrupled at 
no ceremony required in the Book of Common Prayer, shrunk from no com- 
pliance with the absolute will of the King in things indifferent, and were in no 
sense liable to the charge of Puritanism if that is anything else than a con- 
venient nickname. In these Articles, as it humbly appears to me, we have 
the main source of our Confession of Faith, and almost its exact prototype in 
its statement of all the more important and essential doctrines of Christianity. 
In the order and titles of many of its chapters, as well as in the language of 
whole sections or subdivisions of chapters, and in many single phrases and 
voces signatce occurring throughout their Confession, the Westminster divines 
appear to me to have followed very closely in the footsteps of Ussher and his 
Irish brethren. The headings of those chapters which cannot be clearly 
traced to this source may generally be found in a ' Body of Divinity,' which 
was published in his name while the Assembly was sitting, and which, though 
he declined to sanction it as a statement of his own opinions, he admitted that 
he had, in early life, compiled from the writings of others. The following are 
the headings of most of the chapters or larger sections in the two formularies, 
and it is hardly necessary to do more than set them over against each other to 
show their close affinity : 



IRISH ARTICLES. 



WESTMINSTER CONFESSION. 



I. Of the Holy Scripture and the 

Three Creeds. 
II. Of faith in the Holy Trinity. 

III. Of God's Eternal Decree and Pre- 
destination. 
IV. Of the Creation and Government 

of all things. 

V. Of the Fall of Man, Original 

Sin, and the State of Man be- 

forejustification (including the 

English Article of Free Will). 

VI. Of Christ the Mediator of the 

Second Covenant. 
VII. Of the communicating of the 

Grace of Christ. 
VIII. Of Justification and Faith. 



IX. Of Sanctification 
Works. 



and Good 



I. Of the Holy Scripture. 

II. Of God, and of the Holy 
Trinity. 

III. Of God's Eternal Decree. 

IV. Of Creation. V. Of Provi- 

dence. 

VI. Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, 
and of the Punishment 
thereof. IX. Of Free 
Will. 

VII. Of God's Covenant with Man. 
VIII. Of Christ the Mediator. 
X. Of Effectual Calling. 

XI. Of Justification. XIV. Of 

Saving Faith. 

XIII. Of Sanctification. XVI. Of 
Good Works. 



xlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXI. Of Religious Worship, and 

the Sabbath Day. 

XXII. Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. 
XXIII. Of the Civil Magistrate. 
XXV. Of the Church. XXVI. Of 
Communion of Saints. 
XXX. Of Church Cen- 
sures. 
XXXI. Of Synods and Councils. 



XXVII. Of the Sacraments. 

XXVIII. Of Baptism. XXIX. Of the 

Lord's Supper. 

XXXII. Of the State of Man after 
Death, and of the Resur- 
rection of the Dead. 

XXXIII. Of the Last Judgment. 



Assembly confirms me in this view. 1 I do not venture 
to assert that in no case has it determined points which 

XV. Of the State of the Old and New XIX. Of the Law of God. 

Testament (including Doc- 
trine as to Moral and Cere- 
monial Law). 

X. Of the Service of God (including 
teaching as to Oaths and the 
Lord's Day). 

XI. Of the Civil Magistrate. 

XIII. Of the Church and outward 

Ministry of the Gospel (in- 
cluding teaching as to Excom- 
munication, Absolution, etc.) 

XIV. Of the Authority of the Church 

General Councils, and the 

Bishop of Rome. 
XVI. Of the Sacraments of the New 

Testament. 
XVII. Of Baptism. XVIII. Of the 

Lord's Supper. 
XIX. Of the State of the Souls of Men 

after they be departed out of 

this Life, together with the 

General Resurrection and the 

Last Judgment. 

Perhaps it may be said that this resemblance is nothing more than might be 
expected from the common system on which both of these, and in fact most 
of the Reformed Confessions of the previous century were framed. But if the 
order of the chapters of those other Confessions be compared with these two, 
it will be at once perceived that the resemblance between the Articles of the 
Church of Ireland and the Westminster Confession is something more and 
closer than can be thus explained. For instance, all the other Confessions, 
with the exception of the Swiss, place the chapter on God before that on 
Holy Scripture ; all which have a chapter on Predestination or God's Eternal 
Decree, place that chapter not before those on creation and providence, but 
after those on the fall of man and original sin, or later in order still. Most 
give the chapters relating to the Church and the Magistrate in an order 
different from that which is followed by the Irish and the Westminster Con- 
fessions. Further, the headings of the chapters are too closely alike in 
language to allow us to suppose the later could have been drawn up without 
reference to the earlier. Thus we find in both, ' of Holy Scripture, ' and ' of 
God's Eternal Decree,' when in each case the plural nouns might have been 
used, as they are in our Catechisms ; we have the same qualifying adjectives 
employed in both, in these and in other headings, and we have the same 
descriptive epithets used even when others are preferred in the English 
Articles. Finally, the statements of the two Formularies in several of the 
more important doctrines of our faith, have only to be placed in juxtaposition 
to show that the resemblance between the two is very close and striking in 
language as well as in general arrangement. 

1 On various occasions (pp. 126, 127, etc.) discussions arise about words not 
found in the Confession as finally adopted, but found in the Irish Articles. On 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

the Irish Synod had left open. But I do say that these 
points are not many nor important, and that it is clear 
the Assembly took the greatest possible pains to express 
its views in such a way as to obviate objections which had 
been or might have been taken either to the words or to 
the matter of the Irish Articles. I endeavoured once 
already to show how carefully balanced the statements of 
the Confession were. 1 Let me, now that I have access to 
the Minutes- of the Assembly, attempt this again. 

I. The Scriptures. The Westminster divines, like the 
Irish, place this Article at the head of their Confession. 
This, and not the doctrine of the Decree, is the point from 
which their whole system is sought to be evolved, although 
that doctrine is placed by them, as it had been by the 
Irish divines, in its logical rather than in its natural order. 
If any chapter in the Confession was more carefully framed 
than another, it was this, ' of the Holy Scripture.' It formed 
the subject of repeated and earnest debate in the House 
of Commons as well as in the Assemmy ; and I think it 
requires only to be fairly examined to make it appear that 
its framers were so far from desiring to go beyond their 
predecessors in rigour, that they were at more special pains 
than the authors of any other Confession I. To avoid 
mixing up the question of the canonicity of particular 
books with the question of their authorship, where any 
doubt at all existed on the latter point ; 2 2. To leave open 
all reasonable questions as to the mode and degree of 

one occasion a paragraph is at first adopted in the very words in which it is 
found in the Irish Articles ; but when it comes to be fitted into its place in the 
chapter to which it belongs, several changes have to be made on it (p. 278). 
And when the Confession is completed, a proposal is made for a Committee to 
consider of errors not obviated by the Confessions of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, which it might be expedient to refer to in the new one (p. 286). 

1 ' The Westminster Confession of Faith ; a contribution to the study of its 
historical relations and the defence of its teaching.' Edinr. 1866. I have to 
some extent availed myself of its materials. 

2 Any one who will take the trouble to compare their list of the canonical 
books with that given in the Belgian Confession or in the Irish Articles, 
may satisfy himself that they held, with Dr. Jamieson, that the authority of 
these books ' does not depend on the fact whether this prophet or that wrote 
a particular book or parts of a book ; whether a certain portion was derived 
from the Elohist or the Tehovist ; whether Moses wrote the close of Deutero- 

d 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

inspiration which could consistently be left open by those 
who accepted the Scriptures as the infallible ride of faith 
and duty ; 3. To refrain from claiming for the text such 
absolute purity, and for the Hebrew vowel points such 
antiquity, as was claimed in the Swiss Formula Con- 
cordics, while asserting that the originals of Scripture 
are, after the lapse of ages, still pure and perfect for all 
those purposes for which they were given j 1 4. To declare 

nomy, Solomon was the author of Ecclesiastes, or Paul of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews ; but on the fact that a prophet, an inspired man . . . wrote them, 
and that they bear the stamp and impress of a divine origin.' 

BELGIAN CONFESSION. 

Veteris quidem Testamenti, Quinque libri Mosis ; nempe, Genesis, Exodus, 
Leviticus, Numeri, Deuteronomium, . . . Item, Psalmi Davidis, ires libri 
Salomonis, videlicet Proverbia, Ecclesiastes, et Canticum canticoram, quatuor 
prophets majores, Esaias, Jeremias cum ejusdem Threnis, Ezechiel et Daniel : 
. . . Novi vero Testamenti, quatuor evangelistae Sanctus scilicet Matthasus, 
Marcus, Lucas et Johannes ; Acta Apostolorum ; quatuordecim epistola Sancti 
Pauli quae sunt ad Romanos, ad Corinthios duae, Galatas, Ephesios, Philip- 
penses, Colossenses, ad Thessalonicenses duae, ad Timotheum duoe, ad Titum, 
Philemonem, Hebrseos; et septem epistolae rdiquorum apostolorum, nempe 
Jacobi, Petri duae, Johannis tres, Judae, Apocalypsis denique S. Johannis 
Apostoli. 

WESTMINSTER CONFESSION. 

Under the name of Holy Scripture, or the word of God written, are now 
contained all the books of the Old and New Testament, which are these : 

Of the Old Testament. 

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 
i Samuel, 2 Samuel, I Kings, 2 Kings, I Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, 
Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, 
Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. 

Of the New Testament. 

The Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, John ; the Acts of the 
Apostles ; Paul's Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians I, Corinthians 2, Gala- 
tians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians I, Thessalonians 2, 
to Timothy I, to Timothy 2, to Titus, to Philemon ; the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, the Epistle of James, the first and second Epistles of Peter ; the 
first, second, and third Epistles of John, the Epistle of Jude, the Revelation. 

1 Not even the text they adduce in proof of this statement will suffice to 
fix down its meaning to the sense which Lee and others have sought to im- 
pose on it ; for Lightfoot, who in matters critical was regarded as one of 
their highest authorities, has expressly stated that the words one iota or one 
tittle are by our Lord himself used interchangeably with ' one of the least of 



INTRODUCTION. li 

that the sense of Scripture in any particular place is not 
manifold, but one, and so raise an earnest protest against 
that system of spiritualizing the text which had been too 
much countenanced by some of the most eminent of the 
Fathers, and many of the best of the mystics. 

II. Of the Trinity, and of Christ the Mediator. I can 
only repeat what I have already said as to the care and 
caution the Westminster Divines have shown in these 
chapters. Where shall we turn for a more full and scrip- 
tural exhibition of the attributes of God ? where for a 
more sober yet definite statement of the doctrines of the 
Trinity, of the hypostatical union of the divine and human 
natures 1 in our ' Mediator and Surety,' or of the nature and 
efficacy of his redemptive work ? While the doctrine of the 
Trinity is clearly asserted, the so-called Athanasian Creed 
is shrunk up into the single sentence : ' The Father is of 
none, neither begotten nor proceeding; the Son is eternally 
begotten of the Father ; the Holy Ghost eternally proceed- 
ing from the Father and the Son.' Some rash speculations 
respecting the mode of the Sonship, which the Irish divines 
were blamed for inserting, were passed over by the West- 
minster divines. In revising the English Articles on the 
subject of this chapter, they first changed the eighth into 
the following form : ' The creeds that go under the name of 
the Nice Creed, Athanasian Creed, and that which is com- 
monly called the Apostles' Creed, are thoroughly to be 
received and believed, for that the matter of them may be 
proved by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.' 2 



these commandments ;' and that his meaning in both cases is not that no letter 
or part of a letter should be lost or corrupted, but that not a particle of the 
divine meaning should be so ' eousque incorraptam immortalitatem ac 
puritatem textus sacri asserere ut non peritura sit nlla senses sacri particula 
a capite legis ad calcem.' To the same effect Vines says that ' the Scripture 
stands not in cortice verborum, but in medulla sensus ;' and shows that he 
not only knew of variae lectiones in the Hebrew, but held that some in the 
margin were 'truer' than those in the text. Tuckney expresses himself in 
similar terms, and so does Ussher in his famous letter to Cappellus. 

1 Dr. Schaff says it contains one of the most comprehensive statements of 
the Chalcedonian doctrine. 

2 Lightfoot's Journal of the Proceedings of the Assembly, p. 10. The form 
into which they ultimately cast this article will be found in the Appendix. 



Hi INTRODUCTION. 

And then they had 'long agitation about setting some 
gloss upon the preface and conclusion of Athanasius' 
Creed, which seems to be something harsh.' Have the 
Reformers in the English Church at the present day as 
yet got farther than these divines were willing to go ? 
Have they even yet succeeded in fixing definitely the 
sense in which the minatory clauses are to be interpreted ? 
The more rigid Calvinists have been blamed for attempt- 
ing to define with a minuteness, as novel as uncalled for, 
that in which the atonement of our blessed Lord consisted ; 
while those of another school, in opposing their extrava- 
gances, have explained away what is said in Scripture of 
his mysterious agony and sorrow of soul, of his vicarious 
sacrifice and death. The Westminster divines, with rare 
judiciousness, avoid both extremes, following closely the 
language of the Irish Articles, save that they omit the 
expression, ' to reconcile his Father unto us,' retained in 
them and in the English Articles. For the reasons given 
by Archbishop Magee and Principal Hill, I myself am 
satisfied this expression is warrantable ; but I admit it is 
scrupled at by some of whose orthodoxy I cannot enter- 
tain a doubt. 

III. Of God's Eternal Decree. This chapter, as will be 
seen from the note below, is taken almost entirely from 
the Irish Articles. 1 The only additions worth naming are 

1 WESTMINSTER CONFESSION. IRISH ARTICLES. 



CHAPTER III. OF GOD'S ETERNAL ARTICLE III. OF GOD'S ETERNAL 
DECREE. DECREE AND PREDESTINATION. 

I. God from all eternity did, by the n. God from all eternity did, by his 
most wise and holy counsel of his own unchangeable counsel, ordain whatso- 
will, freely and unchangeably ordain ever in time should come to pass : yet 
whatsoever comes to pass : yet so, as so as thereby no violence is offered to 
thereby neither is God the author of the wills of the reasonable creatures, 
sin, nor is violence offered to the will of and neither the liberty nor the contin- 
the creatures, nor is the liberty or con- gency of the second causes is taken 
tingency of second causes taken away, away, but established rather. 

but rather established. 

II. Although God knows whatsoever 
may or can come to pass upon all sup- 
posed conditions ; yet hath he not de- 
creed anything because he foresaw it as 
future, or as that which would come to 
pass upon such conditions. 



INTRODUCTION. 



liii 



Section II., which pronounces against the scicntia media 
of the Jesuits, and the slight enlargement of the state- 
ment on Reprobation in Section VII. The latter is quite 



III. By the decree of God, for the 
manifestation of his glory, some men 
and angels are predestinated unto ever- 
lasting life, and others fore-ordained to 
everlasting death. 

IV. These angels and men, thus pre- 
destinated and fore-ordained, are par- 
ticularly and unchangeably designed ; 
and their number is so certain and 
definite, that it cannot be either in- 
creased or diminished. 



V. Those of mankind that are pre- 
destinated unto life, God, before the 
foundation of the world was laid, ac- 
cording to his eternal and immutable 
purpose, and the secret counsel and 
good pleasure of his will, hath chosen 
in Christ unto everlasting glory, out of 
his mere free grace and love, without 
any foresight of faith or good works, 
or perseverance in either of them, or 
any other thing in the creature, as con- 
ditions, or causes moving him there- 
unto ; and all to the praise of his 
glorious grace. 



VI. As God hath appointed the 
elect unto glory, so hath he, by the 
eternal and most free purpose of his 
will, fore-ordained all the means there- 
unto. Wherefore they who are elected 
being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by 
Christ ; are effectually called to faith in 
Christ by his Spirit working in due 
season ; are justified, adopted, sancti- 
fied, and kept by his power through 
faith unto salvation. Neither are any 
other redeemed by Christ, effectually 
called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and 
saved, but the elect only. 



12. By the same eternal counsel, God 
hath predestinated some unto life, and 
reprobated some unto death : of both 
which there is a certain number known 
only to God, which can neither be in- 
creased nor diminished. 



13. Predestination to life is the ever- 
lasting purpose of God, whereby, be- 
fore the foundations of the world were 
laid, he hath constantly decreed in his 
secret counsel to deliver from curse 
and damnation those whom he bath 
chosen in Christ out of mankind, and 
to bring them by Christ unto everlast- 
ing salvation, as vessels made to 
honour. 

14. The cause moving God to pre- 
destinate unto life, is not the foresee- 
ing of faith, or perseverance or good 
works, or of anything which is in the 
person predestinated, but only the 
good pleasure of God himself. For 
all things being ordained for the mani- 
festation of his glory, and his glory 
being to appear both in the works of 
his mercy and of his justice ; it 
seemed good to his heavenly wisdom 
to choose out a certain number towards 
whom he would extend his undeserved 
mercy, leaving the rest to be spectacles 
of his justice. 

15. Such as are predestinated unto 
life, be called according unto God's pur- 
pose (his Spirit working in due season), 
and through grace they obey the calling, 
they be justified freely, they be made 
sons of God by adoption, they be made 
like the image of his only begotten Son 
Jesus Christ, they walk religiously in 
good works, and at length, by God's 
mercy, they attain to everlasting feli- 
city. 

32. None can come unto Christ un- 
less it be given unto him, and unless the 
Father draw him. And all men are not 
so drawn by the Father that they may 



Hv INTRODUCTION. 

as guarded as the language used by Ussher in his Method 
of the Christian Religion ;^ and, as I have already stated, 
it was drawn up by a committee of which the cau- 
tious Reynolds had charge. The former was the least 
that could be expected in a Synod over which Dr. 
Twisse presided. But it is remarkable that, though the 
Assembly met after the Synod of Dort, and had for its 
president one whose opinions on these mysterious sub- 
jects were almost as pronounced as those of Gomarus 
himself, it fell back not on the decrees of that Synod, but 
on the Articles of the Irish Church, which had been 
drawn up before the Synod of Dort was summoned, or 
the controversies its decrees occasioned had waxed so 
fierce. The debates of the Assembly clearly show that 
its members did not wish to determine several particulars 
decided by the Synod of Dort, far less to determine them 



VII. The rest of mankind, God was come unto the Son. Neither is there 
pleased, according to the unsearchable such a sufficient measure of grace vouch- 
counsel of his own will, whereby he safed unto every man whereby he is 
extendeth or withholdeth mercy as he enabled to come unto everlasting life, 
pleaseth, for the glory of his sovereign But such as are not predestinated to 
powef over his creatures, to pass by, salvation shall finally be condemned for 
and to ordain them to dishonour and their sins. 

wrath for their sin, to the praise of his 
glorious justice. 

VIII. The doctrine of this high 17. We must receive God's promises 
mystery of predestination is to be in such wise as they be generally set 
handled with special prudence and forth unto us in Holy Scripture ; and 
care, that men attending to the will of in our doings, that will of God is to be 
God revealed in his Word, and yield- followed, which we have expressly de- 
ing obedience thereunto, may, from the clared unto us in the Word of God. 
certainty of their effectual vocation, be 

assured of their eternal election. So 
shall this doctrine afford matter of 
praise, reverence, and admiration of 
God, and of humility, diligence, and 
abundant consolation to all that sin- 
cerely obey the gospel. 

1 This work, published by him in his youth, but revised and republished a 
year or two before his death, contains the following question and answer : 
' Q. Did God then, before he made man, determine to save some and reject 
others ? A. Yes, surely, before they had done either good or evil, God in 
his eternal counsel set some apart upon whom he would in time show the 
riches of his mercy, and determined to withhold the same from others, upon 
whom he would show the severity of his justice.' See it in his Works, as 
edited by Elrington, vol. xi. 



INTRODUCTION. Iv 

more rigidly than it had done. They even intentionally 
left open one point which the Irish divines thought fit to 
determine. They spoke indifferently of the 'decree' and 
of the 'decrees' of God, while the Irish divines speak of 
only one and ' the same decree ;' and from the notes of 
their debates given below, 1 it will be seen that this was 
done because all were not agreed upon the point, and in 
order that every one might enjoy his own sense ! The same 
care was taken to avoid the insertion of anything which 
could be regarded as indicating a preference for supra- 
lapsarianism ; z and for this purpose, the words, 'to bring 
this to pass, God ordained to permit man to fall,' were 
changed into ' they who are elected, being fallen in Adam, 
are redeemed by Christ,' etc. Did these divines mean to 
follow an opposite policy in regard to the point on which 
Calamy, Arrowsmith, Vines, Seaman, and other disciples 
of Davenant, or according to Baillie of Amyraut, differed 
from the more exact Calvinists ? After repeated perusal 
of their debates, I cannot take upon myself certainly to 
affirm that they did, though I admit that this matter is 
not so clear as the others above referred to. No notes of 
the debate in its latest stage are given, nor is. any vote or 
dissent respecting it found in these Minutes. Calamy, 
who spoke repeatedly in the debate on the Extent of 
Redemption, avowed that he held, in the same sense as 
the English divines at the Synod of Dort, 8 'that Christ 
by his death did pay a price for all, with absolute inten- 

1 ' Mr. Rutherford All agree in this, that God decrees the end and means, 
but whether in one or more decrees is not agreed. Say, "God also hath 
decreed." It is very probably but one decree, but whether fit to express it 
in a Confession of Faith . . . 

' Mr. Gillespie When that word is left out, is it not a truth ? and so every 
one may enjoy his own sense. 

'Mr. Reynolds Let us not put in disputes and scholastical things into a 
Confession of Faith. I think they are different decrees in our manner of 
conception. 

' Mr. Calamy That it may be a truth, I think, in our Prolocutor's book, 
he gives a great deal of reason for it ; but why should we put it in a 
Confession of Faith?' Notes of Speeches in Minutes- see pp. 150, 151. 

2 ' I desire that nothing may be put in one way or other. ' Calamy 's Speech, 
Ibid. p. 151. See also p. 152. 

8 See entries on p. 160 of these Minutes in sessions 526, 527. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

tion for the elect, with conditional intention for the re- 
probate in case they do believe ; that all men should 
be salvabiles non obstante lapsu Adami . . . ; that Jesus 
Christ did not only die sufficiently for all, but God did 
intend, in giving of Christ, and Christ in giving himself 
did intend, to put all men in a state of salvation in case 
they do believe.' Seaman, Vines, Marshall, and Harris in 
part at least, agreed with him. 1 And though I cannot find 
that Dr. Arrowsmith took part in this debate, yet he was 
attending the Assembly, was a member of the Committee 
on the Confession, and in his writings has repeatedly ex- 
pressed his leaning towards the same opinion. 2 In the 
progress of the debate, the proposition that Christ re- 
deemed the elect only, was exchanged for this other, that 
Christ did intend to redeem the elect only. The final 
decision of the Assembly, as has just been stated, is not 
inserted in these Minutes ; and though at first sight it may 
not seem easy to reconcile the opinions of these divines 
with the language of the sixth section of this chapter of the 
Confession, it would be rash for me to say it is impossible. 
They certainly did not succeed in getting any positive 

1 See the notes of the debate (pp. 152, I53> etc.) during sessions 522, 523, 
and 524. The following are the passages in the theses of the English divines 
at the Synod of Dort, to which reference is made by Calamy and Marshall : 
' Sic ergo Christus pro omnibus mortuus est, ut omnes et singuli, mediante 
fide, possint airfavrpou hujus remissionem peccatorum et vitam eternam con- 
sequi. Sic pro electis mortuus est ut, ex merito mortis ejus secundum 
seternum Dei beneplacitum specialiter illis destinato, et fidem infallibiliter 
obtineant et vitam seternam. ' Acta Synodi Dordtrechtance, p. 603. ' Nemo 
mortalium est qui non possit vere et serio per ministros evangelii vocari ad 
participationem remissionis peccatorum et vitse seternse per hanc mortem 
Christi. . . . Evangelio autem nihil falsum aut simulatum subest, sed quic- 
quid in eo per ministros offertur aut promittitur hominibus, id eodem modo 
ab autore evangelii offertur et promittitur iisdem. ' Ibid. p. 602. 

2 He says of Davenant, ' Cujus memoria apud orthodoxos in benedictione 
sempiterna permanebit ;' and of himself, 'Rev 1 admodum Davenantii, praelec- 
tiones et determinationes imbiberam, exegetica, polemica et Synodica scripta 
perlegeram et ipsius dogmata fere quidem omnia in succum et sanguinem 
vertere conatus sum' (Tactica Sacra, p. 223); and of the particular question 
here discussed, ' sanguinem fcederis pro eis (i.e. electis) effusum, si non salts, 
modo, saltern, et intentione speciali. ' 

In his sermon on Rev. xii. I, 2, making a comparison between the natural 
sun and Christ the Sun of righteousness, he thus expresses himself : ' No 
visible creature but shares more or less in the benefit of this influence. So 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

approbation of their opinions inserted ; but it is just pos- 
sible that the language of this section may have been so 
arranged, that they felt warranted in accepting it as not 
positively condemning them. Those who in modern 
times have pronounced most confidently that the more 
restricted view is exclusively intended, seem to me to have 
unconsciously construed or interpreted the words, ' neither 
are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justi- 
fied, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only,' as if 
they had run, ' neither are any other redeemed by Christ, 
or effectually called, or justified, adopted, sanctified, and 
saved, but the elect only.' But these two statements do 
not necessarily bear the same meaning. Calamy, Arrow- 
smith, and the others who agreed with them, may have 
felt justified in accepting the former, though they might 
have scrupled to accept the latter. 1 

It may be argued, however (and it is better to advert to 
it here), that even if the opinions of these divines were not 
positively excluded by the language of this section, they 

Christ, being the light that lighteth every one that cometh into the world, 
there is no man but partakes of his goodness in one kind or other, though 
with much variety in the success. ' 

In his Chain of Principles (p. 182), Arrowsmith, like Calamy, interprets 
John iii. 16 not of the ' elect world,' but of ' the undeserving, yea ill-deserv- 
ing world of mankind.' Gataker, in his book, de Stylo Novi Testamenti 
(p. 56), adopts a similar interpretation of this passage. Of course Caryl, 
Burroughs, and Strong, the members who recommended the Marrow of 
Modern Divinity, may fairly be held as concurring in this interpretation, 
though, like several who did so in the succeeding century, they may not have 
accepted the detailed theory which the author of that book has built on it. 
Calvin himself has been held by Overall, Hall, and others, to have counte- 
nanced the same interpretation, when he says, in his commentary on the passage, 
' Universalem notam apposuit, turn ut promiscue omnes ad vitse participa- 
tionem invitet, turn ut prsecidat excusationem incredulis. Eodem etiam 
pertinet nomen mundi quo prius usus est. Tametsi, enim, in mundo nihil 
reperietur Dei favore dignum, se tamen toti mundo propitium ostendit, quum 
sine exceptione omnes ad fidem Christi vocat, quas nihil aliud est quam in- 
gressus in vitam. Cseterum meminerimus ita communiter promitti omnibus 
vitam in Christo, qui crediderint, ut tamen minime communis omnium sit 
fides. Patet cnim omnibus Christus ac expositus est, solis tamen electis oculos 
Deus aperit.' 

1 This concatenation may be what Gillespie points at in his speech, p. 153, 
when he says they must look beyond the proposition, and see what they held 
concerning that which in order goes before and what in order follows after. 
He himself did not accept even their view of John iii. 16. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

must be held to be so by that used in chap. viii. sec. 8 : 
' To all those for whom Christ hath purchased redemption 
he doth certainly and effectually communicate and apply 
the same.' It is quite possible that, in the progress of the 
debate, they may have yielded somewhat, especially after 
having secured, in chap. vii. sec. 3, words sufficient to guard 
the truth they were mainly anxious to conserve, that 
under the covenant of grace, and by the preaching of the 
gospel, the Lord ' freely offereth unto sinners life and sal- 
vation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him that 
they may be saved.' Besides, they had admitted (p. 159) 
a distinction between the propositum morientis and the 
meritum mortis. Still, it is also just possible that they 
may have accepted the words 'purchased redemption,' 
in the eighth chapter, as Baxter was willing to do, not 
of every fruit of Christ's death, but of 'that special re- 
demption proper to the elect,' 'which was accompanied 
with an intention of actual application of the saving 
benefits in time.' Ussher and some of his immediate dis- 
ciples, of whose own position there seems to be little doubt, 
appear occasionally to have used the phrase in the same 
sense, 1 and speak of the differences between Spanheim 
and Amyraut, the representatives of the two continental 
Calvinistic schools, as vapspya. quczdam, which should 
not alienate those who in common rejected Pelagianism 
and semi-Pelagianism. 2 Dr. Ames, again, who himself 
belonged to the stricter school, and who may be regarded 
as in fact one of the English Puritans, maintains that the 

1 This may be seen in his letter on the intent and extent of the death of Christ, 
and in his vindication of that letter ( Works, vol. xii. ). In the former he dwells 
chiefly on the point on which he and Davenant differed from the older school ; 
but in the latter he gives greater prominence to the point in which he differed 
from the Arminians, and says that impetration, in the sense these attached to 
the term, was not of wider extent than application, and that ' forgiveness of 
sins is not impetrated for any unto whom the merit of Christ's death is not 
applied.' Some suppose that Ussher's views changed a good deal in his 
later days ; but if Baxter's, or even Hammond's, account of interviews with 
him shortly before his death are carefully compared with this letter, and the 
vindication of it, his later opinions will be found to be as nearly as possible 
identical with his earlier. To the last he denied that Christ died for all men 
\\ iffeu. For his latest views on predestination and reprobation, see p. liv. 

* See his letter to Spanheim in vol. xvi. p. 95 of his Works, 



INTRODUCTION. Hx 

chief cardo controversies between Remonstrants and Contra- 
Remonstrants was not an pro omnibus ct singulis niortuns 
sit Christus ? sed quis finis et fructus sit CJiristi in cis pro 
quibus est mortuns, not whether he died for all in some 
way, but whether he died for all equally, and whether the 
end and fruit of his doing so was merely to remove legal 
obstacles, and render salvation possible ; or whether it did 
not also secure the salvation of a certain definite number, 
and that not a small, but large, number of our lost race. 1 

But at any rate, the adoption of the eighth paragraph 
in chap. viii. of the Confession did not end the contest 
between the divines, and set them altogether at one. 
These Minutes show that, when the Larger Catechism was 
being prepared, another effort was made by the represen- 
tatives of the Davenant school to get their opinions 
distinctly sanctioned and positively expressed in that 
formulary. A committee, apparently of English members 
only, prepared and brought up for discussion (p. 369) the 
following questions and answers : ' Q. Do all men 
equally partake of the benefits of Christ? A. Although 
from Christ some common favours redound to all man- 
kind, and some special privileges to the visible Church, 
yet none partake of the principal benefits of His mediation 
but only such as are members of the Church invisible. 
Q. What common favours redound from Christ to all 
mankind ? A. Besides much forbearance and many sup- 
plies for this life, which all mankind receive from Christ 



1 Si vago sensu quseratur an Christus aliquo modo recte dicatur mortuus pro 
electis ; an vero aliquo modo pro omnibus, nulla est hie una certa et deter- 
minata qusestio. Neque etiam potest vel posterior pars a nostris vel prior a 
Remonstrantibus absolute negari. Sunt inter nostros, quod Remonstrantes 
non latet, qui simul utramque parterri defendunt : ' Christum scilicet pro 
electis mortuum esse quoad efficaciam, et tamen pro omnibus quoad sufficien- 
tiam. Non desunt etiam qui utramque partem simul negant, Christum scilicet 
mortuum esse pro eis qui (ordine intuitus divini) prius fuerunt electi et mor- 
tuum eum esse pro omnibus (collective sumptis) ex asquo. Decent enim 
Christum Dominum, in prsescientia Dei, antequam intelligatur electio homi- 
num, satisfactionem suam obtulisse Patri ut aliqui designarentur a Patre in 
quibus ilia satisfactio salutis effectum consequeretur, materialem tamen desig- 
nationem, illorum eligendorum voluntati Dei reliquisse.' A.mzs\\AntisynoJa!ia 
Scripta, p. 176. 



Ix INTRODUCTION. 

as Lord of all, they by him are made capable of having 
salvation tendered to them by the gospel, and are under 
such dispensations of Providence and operations of the 
Spirit as lead to repentance.' 1 These questions and answers 
were first agreed to be discussed, and then referred back 
to a Committee with which the Scotch Commissioners 
were associated. The questions and answers adopted 
in session 873 (pp. 392, 393) are probably to be regarded 
as their report ; and the answer to the question, Are all 
they saved by Christ who live within the visible Church 
and hear the gospel ? wears the look of an attempted 
compromise, admitting on the one side that ' the gospel, 
where it cometh, doth tender salvation by Christ to all, 
testifying that whosoever believes in him shall be saved, 
and excludeth none that come unto him ;' and affirming on 
the other, that ' none do or can truly come unto Christ, or 
are saved by him, but only the members of the invisible 
Church.' This affirmation is warranted both by the Lam- 
beth and the Irish Articles ; but there are few nowadays 
who will not grant that it was more cautiously expressed in 

1 The answers to these questions have rather a marked similarity to the 
following paragraph (pp. 205, 206) of Ball's Treatise of the Covenant of 
Grace, a work published in 1645, which was held in high esteem by the 
Puritans, and recommended by Reynolds, as well as Calamy and several 
other members of the Westminster Assembly : ' The second sort of divines 
(Contra-Remonstrants) distinguish the sufficiency and efficiency of Christ's 
death. In respect of the worth and greatness of the price, he died for all 
men : because it was sufficient for the redemption of every man in the world 
if they did repent and believe ; and God might, without impeachment of 
justice, have offered salvation to every man in the world had it been his 
pleasure. In the efficiency, as every man or any man hath fruit by the death 
of Christ, so Christ died for him. But this is not of one kind : some fruit is 
common to every man ; for as Christ is lord of all things in heaven and earth, 
even the earthly blessings which infidels enjoy may be termed fruits of Christ's 
death. Others proper to the members of the visible Church, and common to 
them, as to be called by the word, enjoy the ordinances of grace, live under 
the covenant, partake of some graces that come from Christ, which, through 
their fault, be not saving ; and in this sense Christ died for all that be under 
the covenant. But other fruits of Christ's death, according to the will of God 
and intention of Christ as Mediator, be peculiar to the sheep of Christ, his 
brethren, them that be given unto him of the Father, as faith unfeigned, 
regeneration, pardon of sin, adoption, etc. ; and so they hold Christ died 
efficiently for his people only, in this sense, namely, so as to bring them 
effectually to faith, grace, and glory.' 



INTRODUCTION. x 

the shape in which it ultimately appeared in the answer 
to the sixty-eighth question of the Larger Catechism : 
'All the elect, and they only, are effectually called, 
although others may be, and often are, outwardly called 
by the ministry of the Word, and have some common 
operations of the Spirit, who, for their wilful neglect and 
contempt of the grace offered them, being justly left to 
their unbelief, do never truly come to Christ.' 

One subject more in this important chapter must yet be 
noticed. It has been said even recently, by a dignitary 
of the sister Church, that the statement in Section 7 is a 
melancholy one, and complaint is made that it has not 
yet been expunged. May it not be fairly replied, that 
they have no right to speak severely of this who have not 
yet made up their minds to expunge the minatory clauses 
from the Athanasian Creed, and that they who think that 
the apparent severity of these clauses would be sufficiently 
mitigated by a Synodical declaration should be the last 
to refuse to us, in explanation of this sentence, the benefit 
of the Synodical declaration long before made by the 
Synod of Dort, with the full assent of the Anglican 
divines ? That Synod place among other obloquies which 
they say the Reformed Churches not only do not admit, 
but also detest with all their heart the opinion, ' that as 
election is the fountain and original cause of faith and 

o 

good works, so in like manner reprobation is the cause of 
infidelity and wickedness.' To the same effect Calamy 
says : ' It is most certain that God is not the cause of any 
man's damnation. He found us sinners in Adam, but 
made none sinners.' 1 And Arrowsmith, in explaining 
Rom. ix. 22, 23, says : 

' I desire to have it punctually observed, that the vessels of wrath 
are only said to be fitted to destruction, without naming by whom, 
God, Satan, or themselves ; whereas, on the other side, God himself is 
expressly said to have prepared his chosen vessels of mercy unto 
glory. Which was purposely done (as I humbly conceive) to intimate 
a remarkable difference between election and preterition, in that 
election is a proper cause not only of salvation itself, but of all the 

1 Sermon before House of Commons, p. 32. 



Ixii INTRODUCTION. 

graces which have any causal tendency thereunto, and therefore God 
is said to prepare his elect to glory ; whereas negative reprobation is 
no proper cause either of damnation itself, or of the sin that bringeth 
it, but an antecedent only ; wherefore the non-elect are indeed said to 
be fitted to that destruction which their sins in conclusion bring upon 
them, but not by God. I call it a remarkable difference, because 
where it is once rightly apprehended and truly believed, it sufficeth to 
stop the mouth of one of those greatest calumnies and odiums which 
are usually cast upon our doctrine of predestination, viz. that God 
made sundry of his creatures on purpose to damn them, a thing 
which the rhetoric of our adversaries is wont to blow up to the 
highest pitch of aggravation. But it is soon blown away by such as 
can tell them, in the words of the excellent Dr. Davenant, " It is true 
that the elect are severally created to the end and intent that they 
may be glorified, together with their head, Christ Jesus ; but for the 
non-elect we cannot truly say that they are created to the end that 
they may be tormented with the devil and his angels. No man is 
created by God with a nature and quality fitting him to damnation. 
Yea, neither in the state of his innocency nor in the state of the fall 
and his corruption doth he receive anything from God which is a 
proper and fit means of bringing him to his damnation." n Sedgwick, 
in his Riches of God's Grace Displayed, says : ' The just cause of a 
sinner's damnation is of and from himself; never lay it on God's 
decrees, or want of means or helps.' '' What could Christ do more ? 
He calls, and cries, and knocks, and entreats, and waits, and weeps ; 
and yet you will not accept of him, nor of salvation by him. Thou 
must thank thyself for all thy miseries. Thou wilt confess one day, 
I might have had mercy. I was offered Christ and grace. I felt him 
knocking by his Spirit ; but I slighted him, grieved him, and rejected 
him, and now it is just with God to shut the door of mercy against 
me.' P. 42- 

Had these statements been found in the writings of any 
modern Scotch divine, they would probably have been 
pointed to as a signal but melancholy proof how far men 
can be persuaded to stretch the meaning of their creed 
to reconcile it with modern ideas and kindly feeling, when, 
if they were true to their convictions, they ought rather 
to abandon or modify it. But occurring as they do in the 
writings of men who took an active part in framing the 
Westminster Confession, and continued to be held in 
honour and put in places of high trust by the Puritan 
party, they seem sufficient to show that a Calvinism less 
pronounced than can be attributed to Dr. Crawford and 

1 Arrowsmith's Chain of Principles, pp. 335, 336, etc., edition 1659. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixiii 

his friends, had its defenders and representatives in the 
Westminster Assembly, and that those who have failed to 
discover any traces of this are no safe guides in regard 
to the opinions of the Assembly, and the comparative 
liberality or narrowness of its teaching. I believe Dr. 
Crawford 1 only fairly represents that of the more moderate 
divines both in the quotation already given (p. xxvi.), and 
when he says : 

' The decrees of God are merely his purposes. He alone, except 
when they are prophetically announced, is cognizant of them ; and 
he alone, if we may so speak, is influenced by them ; at least they 
have no direct influence on any besides him. They are God's secret 
designs for the regulation of his own procedure. But they are not 
rules or laws prescribed for the guidance of others, still less are they 
powers or agencies exerted for the coercion of others. . . . It is not 
by his purposes at all, but only by his actual procedure, that any 
influence, whether compulsory or otherwise, can be exerted over us. 
A further error in reference to this subject has arisen from ignoring 
or overlooking the fact that the purposes of God are to a great extent 
only permissive. That they are so, is evidently the doctrine of our 
Confession of Faith. For while we are there told that God from 
all eternity did unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass, it is 
added immediately after, as a qualification of this statement, yet so 
as thereby neither is God the author of sin, nor is violence offered 
to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second 
causes taken away, but rather established. These words plainly 
imply that the purposes of God are only permissive in so far as they 
have respect to those events which are to be brought about by the 
will of free agents, and more particularly in so far as they have 
respect to the commission of sins of which it would be gross impiety 
to suppose that God is in any sense the originator.' 

And I am satisfied that, in the quotation he adduces from 
Dr. South, he has furnished all that is needed as an answer 
to that so often adduced from Tillotson, if indeed more 

1 The very phrase which some suppose to be an invention of his or some 
modern Calvinist was not unknown to the divines of the Assembly. Dr. 
Harris, in a sermon preached before the House of Commons, from Luke xviii. 
6, 7, 8, says : ' God's adversaries are in some way his own. He is a piece of 
a Father to them also. For he is a common Father by office to all, a special 
Father by. adoption to saints, a singular Father by nature to Christ. A Prince, 
besides his particular relation to his children, is Pater patria, . . . and is 
good to all, though with a difference. So here, though Christ hath pur- 
chased a peculiar people to himself, to the purpose of salvation, yet others 
taste of this his goodness.' P. 32. 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION. 

is needed than Dr. Arrowsmith has said. South, as well 
as Tillotson, was trained under the Puritans, and had less 
sympathy with them in many things ; but his clear, strong 
intellect led him to reject with scorn the flimsy argu- 
ments by which it was sought to cover with obloquy or 
contempt a doctrine which had commanded the reverence 
of Augustine, Anselm, Bradwardine, Hooker, Ussher, and 
even Lord Bacon, as well as of Calvin and the Puritans. 
Speaking of the divine purposes, South says : ' Be they 
never so absolute, yet they have no causal influence upon 
sinful actions ; no, nor indeed upon any actions else, for- 
asmuch as the bare decree or purpose of a thing produces 
or puts nothing in being at all. It is, as the schools call 
it, an immanent act that is, such a one as rests wholly 
within God, and effects nothing without him.' 

The ninth chapter, ' of Free-will,' supplies another strik- 
ing proof of the caution and judgment of the framers of 
the Confession. Differences had shown themselves among 
the Continental divines at least early in the seventeenth 
century, respecting the nature of this freedom. Several of 
them had abandoned the more simple teaching of Calvin 
for a system apparently more philosophical. The full 
development and scientific statement of this system was 
reserved for Jonathan Edwards in the following century. 
It is not the case, however, as some assert, that Edwards 
was the first who attempted to wed predestinarianism to 
necessity. During the seventeenth century, several of the 
Continental divines had laboured to effect the same object. 
If Chaucer is to be trusted, a similar attempt had been 
made in England by Bradwardine even before the Refor- 
mation. The idea is present, in germ at least, in the 
writings of Tyndall, 1 one of the most noted of the English 
Reformers, and in a more developed form in the writings 
of some of the later Puritans. I cannot doubt, therefore, 
that the Westminster divines were acquainted with it. 
Yet they have contented themselves with the older and 

1 ' The wit, without help of the will, gives the light of the understanding ; 
neither does the will work at all until the wit have determined this or that to 
be good or bad.' TyndalFs Lively Description of our Justification. 



INTRODUCTION". IxV 

apparently less philosophical view, and may claim from 
us some credit for their far-sighted wisdom. The system 
of Edwards which fascinated Principal Hill and Dr. 
Chalmers has not commended itself, either to the greatest 
Scottish philosopher or the ablest defender of Scottish 
Calvinism in our day, 1 as an aid in the defence of the 
Scripture doctrine ; and most of us would refuse to stake 
our creed on the truth of this questionable and much 
questioned system. 

The teaching of Chapter XI. on Justification has been 
charged by some as being exaggerated. There is hardly 
any charge which, in my humble opinion, could be made 
with less foundation. It is true that in this chapter the 
teaching of the Church of Rome is directly negatived, and 
that this may not be done in those earlier Confessions 
which were drawn up before the Council of Trent had 
closed its sittings. But surely this can be no great stum- 
bling-block to any true son of the Reformed Church ; 
nor should the articulus stantis vel cadentis ecclesicz, as 
here set forth, prove a ' rock of offence ' to really earnest 
and inquiring men. Hardly in any confession will a 
more cautious and carefully balanced statement be found 
of this doctrine, and the related doctrines of faith, and 
the assurance of faith, and of the complementary truths 
brought into prominence in the Antinomian controversy. 
It is in substantial harmony with the teaching of Hooker 
and Ussher, and free from the exaggerations with which 
some of the early Reformers, and even Bishop Downame, 
have been charged. The fact and order of union with 
Christ is more prominently brought out in the Catechisms 
than in the Confession, but they are presupposed in the 
latter too. The phrase, ' the obedience and satisfaction 

1 See Sir William Hamilton's Discussions on Philosophy, p. 626, and Prin- 
cipal Cunningham's Theology of the Reformation, pp. 511, 517. 

Baxter takes the same view of this chapter, and maintains that ' our own 
Assembly gave an example of modesty in these points to those that will 
follow it.' He adds shortly after the following words, which I commend 
to the thoughtful consideration of those who imagine that the Assembly was 
too ready to bind heavy burdens on men's consciences : ' Many other 
moderate passages I could show in our Assembly's Confession to those that 
have need to imitate them.' See his Confession of his Faith, chap. ii. sec. 6. 

e 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

of Christ/ was in all probability meant to indicate a leaning 
towards the view made exclusive in the revised Articles 
of 1643 and in the Independent Confession of 1658: ' His 
whole obedience and satisfaction ;' ' Christ's active obedience 
unto the whole law, and passive obedience in his death.' 
But it is at least more indeterminate than the latter 
phrases ; and as it was suggested and accepted by Mr. 
Gataker 1 during the revision of the Articles, may have to 
be read in the light of the debates which took place when 
that revision was being made. These are not contained in 
this third volume of the Minutes of the Assembly, having 
taken place in 1643, shortly before the Scotch Commis- 
sioners came up. The speeches of Dr. Featley, who seems 
to have led the debate on one side, were published at the 
time ; and these, taken in connection with the notes con- 
tained in the first volume of the MS. Minutes, are sufficient 
to give a general idea of the course of the discussion. The 
main question which occasioned difference among the 
divines, was that which had been raised by Piscator and 
Tilenus on the Continent, viz. whether it was not the 
passive obedience or satisfaction of Christ alone which 
was imputed to believers for justification. This view was 
ably defended by Gataker, Twisse, and some others. The 
more generally received view was advocated with no less 
ability by the Episcopalian Featley and many others, 
and the majority of the Assembly appeared to be in 
favour of that view. Then Dr. Featley (as the Prolocutor 
Twisse had previously done) called the attention of the 
Assembly to a letter of King James, written to the Re- 
formed Church in France on this very controversy, and 
recommending that it should be consigned to oblivion as 
one 'plane nova nee necessaria/ 'a conciliis non definita, 
a patribus non tractata nee denique' a scholasticis ipsis 
agitata.' 2 This was probably the reason, that though most 
of them favoured the views of Ussher and Featley, they 
were content with a more general expression than they 

1 ' If no more . . . than obedience, no sticking at it, but the word whole. ' 
This word whole does not appear before ' obedience ' in the Confession. 
'- Featley 's Dippers Dipped, p. 211. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixvii 

at first used, and that in return Gataker agreed to abstain 
from further controversy about the matter. 

The chapters in the Confession on Sanctification and on 
the Law of God so strongly yet so carefully worded are 
such as could hardly have been looked for in the earlier 
days of the Reformation. But as the gross excesses of the 
Anabaptists in Germany, and the Spiritualists of Geneva, 
led Calvin to elaborate his chapter on the Decalogue into 
one of the most masterly disquisitions in his Institutes ; so 
the turbulence and licence of the Antinomians in England 
in the time of the Civil Wars, led the Westminster divines 
to examine these matters more narrowly, and to affirm in 
the most positive manner, the necessity of sanctification 
and the perpetual obligation of the moral law. The lan- 
guage of both chapters, it will be seen from pp. 272, 274, etc., 
was very carefully discussed and somewhat altered before 
they finally passed in the Assembly. In particular, the 
last five words were left out in the following clauses, 
' which power is not contrary to the work of the Spirit of 
Christ, . . . but sweetly complying with it, and is subordi- 
nate unto it;' one member having objected to them. In 
regard to the fourth commandment, they teach a higher 
and more consistent doctrine than was maintained by 
Luther, or perhaps even by Calvin, yet not higher than 
had been embodied in the Irish Articles, and in the second 
book of the Homilies of the English Church, as well as in 
Acts of the Scottish Parliament and General Assembly in 
the time of Knox. 

In Chapters XXIV. and XXV., on the Church and the 
Communion of Saints, we have a doctrine taught even 
more thoroughly catholic, as it seems to me, than that 
which is set forth in the Articles of the Irish Episcopal 
Church, of the teaching of which the compilers of our Con- 
fession have so largely availed themselves. In addition to 
one invisible Church, to which all the true elect of God are 
acknowledged to belong, and particular visible churches 
composed of professing believers in particular nations (both 
of which are expressly owned in both formularies), the 
Westminster Confession recognises one visible Church, to 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION. 

which all throughout the world who profess faith in Christ 
and union with him ought to feel that they belong, and 
with the members of which they are bound, as God gives 
them opportunity, to cultivate union and communion. In 
almost identical terms with the other Reformed Confes- 
sions, it propounds the positive marks which indicate the 
purity and standing of any particular branch of the one 
Church. Yet, with a moderation rare in such times, it ab- 
stains from inserting the negative statement found in the 
old Scotch and several contemporary Confessions, viz. that 
' neither antiquity nor title usurped, nor lineal descent? nor 
multitude of men approving, are assured tokens whereby 
the immaculate spouse of Christ is known.' This state- 
ment, if but calmly weighed by certain controversialists, 
would, methinks, induce them to reconsider their hasty 
verdict on the two Confessions, at least to the extent of 
owning that the former is as little to their mind as the 
latter. 

The doctrine taught in Chapters XXVIL, XXVIII., and 
XXIX., as to the nature of the sacraments generally, and 
of the Lord's Supper especially, is such as could have 
grown up nowhere else so surely as on British soil, where 
the truth was slowly and gradually developed in the minds 
of the Reformers, was watered by the blood of the martyrs, 
and so was finally and firmly rooted in the affections of 
their countrymen. It is, in brief, the teaching of Cranmer, 
Latimer, and Ridley; of Hooker, Ussher, and many others, 
their, true-hearted successors in the south, as well as of 
Knox, who from his long residence in England, and with 
English exiles on the Continent, has thoroughly caught up 
their warm and catholic utterances. This teaching is as 
far removed from the bare remembrance theory attributed 
to the early Swiss Reformers, as from the consubstantiation 
of Luther and the local or supra-local presence contended 
for by Roman Catholics and Anglo-Catholics. It is so 
spiritual, yet so really satisfying, that even some High 
Churchmen have owned that it would be difficult to find 

1 'Nee a successione perpetua episcoporum discern! possit.' Archbishop 
Adamson's Latin Version. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix 

a better directory in the study of questions relating to this 
sacrament than is supplied in the Confession of Faith ; 
while those of another school freely grant that, on the 
doctrine of the sacraments, they ' do not perceive a shade 
of difference from the teaching of the Church of England.' 
The language throughout Chapter XXIX. is as nearly as 
possible identical with that of the Irish Articles. 

The chapter on the Civil Magistrate, while adhering 
closely in some parts to the very words of the Irish 
Articles, emphatically sets out a different doctrine as to 
the limits of his power. Its doctrine in those days would 
probably have been admitted by few who did not belong 
to the Puritan party ; but the Revolution Settlement of 
1688 rests on it. The question whether the magistrate was 
under Christ as Mediator was intentionally left open (p. 
310). The sentiments expressed are in several places nearly 
akin to those of Article XXXVI. of the Belgian Confes- 
sion. It is the only chapter in which a close resemblance 
can be traced between the two, and I consider it not a 
little remarkable that the Westminster divines should be 
found turning to Holland just for that which, from its his- 
tory and conflicts, Holland was best fitted to teach. Some, 
I know, will have it, that though the limits of civil obe- 
dience are rightly defined in this chapter, too much is 
allowed to the magistrate in connection with religion. But 
such should consider that what is here allowed is less than 
was claimed for him in the old Scotch and other early re- 
formed confessions, and far less than was conceded in the 
English and the Irish Articles. Nor, in fairness to the 
compilers, must it be forgotten that the assertion of the 
magistrate's rights circa sacra is accompanied by an explicit 
statement of the manner in which his rights are to be 
exercised, and that the two must be taken in connection. 1 

1 ' For the better effecting whereof, he hath power to call synods, to be 
present at them, and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be 
according to the mind of God. ' Reynolds' commentary on this is : ' The 
Christian magistrate may interpose by his authority (if necessity require) 
to forbid and moderate ' disputes. ' He may . . . call conventions and 
colloquies, wherein there may be a fraternal and amicable debate and com- 
posure of them. And if, after all this, differences be not perfectly healed . . . 



Ixx INTRODUCTION. 

All that is here claimed for the magistrate is needed to 
vindicate the course followed both in England and in 
Scotland at the time of the Reformation, and less than is 
here given cannot well be demanded while an established 
church continues to subsist. It may be said, however, that 
if the statements in Chapter XXIII. are pretty carefully 
guarded, those in the last section of Chapter XX. are less 
so. I admit at once that the language there used is 
capable of a harsh construction, and probably was so con- 
strued by stricter English and Scottish Covenanters. Yet 
the words do not necessarily require such a construction, 
and were not so construed by all who assented to them. 
If an unlimited toleration of all teaching however blas- 
phemous, and of all practices however revolting, is not to 
be openly proclaimed (and no Christian state has yet ven- 
tured to proclaim it, nor any Christian church to re- 
commend it), and if all power is not to be taken from the 
magistrate of guarding the sanctity of the Lord's day and 
the marriage bond, and of preserving peace between con- 
tending sects, both Christian and non-Christian, I do not 
see how less can well be affirmed, to bring out the truth 
that men are not to turn liberty into licentiousness, but 
are responsible to God and to society when they abuse it. 
It was surely expedient that such a declaration should 
follow the noble statement then for the first time en- 
shrined in the confession of a Christian church : ' God 
alone is Lord of the conscience, and hath set it free from 
the doctrines and commandments of men which are in any- 
thing contrary to his word or beside it, if 1 matters of faith 
and worship ; so that to believe such doctrines or to obey 
such commandments out of conscience is to betray true 
liberty of conscience ; and the requiring of an implicit 
faith and an absolute blind obedience is to destroy liberty 

brethren must mutually bear with one another, and pray for one another, and 
love one another. ' ' In making laws and penalties, be tender towards the 
weak consciences of your brethren. . . . Magistrates do with good reason 
expect to have their sanctions obeyed rather than disputed; but they must 
remember that they are brethren as well as magistrates, and therefore must 
take heed of writing or binding heavy burdens.' Sermons in 1657-8. 
1 This is the reading of the earliest English editions of the Confession. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxi 

of conscience and reason also.' The principle here 
enunciated, it appears to me, is the very root of Puri- 
tanism, 1 and the goodly tree which has sprung from 

1 Some will have it, that English Puritanism from its origin was narrow and 
illiberal, and that it lagged behind all other parties in the matter of religious 
toleration. It cannot be denied, at least, that it led the van and bore the 
brunt of the battle in the struggle for civil liberty ; and that shows unmis- 
takeably in what direction its principles tended. Its ecclesiastical struggle was 
also from the first a struggle for liberty, at least in things indifferent, and things 
not expressly enjoined by Scripture ; and to the last it was more willing to 
tolerate differences within than without the Church. It objected to the 
gradual tightening of the subscriptions in the English Church, desiring that 
these should be limited to the Articles, and to. those of them directly relating to 
matters of faith. Among its first uses of its victory in 1640 were the abolish- 
ing of the Court of High Commission, and setting aside the canons of Arch- 
bishop Laud, which had required the clergy should bind themselves by oath 
never to consent to changes in the government of the Church, The West- 
minster divines themselves, from their earnest desire to form one comprehen- 
sive Church, did not require subscription to their directories for worship and for 
church government, or exact conformity to their minute details, as Laud had; 
done to those of the Prayer-book. It has been, doubted whether the English 
section of them meant to make their Confession more than the norm of public 
teaching, like the Irish Articles of 1615. A sentence of Tuckney's. has been 
often quoted, in which he says, that 'in the Assembly he gave his vote w.ith 
others that the Confession of Faith put out by authority should not be either 
required to be sworn or subscribed to ... but [only] so as not to be publicly 
preached or written against..' But in his famous sermon on 2 Tim, i. 13, a 
copy of which is still preserved in the University Library at Cambridge, he ad-, 
vocates such forms of sound, words npt only as declarations of what we our- 
selves believe and judge that all should believe, and ' desire and require that 
all should profess, or at least not openly contradict, with whom we join in 
nearest church communion ; ' but also ' as comiunioni$ tessercz et judices ' 
badges of our Christian church communion, and great helpers and furtherers of 
it, 'whereby uncomfortable divisions may be prevented, and the peace of the 
Church the better preserved,, while we all profess the same truth and speak 
the same thing.' Cheynell shows the same toleration in his sermon before 
the House of Commons in March 1646 ; and as much has been said of his 
extravagances, it is right this should be recorded to his credit ; ' I conceive it 
is requisite to a Christian state to. hold forth the Christian religion in a whole- 
some form of sound wor,ds that cannot be condemned, that there may be a 
sweet harmony between all the churches of Christ ; and if a Christian state 
shall find it necessary to descend to some disputable points in their Confession 
that they may top the rising errors of the time, I shall never move that learned 
men of a different persuasion should be forced, or by preferment tempted to 
subscribe or swear, to that form against their judgment, to which the civil 
sanction is annexed, because I know full well what a great temptation it was 
to young and old in the time of the Prelates' reign to subscribe to such forms 
as they had never thoroughly examined, because they could not be preferred 
unless they subscribed. Yet I humbly move that men's mouths may be 
stopped from blaspheming or reviling the truth of God, held forth for the 



Lxxii INTRODUCTION. 

it will not die while Christianity lives. It is no longer, 
thank God, the principle of a party, but is almost univer- 
sally admitted ; and many seem disposed to forget who 
first so announced it, and finally made the announce- 
ment a reality by years of stormy conflict and heroic 
suffering, while others stood aloof or acted the easy part 
of candid friends. It may be that the Westminster 
divines did not at once fully perceive all the consequences 
of this noble principle, and that it was necessary they 
should be taught by adversity what they had failed in 
part to apprehend in the day of their prosperity. But 
this will ever remain as their unquestioned honour, that 
they first reclaimed for liberty a large province in which 
the civil and ecclesiastical authorities had previously 
claimed an absolute and arbitrary sway. In addition to 
a considerable amount of toleration within the Church in 
things of minor importance, they ultimately acquiesced 
in a larger amount of it without the Church than had 
been enjoyed in England before. 1 If that toleration was far 

increase of Christian uniformity.' The Church of Scotland, however, while 
agreeing with the English Puritans as to the details of worship and govern- 
ment, has always required her ministers to regard her Confession of Faith as 
something more than a norm of teaching, to which they were to conform in 
their public ministrations ; and by Act 1693 she was specially empowered to 
require all her ministers to own it as the confession of their faith, and the true 
doctrine to which they will constantly adhere. When we look at the history 
of Presbyterianism in England and in our own country since the seventeenth 
century, we think we have good cause to be thankful for the course the Church 
of Scotland has followed in this matter. 

1 Hetherington's History of the Westminster Assembly, pp. 331, 332, etc. ; 
M'Crie's Sketches, p. 306, etc. See also p. 418 of this volume. 

The full history of toleration has yet to be written. Professor Masson, 
who in vol. iii. of his recent Life of Milton has made such an admirable con- 
tribution to it, has frankly admitted that the Church of England was more 
tolerant than the Church of Rome, and Scottish Presbyterianism or Scottish 
Puritanism was more tolerant (though the reverse is usually asserted) than the 
Church of England prior to 1640. He adds, that he believes the honour of the 
first perception of the full principle of liberty of conscience, and its first 
assertion in English speech, has to be assigned to the Independents generally, 
and to the Baptists in particular. But it grew of suffering, and there were 
far more Roman Catholic than Baptist sufferers at that time. In 1601, 
Bacon in a letter to Cecil advocated the toleration of Irish Papists. Six 
years before the Baptist Confession there appeared ' A Refutation of an 
Epistle Apologetical written by a Puritan Papist to persuade the permission 
of the promiscuous use and profession of all sects and heresies.' Of course, 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxiii 

less liberal than is now enjoyed, or than the principle of the 
Confession would have warranted, it was greater than the 
gifted author of the Liberty of Prophesying is said himself 
to have advocated or practised when prosperity dawned 
on him. There are times when, in the interest of liberty 
itself, some restraints must be placed on it ; and if ever 
there was such a time, it was at that in which the 
Assembly met, when the popular party were accused by 
their opponents of wishing to introduce anarchy in Church 
and State ; and the House of Commons itself found it 
necessary to repudiate the charge. It is not strange if 
at such a crisis there were fears we now deem groundless, 
and misunderstandings we now deplore. But the Assembly, 
by limiting obedience to the lawful commands of civil and 
ecclesiastical authority, by limiting lawful commands in 
matters of faith and worship to things positively enjoined 
in the Word of God, or by fair inference deducible from 
it, and by recognising the right of the civil authority to 
form an independent judgment in things religious, helped 

if the refutation appeared in 1605, the Epistle or Apology itself must have 
appeared a little earlier. I know it only through the refutation, in which it 
seems to be pretty fully embodied. The author of the latter is probably 
right in asserting that the writer of the Epistle was a Papist in disguise ; but 
it is rather remarkable, if the common prejudice in regard to the Puritans was 
well founded, that he should have assumed the disguise of a Puritan. The 
following brief extracts may suffice to show the general purport of the Epistle : 
' Let us hold on the same moderate course, and strive to prevail not by the 
temporal sword of His Majesty's power, but endeavour to overcome by the 
eternal sword of God's Holy Word, which, though it be sweet and not violent, 
yet is it a two-edged sword that entereth on every side, and pierceth more 
deeply to win the heart of man and alter his understanding for planting the 
gospel than any human force whatsoever. ' ' To destroy all those that are in 
faith opposite to us were overmuch cruelty ; to compel them to an external 
worship against their conscience were no less dangerous and damnable to us 
than for them ; to impoverish them by statute laws were to impoverish our- 
selves, being so linked to them as many ways we are, yea, it were a great 
weakening of the whole body of the estate to the detriment of our Sovereign 
Prince and of the Commonwealth ; for the wealth of the subject is the treasure 
of the King, and the multitude of his people is his strength and glory.' 
Afterwards the author refers to the parable of the tares, and the lord's 
answer, 'Let them both grow together,' etc.; and says, 'If Christ will 
have it thus, why do you blame my advice, that a Christian king should do 
the same rather than use the sword of force and violence upon any the like 
occasions?' It is quite true that in 1644 the Assembly of Divines petitioned 
against a legal toleration of all sects and heresies, that very extreme things were 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION. 

to forward the cause of freedom both in Church and State, 
and to plant the seed from which, as the Word of God 
was better studied, a fully developed system of toleration 
could not fail to grow. 

Such, I believe, is the general character of the West- 
minster Confession of Faith, such its thoroughness, yet 
such, on the whole, its moderation and catholicity. It is 
lined and scored with the marks of conflict, but the deepest 
and the broadest lines are those which run through all the 
Christian ages; which appear distinctly either in the Creeds 
of the early Councils, or in the writings of the greatest of 
the Latin Fathers, or which, if they are not found so pro- 
minently there, appear broad and deep in the teaching of 
the ablest theologians of the middle ages, and in a few 
instances are to be traced more certainly in the one or in 
the other, than perhaps in the teaching of Calvin, certainly 
than in that of Luther. The Assembly of divines which 
framed it, may be said, humanly speaking, to have come 
just at the last moment of time when such an Assembly 



said by many of its members, and that even the more moderate of them were 
pressing a comprehension rather than a toleration, just as many, who get far 
more credit, did thirty years later. But glimmerings of the truth were gaining 
access to the minds of the more moderate of the English Presbyterians, and 
find partial expression in the sermons of Calamy, Vines, and Manton, by 
1647, and as full expression in the sermons of Reynolds under the Common- 
wealth, as in those of the more moderate Independent divines. Presby- 
terianism, it appears to me, never really had a fair chance in England 
till (see p. 418) 1659 ; and in the exuberance of an unsuspecting loyalty, it 
threw it away, and recalled the heir of the Stuarts without conditions. The 
main obstacle to its success in 1644 was, that it would not bow before Crom- 
well and his coterie, who consciously or unconsciously were following a 
course which could only end in revolution. Neither the virtues of his 
character, nor the glory and beneficence of his rule, must blind us to the fact 
that he and his friends are largely responsible for the defeat of moderate 
counsels in 1648, and for the terrible reaction against Protestantism in France, 
as well as against Puritanism in England, which followed his brief supremacy. 
The ordinance against blasphemies and heresies, harsh and cruel as it seems 
to us, was not a tightening, but a relaxation, of the law put in temporary abey- 
ance by the abolition of the Court of High Commission, and of the office 
of bishop. Offenders were no longer to be punishable for opinions held, but 
for opinions deliberately expressed. They were not obliged to clear them- 
selves by oath, but must be convicted by the testimony of two credible 
witnesses, or by their own voluntary confession. The charge must be 
prosecuted and proved in the civil courts, and as I take it, at least in 



INTRODUCTION. l.XXV 

was possible when Conformist and Nonconformist were 
not yet formally separated, when men trained in the 
study of the Fathers, yet familiar with the principles and 
tendencies of the Reformation, were not so rare as they 
now are, when the Church was still under the happy 
influence of a marvellous revival, when the word of God 
was felt as a living, quickening, transforming power, and 
preached not as a tradition, but as the very power and wis- 
dom of God, by men of ripe scholarship and devoted piety, 
who have remained our models of earnest preaching, and 
our guides in practical godliness, even unto this day. 

If the Church's faith is to be, on the whole, a growing 
faith a building up on a foundation already laid deep 
and firm in the past, and not a demolition of the earliest 
and most massive substructures, and even a remodelling 
of the foundation itself, it is expedient that from time to 
time account be taken of the progress made, and attention 
be called to the structure as a whole. It would have been 
matter for real regret, had an age of such deep piety, and 

graver cases,, before a jury.. Cromwell himself, when at the height of his 
power, found it necessary to set limits to toleration and the freedom of 
church courts; and when the Toleration Act was passed at the Revolution, it 
was so not in general or latitudinarian terms, but to the definite and limited 
extent desired by the Puritans, the Baptists, and the Quakers. King William 
in., though probably as wise a monarch as ever sat on the throne of Britain, 
gave his assent to an Act for suppressing blasphemy and profaneness, by 
which it was provided, that if any persons having been educated in, or at any 
time having made profession of, the Christian religion within this realm, 
should by writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, deny any one of 
the persons in the Holy Trinity to be God, or should assert or maintain there 
are more Gods than one, or should deny the Christian religion to be true, or 
the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be of divine authority, he 
should the first time be subject to severe legal disabilities, and the second 
should suffer imprisonment for three years. Tillotson's successor in the See of 
Canterbury wrote, in support of these Acts and the King's injunctions, to the 
following effect : ' Every pious person of the laity should, if need be, be put 
in mind by the clergy, that he ought to think himself obliged to use his best 
endeavours to have such offenders punished by the civil magistrate, as can no 
otherwise be amended. And that when he hears his neighbour swear or blas- 
pheme the name of God, or sees, him offend in drunkenness or profanation of 
the Lord's day, he ought not to neglect to give the magistrate notice of it.' 
Even the melancholy words of Rutherford 1 were but the echo of those of the 
judicious Hooker (Bk. 8), that in matters of faith 'law should set down a 
certainty which no man afterwards is to gainsay..'' 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. 

earnest action, and laborious learning, been allowed to pass 
without leaving some such record of its attainments as we 
have in the Confession of the Westminster Assembly of 
divines. To this, the product of their mature thought 
the deliberate record of their common faith and principles 
rather than to any extreme statement drawn up by 
isolated and crotchety individuals, it becomes us to turn, 
if we would know them as they really were, and would be 
qualified to judge of what they did to vindicate the truth 
of Christ, and work out our freedom, both civil and eccle- 
siastical. We may legitimately have recourse to their true- 
hearted successors, just as we may have recourse to the 
writings of individual members of the Assembly for help 
in understanding their common teaching ; but if we do so, 
we must be religiously on our guard against importing 
into it aught which is merely a peculiarity of theirs, or is 
added on as a further development of its principles and 
teaching. Still more does it become us, while we refuse to 
make any one an offender for words uttered, it may be, 
lightly, and endeavour to construe the old creed as tole- 
rantly as we fairly can, 1 yet to hold by it, as containing 
' the sum and substance of the doctrine of the Reformed 
Churches,' and to decline all tampering with it. It will 
be time enough to think of change, when a school of theo- 
logians of riper scholarship and more patient study, of 
higher culture and deeper piety, shall arise among us, not 
content to pick up their opinions even on minor matters 
at second-hand, but qualified, by acquaintance with the 
writings of these old divines and their true-hearted suc- 
cessors, to do them full justice. 

But was not the Westminster Confession rejected in the 
land which gave it birth ere many years had passed ? 
Indeed it was ; and so, in a great measure, was all regard 
for God and things divine, and men surrendered them- 
selves up to every excess of riot. The very King for 

1 ' Si quis tamen verbum aliquod durius, vel locutionem amplecti nequeat, 
modo conveniat de re ipsa, tolerari forte poterit ejus infirmitas.' Calvin 's 
Letters, p. 462, ed. 1617. See also Dr. Hodges' most seasonable paper, 
What is meant by adopting the Westminster Confession, 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxvil 

whose sake so much was done and suffered, it is now 
proved, was not well seated on his throne when he began 
to plot for the reconciliation of his kingdom to the See of 
Rome. The court he gathered round him was the most 
dissolute and worthless which England for centuries has 
seen, and they, of whom better things might have been 
expected, contended but feebly against iniquity in high 
places. Those of whom the world was not worthy were 
sent forth to wander as outcasts from society, and from 
the Church of their native land, to prove, under contempt 
and persecution, the reality of the Christian principles they 
had professed in their prosperity, and their deep attach- 
ment to the constitution of their country. But though 
their Confession was cast off, its theology lived on not- 
withstanding, lived on in the Episcopal Churches of 
England and Scotland, in the teaching of Leighton and 
Reynolds, and others of their old associates, who were 
faithful to God in the midst of abounding defection, 
lived on, too, in the teaching of those who went forth 
from the National Churches, clave to it at all hazards, 
preached it by their lives when they could no longer preach 
it by their lips, and out of their deep poverty enriched 
future generations by those practical treatises, in which 
its theology will live while the English language continues 
to be spoken. 

Moreover, when cast out in the land of its birth, it was 
taken in elsewhere. It was voluntarily taken in on the 
other side of the Atlantic by the children of the pilgrim- 
fathers, who under its tuition have grown into a great 
and noble nation, heirs with us of the Puritan traditions, 
and having at the present day, in addition to an Episcopal 
Church, which has yielded most of the minor changes 
sought by English Puritans, more than six thousand 
Presbyterian ministers, united in substantial adherence 
to its standards, and a large number of Independent, and 
of German and Dutch Reformed pastors, following closely 
its Augustinian type of doctrine. 

This supplies the answer I give to those who assert that 
the Confession has failed in the object it sought to accom- 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION. 

plish, and therefore ought now to be abandoned by the 
Church of Scotland. True, it has failed to bind together 
the Established Churches of England and Scotland ; but it 
has not failed to bind the Church which has held by it, to 
many sister and daughter Churches of which she has no 
cause to be ashamed. It binds her to many in Scotland 
who have gone out from her, but who still cling to her 
standards and forms of worship, and perhaps at times 
rebuke her the more sharply just because they still love 
her. It binds her to the orthodox Presbyterian Churches 
in England and Ireland, in Canada and Australia, as well 
as to the great Presbyterian Churches in the United States 
of America. Our only hope of a really united Presby- 
terian Church lies in substantial adherence to it; and if we 
will only be true to our Church, and vigilantly improve 
our opportunities, I do not think we have any cause to 
despair of this, and even more extensive good. She 
needs no blank shield nor banner with new device, but 
only her old faith and life in Christ ; and He who has pre- 
served her as a witness for truths precious to the greatest 
doctors of the West, and bound up with their deepest 
spiritual experiences, may yet own her as evidently as He 
has lately done the little Jansenist Church of Holland, 
and say of her, ' Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it.' 
She has once already saved the Reformation in England, 
and may help to do it again. 

Such happy results, however, must be sought for in a 
really Christian and unselfish spirit. If there be -one 
Jesson which the history of the Westminster Assembly 
teaches more emphatically than another, it is this, that 
lasting union and reform cannot be forced by any amount 
of skilful manipulation, but must spring and grow up from 
the plentiful outpouring of God's Holy Spirit. For this 
let us labour and pray, till He pour us out a blessing, so 
that there shall not be room enough to receive it, and 
cause us all to * come in the unity of the faith, and of the 
knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto 
the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.' 

ALEX. F, MITCHELL. 



BAILLIE'S DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTMINSTER 
ASSEMBLY. 

(Letters, Vol. II. pp. 107, 108, 109.) 

' On Monday morning we sent to both Houses of Parliament for a 
warrant for our sitting in the Assemblie. This was readilie granted, 
and by Mr. Hendersone presented to the Proloqutor ; who sent out 
three of their number to convoy us to the Assemblie. Here no mortal 
man may enter to see or hear, let be to sitt, without ane order in 
wryte from both Houses of Parliament. When we were brought in, 
Dr. Twisse had ane long harangue for our welcome, after so long 
and hazardous a voyage by sea and land, in so unseasonable a tyme 
of the year : When he had ended, we satt doun in these places which 
since we have keeped. The like of that Assemblie I did never see, 
and, as we hear say, the like was never in England, nor any where is 
shortlie lyke to be. They did sit in Henry the yth's Chappell, in the 
place of the Convocation ; but since the weather grew cold, they did go 
to Jerusalem chamber, a fair roome in the Abbey of Westminster, 
about the bounds of the Colledge fore-hall, but wyder. 1 At the one 
end nearest the doore, and both sydes are stages of seats as in the 
new Assemblie-House at Edinburgh, but not so high ; for there will 
be roome but for five or six score. At the upmost end there is a chair 
set on ane frame, a foot from the earth, for the Mr. Proloqutor Dr. 
Twisse. Before it on the ground stands two chairs for the two Mr. 
Assessors, Dr. Burgess and Mr. \Vhyte. Before these two chairs, 
through the length of the roome, stands a table, at which sitts the two 
scribes, Mr. Byrield and Mr. Roborough. The house is all well hung, 
and hes a good fyre, which is some dainties at London. Foranent 
the table, upon the Proloqutor's right hand, there are three or four 
rankes of formes. On the lowest we five doe sit. Upon the other, at 
our backs, the members of Parliament deputed to the Assemblie. On 
the formes foranent us, on the Proloqutor's left hand, going from 
the upper end of the house to the chimney, and at the other end of 
the house, and backsyde of the table, till it come about to our seats, 
are four or five stages of fourmes, whereupon their divines sitts as 
they please ; albeit commonlie they keep the same place. From the 
chimney to the door there is no seats, but a voyd for passage. The 
Lords of Parliament uses to sit on chaires, in that voyd, about the fire. 
We meet every day of the week, but Saturday. We sitt commonlie 
from nine to one or two afternoon. The Proloqutor at the beginning 
and end hes a short prayer. The man, as the world knows, is very 
learned in the questions he hes studied, and very good, beloved of all, 
and highlie esteemed ; but merelie bookish, and not much, as it seems, 

1 This has generally been supposed to be the hall fronting the High Street, 
which continued till recently the Hall of Glasgow College. But the propor- 
tions of the Jerusalem chamber are altogether different from those of that hall. 
It is not wider but narrower than it, and considerably higher in proportion 
to the width. The only explanation I can suggest is, that Baillie spoke of a 
fore-hall or high hall which was demolished even in his own lifetime, and which 
probably was of different proportions. In his letter to Spang, of date 3ist 
Jan. 1661, complaining of Principal Gillespie's extravagance, he says : ' His 
next motion was to pull down the whole fore-work of the College, the high 
hall arid Arthurlie, very good houses, all newly dressed.' Baillie, very 
grieved, first opposed the motion, and then pleaded for delay in carrying it 
out, ' but all in vain ; presently the hall was pulled down. ' 



Ixxx BAILLIE'S DESCRIPTION OF THE ASSEMBLY. 

acquaint with conceived prayer, [and] among the unfittest of all the 
company for any action; so after the prayer he sitts mute. It was 
the canny conveyance of these who guides most matters for their own 
interest to plant such a man of purpose in the chaire. The one 
assessour, our good friend Mr. Whyte, hes keeped in of the gout since 
our coming ; the other, Dr. Burgess, a very active and sharpe man, 
supplies, so farr as is decent, the Proloqutor's place. Ordinarlie there 
will be present above threescore of their divines. These are divided 
in three Committees ; in one whereof every man is a member. No 
man is excluded who pleases to come to any of the three. Every 
Committee, as the Parliament gives order in wryte to take any pur- 
pose to consideration, takes a portion, and in their afternoon meeting 
prepares matters for the Assemblie, setts doune their minde in distinct 
propositions, backs their propositions with texts of Scripture. After 
the prayer, Mr. Byfield the scribe, reads the proposition and Scrip- 
tures, whereupon the Assemblie debates in a most grave and orderlie 
way. No man is called up to speak ; bot who stands up of his own 
accord, he speaks so long as he will without interruption. If two or 
three stand up at once, then the divines confusedlie calls on his name 
whom they desyre to hear first : On whom the loudest and maniest 
voices calls, he speaks. No man speaks to any bot to the Proloqutor. 
They harangue long and very learnedlie. They studie the questions 
well before hand, and prepares their speeches ; but withall the men 
are exceeding prompt, and well spoken. I doe marvell at the very 
accurate and extemporall replyes that many of them usuallie doe 
make. When, upon every proposition by itself, and on everie text of 
Scripture that is brought to confirme it, every man who will hes said 
his whole minde, and the replyes, and duplies, and triplies, are heard ; 
then the most part calls, To the question. Byfield the scribe rises 
from the table, and comes to the Proloqutor's chair, who, from the 
scribe's book, reads the proposition, and says, as many as are in 
opinion that the question is well stated in the proposition, let them 
say I ; when I is heard, he says, as many as think otherwise, say No. 
If the difference of I's and No's be cleare, as usuallie it is, then the 
question is ordered by the scribes, and they go on to debate the first 
Scripture alleadged for proof of the proposition. If the sound of I 
and No be near equall, then sayes the Proloqutor, as many as say I, 
stand up ; while they stand, the scribe and others number them in 
their minde ; when they sitt down, the No's are bidden stand, and 
they likewise are numbered. This way is clear enough, and saves a 
great deal of time, which we spend in reading our catalogue. When 
a question is once ordered, there is no more debate of that matter ; 
but if a man will vaige, he is quicklie taken up by Mr. Assessor, or 
many others, confusedlie crying, Speak to order, to order. No man 
contradicts another expresslie by name, bot most discreetlie speaks to 
the Proloqutor, and at most holds on the generall, The Reverend 
brother, who latelie or last spoke, on this hand, on that syde, above, 
or below. I thought meet once for all to give yow a taste of the out- 
ward form of their Assemblie.' 

The Vffw or Protestation taken by every member admitted to sit in 
the Assembly. 

' I do seriously promise and vow in the presence of Almighty 

GOD , that in this Assembly whereof I am a member I will maintain nothing 
in point of doctrine but what I believe to be most agreeable to the Word of 
GOD, nor in point of discipline but what may make most for GOD'S glory and 
the peace and good of his Church.' 



LIST OF THE MEMBERS OF THE WESTMINSTER 
ASSEMBLY, 

In the order in which their names appear in the Ordinance calling the 
Assembly, or were subsequently added by the two Houses. 



[An asterisk has been placed before the name of every one who, from these 
Minutes, or from Lightfoot's Journal or Gillespie's Notes, has been found at 
any time to have attended the meetings, and of every one who, in old 
editions of the Confession of Faith, is reported to have signed the protesta- 
tion required to be taken by every member admitted to sit in the Assembly. 
The names of members added subsequently to the meeting of the Assembly 
are printed in italics, as are also the few particulars about the original 
members which are not taken from the Ordinance. Two very accurate lists 
of the members of Assembly have already been given to the public the one 
by Mr. Meek, prefixed to Gillespie's ' Notes, ' and the other by Professor 
Masson, in his recent ' Life of Milton.' It is with great diffidence, and only 
in a few minor points, I venture to differ from either. But having had to 
examine the Journals of Parliament, the MS. Minutes of the Assembly, with 
many contemporaneous documents, and the works of Wood, Fuller, Palmer, 
Brook, Neal, and Reid, I give the result of my own researches. Following 
the Ordinance as finally printed by order of the Houses on 2oth June 1643, I 
include among the original members both Simeon Ashe and John Erie of 
Bishopton, and make the number of the divines to be 121, not 119 or 120. 
In the copy of the Ordinance inserted in the Lords' Journals of i2th June, the 
name of Ashe appears, but those of Sterry and Erie are omitted. In the 
printed copy, issued separately, the name of Shute is retained, and, as in that 
of 2oth June, those of Sterry and Erie are inserted. The Ordinance being 
given at length in ordinary editions of the Confession, is not reprinted here, 

The names of Prideaux, Level, Crook, Jennison, Lloyd, Soames, and March, 
should not be placed in the list of members. Whether those of Dillingham, 
C. Love, Moore, and Newscore, should stand in the list of superadded 
divines, I have been unable as yet positively to determine. A. F. M.] 



PEERS. 



Algernon, Earl of Northumberland. 
William, Earl of Bedford. 
Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery. 

William, Earl of Salisbury. 
Henry, Earl of Holland. 
Edward, Earl of Manchester. 
William, Lord Viscount Say and Scale. 
Edward, Lord Viscount Conway. 



Philip, Lord Wharton. 

Edward, Lord Howard of Escrick. 

Basil, Earl of Denbigh; 

Oliver, Earl of 'Bolingbroke ; 

William, Lord Grey of Warke; 
vice Bedford, Holland, and Conway. 

* Robert, Earl of Essex, Lord General. 

*Robert, Earl of Warwick, Lord Ad- 
miral. 



Ixxxii 



LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE 



COMMONERS. 



"John Selden, Esq. 

Francis Rous, Esq. 

*Edmund Prideaux, Esq. 

*Sir Henry Vane, Knt., senior. 

*John Glynn, Esq., Recorder of London. 

"John White, Esq. 

*Bouldstrode Whitlocke, Esq. 

"Humphrey Salloway, Esq. 

Mr. Serjeant Wild. 

Oliver St. John, Esq., His Majesty's 

Solicitor. 

*Sir Benjamin Rudyard, Knt. 
*John Pym, Esq. 
*Sir John Clotworthy, Knt. 
John Maynard, Esq. 
Sir Henry Vane, Knt., junior. 



William Pierpoint, Esq. 
William Wheeler, Esq. 
Sir Thomas Harrington, Knt. 
Walter Young, Esq. 
Sir John Evelyn, Knt. 
"Sir Robert Hurley, v. Pym, deceased. 
*Sir William Massam, or Masson, v. 
Harrington, deceased. 

* William Stroud, v. White, deceased. 

* Sir Arthur Haselrig \ added along 
Robert Reynolds, Esq. j -with Essex. 
*Zouch Tate, Esq. 

*Sir Gilbert Gerard^}. 
*Sir Robert Pye (?). 
*Sir John Cooke. 



DIVINES. 



Herbert Palmer, B.D., of Ashwell, 
Herts, Assessor after White, and Mas- 
ter of Queen s College, Cambridge. 

Oliver Bowles, B.D., of Sutton, Bedf. 

Henry Wilkinson, sen., B.D., of Wad- 
desdon, Bucks. 

Thomas Valentine, B. D. , of Chalfont, 
St. Giles, Bucks, aft. of London. 

William Twisse, D. D., of Newbury, 
Berks, Prolocutor. 

William Raynor, B.D., of Egham, 
Surrey, aft. of St. John Bapt., Lon. 

Hannibal Gammon, M.A., of Mawgan, 
Cornwall. 

Jasper or Gaspar Hickes, M.A., of 
Lanrake, Corn-wall. 

Joshua Hoyle, D. D., of Dublin, after- 
wards of Stepney and Oxford. 

William Bridge, M.A., of Yarmouth. 

Thomas Wincop, D.D., of Ellesworth, 
Cambridge. 

Thomas Goodwin, B. D. , of London, 
aft. of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

John Ley, M.A.,oi Budworth, Cheshire. 

Thomas Case, M.A., of St. Mary's, 
Milk Street, London. 

John Pyne, of Bereferrers, Devon. 

Francis Whidden, M.A., of Moreton- 
Hampstead, Devon. 

Richard Love, D.D., of Ekington, and 
of Corpus Christ i College, Cambridge. 

William Gouge, D.D., of Blackfriars, 
London, Assessor after Palmer. 

Ralph Brownerigg, D.D., Bishop of 
Exeter, sent excuse for non-attendance. 

Samuel Ward, D.D., Master of Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge. 

John White, M.A., of Dorchester, 
Assessor. 

Edward Peale, of Compton, Dorset. 

Stephen Marshall, B.D., of Finching- 
field, Essex. 

Obadiah Sedgewick, B. D. , of Cogges- 
hall, or of Farnham, Essex. 

Carter, M . A. , ofYork or Camberwell. 

Peter Clerk, M.A., of Carnaby, after- 
wards of Kirkby, York. 



William Mew, B. D., of Estington, or 
Eastington, Gloucester. 

Richard Capell, M.A., Pitchcombe, 
Gloucester. 

Theophilus Bathurst, or Theodore 
Backhurst, of Overton Watervile, 
Wilts. 

Philip Nye, M.A., of Kimbolton, 
Hunts. 

Brocket (or Peter) Smith, D.D., of 
Barkway, Herts. 

Cornelius Burges, D.D., of Watford, 
Herts, Assessor. 

John Green, of Pencombe, Hereford. 

Stanley Gower, of Brampton Bryan, 
Hereford. 

Francis Taylor, B.D., of Yalding, Kent. 

'Thomas Wilson, M.A., of Otham, 
Kent. 

Antony Tuckney, B.D., of Boston, 
aft. Master successively of Emmanuel 
aud St. John's, Cambridge, and Pro- 
fessor of Divinity after Arrowsmith. 

Thomas Coleman, M.A., of Blyton, 
Lincoln, and of St. Peter's, Cornhill. 

Charles Herle, M.A., of Winwick, 
Lancashire, Proloc. after Dr. Twisse. 

Richard Herrick, or Heyrick, M.A., 
Warden of Christ's College, Man- 
chester. 

Richard Cleyton, M.A., of Shawell, 
Leicester. 

George Gibbs, or Gippes, of Ayleston, 
Leicester. 

Calibute Downing, LL.D. , of Hackney, 
Middlesex. 

Jeremy Burroughes, M.A., 'Morning 
Star, ' of Stepney. 

Edmund Calamy, B.D., of Alderman - 
bury, London. 

George Walker, B.D., of St. John's, 
Watling Street, London. 

Joseph Carrill, M.A., Preacher at Lin- 
coln's Inn, aft. of St. Magnus, London. 

Lazarus Seaman, B.D., of All Hal- 

lows, Bread Street, afterwards of 
Peter House, Cambridge, 



WESTMINSTER ASSEMBLY. 



Ixxxiii 



John Harris, D.D. , Warden of Win- 
chester College, ' took Covenant and 
other oaths. ' 

George Morley, D.D., of Mildenhall, 
Wilts, aft. Bishop of Winchester. 

*Ed ward Reynolds, M.A., of Braunston, 
Northampton, aft. Dean of Christ 
Church, Oxf., and Bishop of Norwich. 

*Thomas Hill, B.D., of Titchmarsh, 
Northampton, afterwards Master of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and D.D. 

Robert Sanderson, D.D., of Boothby 
Pannell or Pagnell, Lincoln, after- 
wards Bishop of Lincoln. 

*John Foxcroft, M.A., of Gotham, 
Notts. 

*John Jackson, M.A., of Marske, York- 
shire, also preacher at Gray's Inn. 

*William Carter, of London. 

*Thomas Thoroughgood, of Massing- 
ham, Norfolk. 

*John Arrowsmith, B.D., of King's 
Lynne, Norfolk, afterwards Master 
successively of St. John's and Trinity, 
Cambridge, and Professor of Divinity. 

*Robert Harris, B.D., of Hanwell, 
Oxford, aft. of Trinity College there. 

* Robert Crosse, of Lincoln College, 

Oxford. 

James [Ussher^, Archbishop of Armagh. 
*Matthias Styles, D.D., of St. George's, 

Eastcheap, London. 
*Samuel Gibson, of Burleigh, Rutland. 
*Jeremiah Whitaker, M.A. , of Stretton, 

Rutland, afterwards of Bermondsfy. 

* Edmund Stanton, D.D., of Kingston- 

on-Thames, afterwards President of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

*Daniel Featley, D. D., of Lambeth, 
' Third and last Provost of Chelsea 
College. ' 

Francis Coke, or Cooke, of Yoxhall, 
Staffordshire. 

*John Lightfoot, M.A., of Ashley, 
Staffordshire, afterwards Master of 
Catherine Hall, Cambridge, and D.D. 

*Edward Corbet, M.A., of Merton 
College, Oxford, and Rector of Char- 
tham, Kent, succeeded Dr. Hammond 
as University Orator and Canon of 
Christ's Church, Oxon, 

Samuel Hildersham, B.D., of West 
Felton, Shropshire. 

*John Langley, M.A., of West Tuder- 
ley, or Tytherley, Hampshire. 

*Christopher Tisdale, or Tesdale, 
M.A., of Uphurst borne, or Hurst- 
borne- Tarrant, Hampshire. 

*Thomas Young, M.A., St. And., of 
Stowmarket, Suffolk, aft. D.D., and 
Master of Jesus College, Cambridge. 

*John Phillips, of Wrentham, Suffolk, 
brother-in-law of Dr. Ames. 

* Humphrey Chambers, B. D., ofClaver- 

ton, Somerset, aft. of Pewsey, Wilts. 
"John Conant, B. D., of Lymington, 

Somerset, aft. of St. Sephcris, Walbrook. 
*Henry Hall, B.D., of Norwich. 



Henry Hutton, M.A., of L'aldbcck, 
Cumberland, and Prebendary <>/ 
Carlisle. 

*Henry Scudder, of Collingborne, Wilts. 

"Thomas Baylie, B.D., of Manning- 
ford-Bruce, Wilts. 

*Benjamin Pickering, of East Hoateley, 
or of Buckstead, Sussex. 

Henry Nye, of Clapham. 

Arthur Sallaway, or Sal-way, M.A., 
of Seavern Stoke, Worcester. 

*Sydrach Simpson, of London, after- 
wards succeeded Vines in Pembroke 
Hall, Cambridge. 

Antony Burgesse, or B urges, M.A. , of 
Sutton Coldfield, Warwickshire. 

*Richard Vines, M.A., of Calcot, or 
\ Veddington \ Var. , Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge, and a minister 
in London. 

William Greenhill, ALA., 'Evening 
Star,' of Stepney. 

William Moreton, of Newcastle. 

Richard Buckley, or Bulkley, B.D. 

Thomas Temple, D.D., of Battersea, 
Surrey. 

Simeon Ashe, of St. Bride's, after- 
wards of St. Michaels, Basingshaw, 
appointed in room of Josiah Shute, 
who died before Assembly met. 

W T illiam Nicholson, M.A., Archdeacon, 
of Brecknock. 

"Thomas Gattaker, B. D., of Rother- 
hithe, Surrey. 

*James W r eldy, or Welby, of Selattyn, 
Shropshire. 

Christopher Pashley, D.D., of Hawar- 
den, Flintshire. 

*Henry Tozer, B.D., Fellow of Exeter 
College, Oxford. 

* William Spurstow, D.D., of Hampden, 
Bucks, then of Catherine Hall, Cam- 
btidge, afterwards of Hackney. 

*Francis Cheynell, or Channell, of 
Oxford, aft. Master of St. John's, D. D. , 
and Margaret Professor of Divinity. 

Edward Ellis, B.D., of Guilsfield, 
Montgomery. 

John Hacket, D.D., of St. Andrew's, 
Holborne, aft. Bishop of Lichfield. 

Samuel De la Place, \ of French Ch. 

John De la March, J London. 

Matthew Newcomen, M.A., of Ded- 
ham, Essex. 

William Lyford, B.D., of Sherborne, 
Dorset. 

[Thomas] Carter, M.A., of Dynton, 
Bucks, aft. of Olave's, Hart Street. 

William Lance, of Harrow, Middlesex. 

Thomas Hodges, B.D,, of Kensington, 
afterwards Dean of Hereford. 

Andreas Perne, M.A., of Wilby, 
Northampton. 

Thomas Westfield, D.D., of St. Bar- 
tholomew the Great, Bishop of Bris- 
tol, attended at least the first meeting. 

Henry Hammond. D.D., of Penshurst, 
Kent, and Canon of Christ's Church. 



Ixxxiv 



LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE 



Nicholas Prophet, or Proffet, of Marl- 
borough, Wilts, aft. of Edmonton. 

*Peter Sterry, B.D., of London. 

John Erie, D.D., of Bishopton, Wilts, 
afterwards Bishop of Worcester, then 
of Salisbury. 

*John Gibbon, or Guibon, M.A., of 
Waltham. 

* Henry Painter, B.D., of Exeter. 
'Thomas Micklethwaite, M.A., of 

Cherry-Burton, Yorkshire. 

*John Whincop, D.D., of St. Martin's 
in the Fields, and Clothall, Herts. 

*William Price, #./>., St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden, and of Waltham Abbey. 

"Henry Wilkinson, jun., B.D., after- 
wards D.D., and Principal of Mag- 
dalen Hall, Oxford. 

Richard Holdsworth, or Oldsworth, 
D.D., Master of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. 

William Dunning, M.A., of Cold 
Aston, Glouc., or Godalston, Notts. 

* Francis Woodcock, B.A., of St. Law- 

rence, Jewry, v. More t on, of New- 
castle, deceased. 

'John Maynard, M.A., of Mayfield, 
Surrey, v. H. Nye, deceased. 

Thomas Clendon, of All Hallows, 
Barking, v. Nicholson, who failed to 
attend. 

* Daniel Cawdrey, M.A.,v.Dr. Harris, 

of Winchester, excused. 
*JohnDury, or Durie, 'the learned John 
Dury, a Scot' (whose father had been 



banished for taking part in the Aber- 
deen Assembly), v. Dr. Downing, de- 
ceased, probably because of his well- 
knmun efforts to promote union among 
Protestants. 

* William Kathbone, or Rathband, of 

Highgate, v. Morley. 
*John Strickland, of New Sarum, v. 
Dr. Ward, deceased. 

* William Good, B.D., of Denton, Nor- 
folk. 

*John Bond, D.C.L., Master of the 
Savoy, v. Archbishop Ussher. 

"Humphrey Hardwick, of Hadham 
Magna, Herts. 

*John Ward, of Ipswich and of Bramp- 
ton, v. Painter, deceased. 

* Edward Corbet, of Norfolk, or North 

Reppis, Norfolk, v. H. Hall, of Nor- 
wich. 

* 'Philip Delmg, or Delmy, of French 
Church, Canterbiiry, v. Rathbone, 
deceased. 

* Thomas Ford, M.A., of St. Faith's, 

London, v. Bowles, deceased. 

* Richard Byfield, of Long Ditton, Sur- 

rey, v. Dr. Featley, deceased. 

* William Strong, preacher in West- 
minster Abbey, v. Peale, deceased. 

*Robert Johnston, of York, v. Carter, 

deceased. 
*Samuel Boulton, of St. Saviour's, 

Southwark, afterwards D.D., and 

Master of Christ' s College, Cambridge, 

v. Burrozighs, deceased. 



SCRIBES OR CLERKS OF THE ASSEMBLY. 

Henry Roborough, or Rodborough, of St. Leonard's, Eastcheap, London. 
Adoniram Byfield, M.A., afterwards of Fulham. 

Amanuensis or Assistant John Wallis, M.A., afterwards D.D., Savilian 
Professor of Geometry, Oxford. 



Commissioners appointed by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 
or its Commission, ' to propose, consult, treat, and conclude with the Assembly of 
Divines, or any Commissioners deputed by them, or any Committee or Commis- 
sioners deputed by the Houses of Parliament, in all matters which may further the 
union of this island in one form of Kirk-government, one Confession of Faith, one 
Catechism, and one Directory for the worship of God,' and admitted by the two 
Houses to be present in the Assembly, and ' to debate upon occasion. ' 



Ministers. 



Alexander Henderson, of Edinburgh. 
Robert Douglas, of Edinr. [never sat}. 
Samuel Rutherford, of St. Andrews. 



Robert Baillie, of Glasgow. 
George Gillespie, of Edinburgh. 
Robert Blair, of St. Andrews [see p. 539]. 



Elders. 



John, Earl of Cassilis [never sat}. 
John, Lord Maitland, afterwards Earl 

of Lauderdale. 

Sir Archibald Johnston, of Warriston. 
Robert Meldrum, in absence of Johnston. 
John, Earl of Loudon. 



Sir Charles Erskine. 
John, Lord Balmerino, v. Loudon. 
Archibald, Marquis of Argyll. 
George Winrham, of Libberton, 
Argyll. 



Admitted to sit and hear in October 1644, the Prince Elector Palatine, and 
on one occasion permitted to speak. 



WESTMINSTER ASSEMBLY. 



Ixxxv 



The Names of tJie Members of the Assembly [regarded 
as on the Roll at~] \2tJi April I644. 1 



[First Com m ittee. ] 


Dr. Stanton. 


Mr. Palmer. 


Mr. Lightfoote. 


Mr. Bowles. 


Mr. Corbett. 


Mr. Wilkenson, senr. 


Mr. Langley. 


Mr. Valantine. 


Mr. Tisdale. 


Mr. Rayner. 


Mr. Young. 


Dr. Hoyle. 


Mr. Phillips. 


'Mr. Bridge. 


Mr. Connant. 


Mr. Goodwin. 


Mr. Chambers. 


Mr. Ley. 


Mr. Hall. 


Mr. Case. 


Mr. Scudder. 


Dr. Gouge. 


Mr. Bayly. 


Mr. White. 


Mr. Pickering. 


Mr. Marshall. 


Mr. Cawdry. 


Mr. Seclgwicke. 


Mr. Strickland. 


Mr. Clarke. 


Mr. Bond. 


Mr. Bathurst. 


Mr. Harris. 


Mr. Ny. 




Dr. Smith. 


[Third Committee.] 


Dr. Burgis. 


Mr. Salloway. 


Mr. Greene. 


Mr. Simpson. 


Mr. Gower. 


Mr. Burgis. 


Mr. Taylor. 


Mr. Vines. 


Mr. Wilson. 


Mr. Greenhill. 


Mr. Tuckney. 


Dr. Temple. 


Mr. Coleman. 


Mr. Ash. 


Mr. Herle. 


Mr. Gataker. 


Mr. Hericke. 


Mr. Spurstow. 


Mr. Mew. 


Mr. Channell. 


Mr. Wrathband. 


Mr. Delamarch. 


Mr. Hickes. 


Mr. Newcoman. 




Mr. Carter of D. 


[Second Committee.] 


Mr. Hodges. 


Mr. Clayton. 


Mr. Perne. 


Mr. Gipps. 


Mr. Prophet. 


Mr. Buroughes. 


Mr. Sterry. 


Mr. Calamy. 


Mr. Guibon. 


Mr. Walker. 


Mr. Michaelthwaite. 


Mr. Can-ill. 


Dr. Wincop. 


Mr. Leaman. 


Mr. Price. 


Mr. Reynolds. 


Mr. Wilkenson, junr. 


Mr. Hill. 


Mr. Woodcocke. 


Mr. Jackson. 


Mr. Delaplace. 


Mr. Carter of L. 


Mr. Maynhard. 


Mr. Thorowgood. 


Mr. Paynter. 


Mr. Arrowsmith. 


Mr. Good. 


Mr. Gibson. 


Mr. Hardwicke. 


Mr. Whitaker. 





1 By this date some had died, Dr. Featley and a few who refused the 
Covenant ha<J retired, Mr. Ford and one or two others were detained at 
home by the state of the country, and several of the superadded divines were 
not yet received. Up to that date the allowance promised to the members 
had been very irregularly paid. 



Ixxxvi APPOINTMENT OF COMMITTEE 

EXCERPTS from Vol. n. of the MS. Minutes, containing 
the first appointment of Committee to prepare a 
Confession of Faith. 1 

Sess. 269. August 20, 1644. Tuesday morning. 
A Committee to join with the Commissioners of the 

1 In his public letter, in October 1644, Baillie writes : 'The Confession of 
Faith is referred to a Committee, to be put in several of the best hands that 
are here;' and in that of 2ist November, he reports that 'the Catechism is 
drawn up, and I think shall not take up much time ; I fear the Confession of 
P^aith may stick longer. ' Again, on 26th December, he writes : ' We have 
near also agreed in private on a draught of Catechism, whereupon when it 
comes in public we expect little debate. I think we must either pass the 
Confession to another season, or if God will help us, the heads of it being dis- 
tributed among many able hands, it may in a short time be so drawn up as the 
debate of it may cost little time.' Once more, on 25th April 1645, he writes: 
' The Catechism and Confession of Faith are put in the hands of several Com- 
mittees, and some reports are made to the Assembly concerning both; we 
expect not so much debate upon them as we have had in the Directory and 
Government.' In all probability, therefore, the matter for the Confession 
was to a certain extent prepared by the above-mentioned Committee, and the 
Committee appointed on I2th May 1645 (p. 91) would enter on its work with 
a certain amount of material already collected, though not digested into a 
formal 'draught. ' After the several paragraphs, draughted by that Committee, 
were disposed of in the Assembly, they were again remitted to a small Com- 
mittee for the review and final wording and methodizing of the Confession 
(pp. no, 168, 245, etc.), all being once more reported to the Assembly. 

The Catechism which Baillie reports to have been drawn up, and near 
agreed on in the end of 1644, was, of course, neither of the two ultimately 
adopted, but either that which had been almost completed, and to a consider- 
able extent passed, in the Assembly (pp. 281, 282, etc.) before it was resolved 
to have two ; or it may be that it was that Catechism still preserved in MS. in 
the Library of the University of Edinburgh, and ascribed to Samuel Ruther- 
ford. This probably had the approbation of the Scotch Commissioners, and 
would repay publication yet, though the Westminster Assembly do not ap- 
pear to have availed themselves much either of its method or matter. The 
Larger Catechism, it will be seen, was drawn up before the Shorter; and 
though perhaps the latter embodies more of the materials of the original 
Catechism than the Larger does, and has been the most widely popular of 
the Assembly's symbolical books, it was that in the perfecting of which the 
Scotch Commissioners had least to do. Rutherford alone remained when it was 
being discussed in the Assembly. Tradition connects the name of Gillespie 
with its answer to the question, What is God? but it is doubtful if the answer 
to that question, even in the Larger Catechism, had been cast into the shape 
it now bears when Gillespie left for Scotland. Tuckney, it is admitted, took 
the chief part in preparing that Catechism. He was Convener also of the 
Committee which prepared the Shorter, though its more concise and severely 
logical answers are generally supposed to have been finally adjusted by Wallis. 



TO PREPARE A CONFESSION. Ixxxvil 

Church of Scotland to prepare matter for a joint Confes- 
sion of Faith. 

R. neg. 12. R. affirmat. 9 [to be a Committee]. 
Dr. GOUGE. Mr. BURGES. -| 

Mr. GATAKER. Mr. VINES. 

Mr. ARROWSMITH. Mr. GOODWIN. J ^ 

Dr. TEMPLE. Dr. HOYLE. 

Mr. BURROUGHS. J 

Sess. 278. September 4, [1644]. Wednesday morning. 

Report from the Committee for the Confession of Faith. 

They desire an addition of those persons to the said 
Committee 

Ordered Mr. Palmer, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Herle, Mr. 
Reynolds, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Tuckney, Dr. Smith, Mr. 
Young, Mr. Ley, Mr. Sedgwicke, be added to the Com- 
mittee for the Confession of Faith. 



CORRIGENDA. 

Page 103, line 7, 'Lawes/ perhaps ' Lance.' 

,, line 29, transpose ' Ordered ' to line 30, after ' Conant. 
Page 108, line 27, ' Hall ' should be ' Hull. ' 
Page 113, note, '71 ' should be 'vii.' 
Page 130, line 34, 'Gomer' should be 'Gower.' 
Page 169, line 15, 'N[orwich]' should be 'N[orfolk].' 
Page 178, line 20, ' Peake ' should be ' Peale.' 
Page 179, line 16, after 'Ward ' insert '[to pray].' 
Page 189, line 6, ' D[udley] ' should be ' D[ynton]. ' 
Page 198, line 28, ' last ' should be ' least. ' 
Page 258, note 2, ' they ' should be ' their. ' 
Page 269, line 24, ' Mazy, ' perhaps ' Masy, ' for ' Massey. ' 
Page 298, line 22, ' Daux, ' perhaps ' Dunn. ' 
Page 307, last line, ' Banke ' should be ' Bankes.' 
Page 346, line 15, '8th' should be ' i8th.' 
Page 372, line 28, dele ' [see] ; ' for ' and ' read ' end. ' 
Page 477, line 2, ' Day ' should be ' Dury.' 
Page 480, ' R. Prophet ' should be ' N. Prophet. ' 



N.B. The transcriber is now of opinion that the various readings suggested in 
note i on pp. 155, 156, 159, and 431 are to be preferred to those in the text. 



MINUTES 



OF THE SESSIONS OF 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 



Sess. 324. November 18, 1644. Monday morning. SESS. 324. 

Nov. 1 8, 

A REPORT, made by Dr. Gouge from the ministers ap- 1644. 
pointed to ordain, about Mr. Robinson; it is as followeth: 

R : That the case propounded shall be taken into con- 
sideration by this Assembly. 

Mr. Marshall I conceive the ordination he hath received Debate 
is a sufficient ordination. I cannot learn that Christ deacons' 
instituted any man to have authority to preach the word orders be 
and administer the sacraments, but one that's to be looked f or a 
upon as a preaching presbyter. For those two arguments mimster - 
propounded . . . The calling of him a deacon is but a mis- 
calling of him. True, the Scripture owns none but pres- 
byters under that name ; but if a man be ordained to 
another work, whatsoever his name be, it is not material. 
The power of ordination doth not depend upon the inten- 
tion of the ordainers. I do not think it is unlawful for 
them to be ordained again. 

Mr. Palmer Speak a word concerning this business. 
I conceive the ordination of deacons is not good to all 
purposes without a new ordination. The Scripture . . . 
negative they did intend they should not be presbyters ; the 
persons ordained did not intend it, and it was the general 
intent of the Church. 

Mr. Young Concerning this question now before us. 

Ordered That the report and this vote be transcribed 

A 



2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 324. and sent to both Houses of Parliament by the ministers 
1*644 ' a PP om ted to ordain that are members of this Assembly, 
with humble submission of the whole matter to their 
wisdom. 

[Mr. Ralph Robinson chosen to be pastor of the parish 
church of Mary Woolnoth, London, not being a presbyter, 
repaired to the ministers appointed to ordain, desiring to 
be ordained a presbyter for the charge aforesaid, and sub- 
Report on mitted himself to examination ; but after some proceed- 
c ings therein, he declined the ministers and way of ordina- 

cnsc. o * 



tion ; alledging that he is already deacon, and supposeth 
that to be enough ; and in case it be not, he hopes that 
within a year, there will be another more settled way of 
ordination, and then he may be ordained. This act of his 
the ministers appointed to ordain do conceive to be a 
waving and weakening of the ordinance ; and that there 
is a necessity of having recourse both to the Assembly 
and to the Houses of Parliament for their direction and 
declaration herein, as well for the point of his admission 
to his charge upon a presentation to the place actually 
void, as the sufficiency of his ordination already attained. 

Monday the i8//z of November 1644. 
The Assembly of Divines upon the debate of this case 
have resolved upon the question as followeth : 
Assem- I. This Assembly doth advise that they who have 

ontnis te hitherto been ordained deacons only, according to the 
case. Form of Ordination used in the Church of England, be 
ordained presbyters before they undertake a pastoral 
charge in any congregation. 

2. Those ministers appointed to ordain, who are mem- 

bers of this Assembly, shall carry up this case and the 

vote of this Assembly thereupon to the Honourable Houses 

- of Parliament ; with humble submission of the whole 

matter to their wisdom. 1 ] 

Sir William Allison reported the necessity of sending 
down ministers to York. 

1 Report and vote not in MS. , but given in Journals of House of Lords, vol. 
vii. p. 70. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 



Mr. Palmer made report from the Committee for the SESS. 324. 
reasons of the dissentin brethren. It was read. '* ' 



Ordered To report the Preface to the Directory, and 
that concerning the Sabbath-day. Directory 

for Public 

Sess. 325. November 19, 1644. Tuesday morning. Worship 

Ordered The Committee for the north do upon Friday re P rted - 
next give an account to the Assembly of what is done 
about the motion concerning Cumberland and Westmore- 
land. 

Ordered That in the Directory for the Sabbath-day Debate on 
something be expressed against parish feasts, commonly to ^ y ^' 
called by the name of rushbearings, whitsunales, wakes. the Sab - 

. bath -day, 

as profane and superstitious. 

Some motions made about holy days, to express some- 
thing against them. 

Ordered Being the only standing holy day under the 
New Testament to be kept by all the churches of Christ. 

Consider of something concerning holy days and holy 
places, and what course may be thought upon for the 
relief of servants (to meet to-morrow in the afternoon), 
wakes and feasts, whitsunales, rushbearings, and garlands, 
all other such like superstitious customs : Mr. Coleman, 
Mr. Wilson, Mr. Thorowgood, Mr. Delaplace, Mr. Hickes, 
Mr. Hardwicke, Mr. Harris, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Price, Mr. 
Corbet, Mr. Delamarch, Mr. Hodges, Mr. Bathurst, Mr. 
Maynard, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Woodcocke, Mr. Langley, 
Mr. Mew, Mr. Salway. 

Dr. Burges Give an account of the message, (i) for that 
of the Reasons . . . from the House of Commons they are 
pleased that you should take your own time, but so as 
that what speed may be, may be made in it : the other, 
the House of Commons will take into speedy considera- 
tion. No answer from the Lords ; they were delivered. 
From the House of Commons, given us in charge, they 
desire to hasten up the Directory, and all such parts as 
are already prepared. 

Report of the Preface. Debate of it. Proceed in the 
debate of the Preface. Directory. 



4 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 326. Sess. 326. -November 20, 1644. Wednesday morning. 
N i644 2 ' Ordered That Mr. Wallis have a certificate without 
coming up to the Assembly. 

An order from the House of Commons concerning the 
message about the reasons of dissenting brethren. 1 
Further Dr. Burges moved that the debate yesterday being 
PreTaceTo against a resolution] of the Assembly, that it may be put 
Directory, to the O. whether there shall be leave to debate that 
business again. 

Mr. MarsJiall\ crave leave to speak a little . . . 

Dr. Gouge This motion is not seasonable ; to question 
the covenant will not be seasonable. 

R. That Mr. [Marjshall shall have liberty, or anybody 
else, to speak to that branch of the Preface concerning the 
Covenant. 

Mr. Marshall I did really understand that part to 
refer to the taking away the old ... I desire the sense may 
be so explained as that the sense may not be contrary to 
our consciences. A Directory that I do receive by virtue 
of an antecedent oath must have an influence upon rne for 
the observation of it Then whatsoever you do not leave 
me at that freedom which God's word leaves a man that is 
unsworn. . . . That if it be possible one word or two might 
be put into the Preface to prevent the snares, I desire not 
to have it left out. . . . Add the word only. 

Mr. Ny That word takes off his scruple, but not mine ; 
because I except against the influence of this oath upon 
the positive part. 

Dr. Burges I accord with him that desires to express 
his scruple .... if our solemn vow and covenant do make . . . 
but if nothing to impose anything new upon us, then it is 
all one, covenant or not covenant ... If you will put in that 
word ' only,' you may do it, but will not satisfy him ; let 
him als . . . 

Mr. Ny If the clause in the oath be extended to pru- 
dentials, as well as things of divine institution, then this is 
well expressed. . . . My sense of the covenant is, that it 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iii. p. 699. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 5 

binds us to endeavour a uniformity, but only in insti- SESS. 326. 

Nov. 20, 

tutions. i<5 44- 

Mr. Goodwin I have always expressed the sense thus : 

R. c fcrc n c c 

So far as we do agree, we should walk by the same rule, and to the 

that in institutions. . . I did fall off from the ceremonies Covenant 

in Preface. 

upon this ground, such things ought not to be put upon 
the churches of Christ ; and I think this is of the same 
nature. 

Mr. Calamy That which lies before us is not to show 
the meaning of the covenant. I am willing to put in the 
word ' only ' . . . the covenant doth express those four par- 
ticulars, in one Directory for . . . 

Mr. Marshall The force of the word ' only 'is ... this 
Directory, in the true, proper, native scope and intent of it, 
be a help for ministers, etc. 

Mr. Herlc I am not against the putting in of the word 
' only.' ... I do not understand, but we have sworn to 
endeavour uniformity in matters of prudence . . . but con- 
sider the fitness of it here . . . the great business is carried 
on in a design, as, first in Scotland, then in Ireland ... so 
it is said it is so here; first, a covenant must be taken, 
and then a debate upon pretence of prudence, and yet a 
pre-engagement . . . now if we make mention of this . . . 
will it not be make 1 use of in an advantage on the other 
side. 

Dr. Purges Seeing it pleased this brother to declare 
to us a story, yet we may not lay it aside upon that con- 
sideration, except we be guilty of any such design ... if 
any reason proper for this Assembly to take notice of ... 
upon the same ground you must never plead the covenant, 
nor use it, but throw it aside. 

Mr. Marshall , . . 

Mr. Ny Let the words go , . . ' our meaning therein ' . . . 
' that contain the substance of the worship of God.' 

Ordered Dr. Burgess, Mr. Marshall, Dr. Gouge, Mr. 
Reynolds, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Burroughs, 
Mr. Calamy To carry up the Directory and Preface to- 
morrow morning. 

1 Sic in MS. for 'made.' 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 326. 

Nov. 20, 

1644. 

Further 
debate on 
Directory 
for Sab- 
bath-day. 



A Report of the Sabbath-day. Debate about the 
title, The Lord's Day. 

An addition offered by Dr. Burges concerning keep- 
ing themselves to their own congregation. 

Mr. Marshall Your care will be to direct only those 
things that are proper to the particular business ... for a 
family to do this is a question . . . whether it belong to the 
sanctification of the Lord's day or no ... what is fit to be 
ordered about that belongs to discipline, and there take 
that course as near as God's word doth guide you. 

Dr. Burges Had you done no more than direct, what 
is to be done in the public service, then it had been proper 
to have left this out . . . You know the giddiness of the 
straggling people in this kind. 

Mr. Sedgwicke Two things taken for granted: (i) 
That there be a good minister in every congregation ; 
(2) that every church will hold all, but this cannot be 
as yet. 

Mr. Palmer I desire you would take a serious con- 
sideration of this business before you . . . for the words or 
syllables before you, you may dispose of them . . . but for the 
other, it is of that extreme necessity as that, without some 
care of it, all your order will be altogether in vain. . . . Hun- 
dreds of people will come to no church at all ... nothing 
more destructive to the right performance of family duties 
than that one should go to one place, and another to 
another. ... A double objection made: (i) Concerning 
conscionable ministers in every place ; (2) x . . . Neither 
of these ought to stand. . . . You make a discipline for 
congregations that have sufficient ministers ... for that 
of churches . . . that weighs with me more than all the 
rest . . . be[cause] so many churches that cannot contain 
. . . therefore they should be assigned that we make 
known where to build more. 

Ordered The Directory for marriage be reported to- 
morrow morning, and debated. 

1 [Sufficiency of churches.] 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 



Sess. 327. November 21, 1644. Thursday morning. S ESS. 327. 

Nov 2 1 

Ordered That Mr. Vaughan have no certificate from 1644.' 



this Assembly. 

A report from the 2nd Committee of a Directory for Directory 
marriage read and debated. 



Mr. Henderson moved to speak something of espousals and 
before marriage . . . Motion to leave out that . . . ' no part 
of the worship of God.' ... I doubt it is not a mere carnal 
contract : it is the covenant of God . . . civil contract may 
be dissolved with consent of parties. 

Ordered The 2nd Committee do consider of some- 
thing concerning contracts or espousals to be added to the 
Directory of marriage, and make report to this Assembly. 
They are to meet this afternoon. 
I Debate about that ' civil contract' 

Mr. Wilson It may be a civil contract, though called 
' ; the covenant of God. So is magistracy. 

Mr. Goodivin 8 Eccl. : Keep the king's command- Eccl. viii. 
ments in regard of the oath of God. True, the oath is a 2 ' 
worship ; but the business about which he swares is not of 
that nature. 

Mr. Ligktfoote That oath of God is peculiar to the 
throne of David, the oath from God unto David, not 
from David to the people, or the people to David. 

Mr. Seaman If this relates to magistracy amongst the 
heathens . . . 

Mr. Palmer To order. . . . Two things spoken to to- 
gether . . . consider that first 'no part of God's worship.' . . . 
Certainly this is a truth : nothing that is of the second 
table properly can be a part of worship . . . that which is 
altogether common to heathens that have no knowledge 
of God can be no part of worship, . . . Alter them thus 
... It is no ordinance of the first table, nor peculiar to 
the Church. 

Mr. Gillespy Leave out all that first clause, begin with 
the positive . . . 

Mr. Rutherford The former part denies marriage to be 
a sacrament ; so there is good reason to deny it to be a 



8 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 327. part of God's worship, bc[causc] clivers hold it to be a 
**l'"' sacrament . . . there is some divine thing in some civil 
contracts as in magistracy, so something more than that 
is merely civil in marriage . . . formally it is no wor- 
ship. 

Mr. Buroughcs I think it should be put out, be[cause] 
there being so much given to the minister, the people will 
think it to be a part of God's worship. 

Mr. Goodzviii I desire a great consideration of this 
thing, because many stumble at the point of marriage, 
because appropriated to a ministry ; and by the law no 
man may be married lawfully but by a minister. ... In 
the Old Testament, marriage was not appropriated to a 
priest, but as in the case of oath to the elders of the 
city. . . . That there is something divine in marriage must 
needs be acknowledged ; and as in the marriage of the 
heathen, I do not know but that that is a type of Christ 
and His Church. 

Called to order. 

Mr. Batkurst Marriage cannot be denied to be a wor- 
ship of God . . . was not amongst the heathen . . . said a 
vow betwixt man and man is no part of God's worship, 
Ezek. xvii. but I never heard that it was any other. ... 17 Ezek. 
1 6 v. Here is covenant betwixt man and man done in a 
sacred manner. This is termed the oath of man, and yet 
God owns it for His, a worship done to Him. 

Dr. Temple Where is there a vow betwixt man and 
man that is not made to God, and so must be a part of 
worship ? 

Mr. Buroughs I know no difference betwixt a vow 
betwixt man and man and a promise. 

Mr. Rutherford This is taken for granted by those that 
hold it a worship : that it, if formaliter, is a vow. This is 
to be proved. Marriage is only the consent of parties ; a 
vow is annexed unto it. There is a covenant of God in 
marriage, but that formally it is anything but the consent 
cannot be proved. 

Mr. Seaman -If the formality lies in the consent of the 
parties only, then what need we have all this . . if he 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 9 

take for 1 formality for essentiality . . . for that of marriage SESS. 327. 
being before the magistrate, the family and posterity being 2I> 
concerned in it, therefore the magistrate must come in ... 

1 c , i . - , , ~ . . , Debate on 

the concurrence of the minister is not mrtute ojjicii, but Directory 
delegationis. f ? r mar ~ 

Earl of Pembroke . . . Not meddle with the learned tinued. 
part . . . beg to take a care of the manner of doing of it ; 
it is of great consequence. ... I would be sorry any child 
of mine should be married but by a minister. 

Dr. Temple . . . Offer a word . . . said marriage is 
not formaliter a vow ... I deny that, upon this reason, 
be[cause] the consent may be still kept, and yet the mar- 
riage dissolved. 

Mr. Rutherford I never heard it denied but that the 
formality and essentiality of marriage consists in the con- 
sent of the parties . . . confounds marriage and the solem- 
nization of marriage . . . This Directory concerns the 
solemnization . . . The vow belongs to this, but is not 
the formality of the marriage itself; for then they that are 
married without any vow or oath of God, as amongst the 
heathen, are not lawful marriages. . . . Said marriage 
may be dissolved, and yet the consent of the parties 
standing. This a paradox to me, that they should be 
married parties when the oath is broken. . . . that which 
Christ saith of His command, that uncleanness may dis- 
solve, there will not be a warrant in that text for separa- 
tion of marriage. 

Mr. Henderson Here are questions that are not very 
necessary. 

Mr. Walker This controversy might easily be decided : 
marriage betwixt heathens and Christians for substance 
are one and the same ; yet be[cause] marriage amongst 
Christians must be solemnized with prayer, exhortation, 
and instruction, therefore the best way is to ... For that 
example of Ruth . . . the elders of the city were not 
only elders of the people, but there were Levites amongst 
them. 

Mr. Herle Scarce ever doubted but that matrimo- 

1 Sic in MS., 'for' probably redundant. 



10 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 327. niiim fundatum ncccsse sic, but then that consensus must 
N 644 If be fi nalis - The solemnization of marriage may have 
that in it that may be called worship, and to be done . . . 
the minister is Judex and Preco ; has not only to pronounce 
them man and wife, but to judge of it as for the rules of 
marriage. ... It will be better thus far alter your vote of 
the solemnization of marriage. 

Mr. Wilkinson- I humbly present something that I do 
not find so manifest in the Directory as I wish it were. 
It is a remedy of God for preservation of chastity . . . 
desire there may be some strong bonds expressed to bind 
us unto chastity ... if death in a contracted person, if ... 

Mr. Hardzvicke An easy and fair way out of this 
debate by ... 

Mr. Seaman . . . The question is of the essential consti- 
tuents . . . said marriages amongst the heathens solemnized 
... if the magistrate make no law for the solemnization. 

Mr. Harris I look upon this day's work as a sad 
business. We can express nothing, do nothing, but one 
thing or other cast into the way to hinder us. 

Mr. Palmer moved to recommit it ... and to express 
something that may express wherein the validation of 
marriage doth consist. 
Directory Ordered To recommit the Directory for marriage : they 

for mar- . 

riage re- are to rnake report again to-morrow morning. 

commit- 

Sess. 328. November 22, 1644. Friday morning. 

Ministers Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Hill, Mr. Carter, for Lords and Com- 

^ ray mons, and Committee of both kingdoms. 

Lords, etc. Mr. Chambers informed the Assembly of one [Webb] * 
that hath undertaken to preach in a house before a great 
company, and tendered such blasphemies as we are spe- 
cially bound to take notice of them. They were read. 

Mr. Carrill attests that he hath heard the same things 
attested. 

OrdfrtdThit Mr. Chambers do go with this to the 
Lords. 

i Blank in MS. For name and charges, see Journals of House of Lords, 
vol. vii. p. 71. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I I 

Report of the 2nd Committee of the Directory for SKSS. 328. 
marriage recommitted. It was debated. . . . Debate about ^644 2 ' 
those words, ' ordained in the state of innocency,' as a rea- 

, - , - ... Debate on 

son ... as the first man and first woman were joined Directory 
together and blessed by God Himself. for mai " 

& J nage re- 

Report made by Dr. Burges from the House of Lords : sumed. 
they had delivered the Directory . . . the information was 
given against those blasphemers . . . they drew up an 
order 1 to be pres[ent]ly executed upon the parties whom 
it doth concern. 

Sess. 329. November 25, 1644. Monday morning. 

Mr. Coleman made report of the Directory for holy days Directory 
and holy places. It was read. dTys^etc. 

Directory for marriage . . . Memorandum that something read - 
be prepared for the Assembly concerning the degrees of con- 
sanguinity and affinity prohibited, by the 2nd Committee. 

That the Directory for marriage be committed to Mr. Directory 
Palmer, to report on Thursday morning. riage again 

commit - 

Sess. 330. November 28, 1644. Thursday morning. ted - 

Mr. Palmer made report of the business of marriage Directory 
committed to him. S g ^ ain 

Mr. Marshall Most of those rules are fit to be con- debated. 
sidered . . . but the penalty is something too high ... for 
the usual hours that would not be fit counsel to give, 
something may fall out to make a marriage to be this day, 
and yet without great inconvenience it cannot be this 
morning! The Lord hath not appointed any set time . . . 
you may say nothing of the time, so it be done with suffi- 
cient testimony. A clandestine marriage may be in those 
hours . . . And for that not valid that is not done in that 
hour, if it should be a nullity, I question whether it be fit 
to give this advice . . . Say no marriage approved of but that 
that is done by a lawful minister before the congregation. 

Mr. Gillespy To second that last said ; the words, as 
they are, will make a great debate . . . that of 8 and 12, 

1 See Journals of House of Lords, vol. vii. p. 71. etc.; and for submission 
of Webb, p. 80. 



12 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 330. the Papists give the reason because the mass is before 12 
1 1644. ' f * ne c l oc k> an d the sacrament before 1 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Ley Though you do not limit it to the hours of 8 
and 12, yet you may limit it to daylight. 

Mr. Vines I think it may be done by candle-light as 
as well as daylight ... If there be testimony from an 
eldership, you may recommend it to be done in the church; 
but otherwise I know not but it may be done in a chamber 
as well as a church. 

Mr. Calamy Here are two things in question : (i) Not 
valid except publicly solemnized . . . Many think no neces- 
sity of a solemnization. I think marriages a civil ordinance. 
... If the civil state will say that marriage is not valid 
without the solemnization of it in public, then it is not 
valid. If we advise this, we shall do God a good service. 

Mr. Palmer . . . 

Mr. Marshall Those will be requisite to be considered 
in due time, but whether put it into the Directory. . . . We 
may desire the Parliament to think of some fitting penalty 
for those that shall . . . 

[No account of Session 331 in MS.] 

Sess. 332. December 2, 1644. Monday morning. 
Mr. Dale . . . 

Mr. Marshall That ministers be left free upon that 
day to ... 

Ordered The Committee to consider of Burial meet this 

afternoon, and make report of it to-morrow morning. 

Speech by Lord Chancellor of Scotland The General Assembly of 

Chancellor Scotland to meet the beginning of January next. There 

kind 001 ' is . S near a con J unction betwixt those two ... that they 

will be desirous at that time to know what government 

progress is made at this time The Directory is a great 

step; and if the government of the Church could be 
resolved upon the grounds I understand ... if put in such 
a readiness . . . before some of the Commissioners do 
repair to the General Assembly, it would be a great 
encouragement. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 1 3 

Ordered Mr. Marshall, Mr. Tuckncy, Mr. Ncwcomcn, SF.SS. 332. 
Mr. Hill, be added to Mr. Palmer for hastening- the %^ 2 ' 
Catechism. 

Ordered -The Draught of Government already voted in for^ten- 
the Assembly be brought in upon Thursday next. in s the 

" ir Catechism. 

Mr. Marshall made report of their answer to the first 
main argument. 

Scss. 333. December 3. Tuesday morning. 

Report from the Committee about Burial. Report of 

Mr. Marshall Be[cause] the drawing up of these rea- for'burial. 
sons doth concern ourselves as distinct from the dissenting 
brethren . . . therefore you would please to bestow an 
afternoon or two to accompany the Committee appointed, 
that the body of all the members being present, they may 
be read over, and only read over and so passed. 

Ordered That the Answers of the Assembly to the rea- Answers 
sons of the dissenting brethren shall be first considered fthe S dis- 
in a Committee of the whole Assembly the dissenting senting 

. , . . brethren to 

brethren excepted ; this Committee to meet in the alter- i, e con- 
noons till the answers be perfected, and then the answers 
to be read in the full Assembly of all the members that tee of 
will be present. And that the several Sub-committees do ^ n bi y . S 
.first meet one afternoon and compare all the parts of 
their answers, to prepare them for the Committee of the 
Assembly. 

Ordered The dissenting brethren may read over their 
reasons, and what additions or alterations of words or 
sentences that were mistaken or omitted in the tran- 
scribing shall be set down in a paper and first reported to 
the Assembly before the alteration be so made. 

Debate about the report of Burial. Debate on 

Debate about the use of exhortations at burial. 

Mr. Wilson . . . 

Mr. Rutherford . . . 

Mr. Herle A Directory, the end of it is for worship. 
Now, how this will fall under that, I know not. This will 
multiply our work. The apostles did avoid all over- 
burdening of themselves with serving tables. ... It may 



14 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 333. prove a great snare. If exhortation, I know not why 
D f<3 4 4 3 ' word and prayer shall not go together. 

Mr. Whitakersl do not see any force of argument 
why this Directory may not yet stand. ... I think that a 
minister stands in a general relation to all his people, and 
every man in all the providences of God is to get his heart 
affected ... to be sensible of the death of his people is 
his duty . . . Said why a Directory for men when buried 
and not born ; you know that presently after birth they 
are brought to baptism, something is done presently after. 

. . Said if a Directory for some, then for all. ... I see 
not why not for all ... Dorcas . . . Said the apostles 
would not serve tables . . . there is no transgression . . . 
rules in Scripture to take all occasions of doing good. . . . 
At death of friends to be sensible . . . 

Dr. Surges moved that the Committee would bring in 
something concerning visiting of the sick. 

Mr. Marshall But one only thing worthy of your con- 
sideration in this business, whether the minister, when he 
is present, may give a word of exhortation. To say he 
should be invited to be there as a minister would press far 
that it is a ministerial work. 

Mr. Hill Two things may be hinted : (i) No necessity 
that the corpse be carried into the church ; (2) The corpse 
be first buried. 

A motion to recommit it. 

Directory T O recommit this business of burial, and that Corn- 
tor burial . ... 
recom- mittee in the close of the Directory for the visiting of the 

mitted - sick. 

Mr. Gillespy ... a man. 

Directory Report made of the Directory of marriage drawn up to 
riage be sent to both Houses of Parliament. It was read. 

finally 

drawn up. $ ess 334. December 4, 1644. Wednesday morning. 
Debate on Debate about burial. 

Directory ... n . 

for burial Mr - Calmer I desire we should take away all supersti- 
resumed. t j on and declare against it ... but I do not think a dumb 
show becomes Christians. ... If this ground be good, 
Christians ought not to meet but to meet as Christians. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 5 

Mr. Rutherford The Doctor gave a ... SESS. 334. 

Mr. Price-l . . . 

Mr. Whitaker I see no ground why exhortations are 
not of use. 

A letter brought from the classis of Walacria, and a Letter 
book presented to all the members of the Assembly. 1 classis of 

The letter was read, and book delivered to the several Wa lche- 
members of the Assembly. 

That thanks shall be given by word of mouth, and after- 
wards in writing. 

R: 

They were called in. 

Reverend and worthy brethren, this Assembly having Thanks 
received a letter and booke presented by your hands . . . 
they have read the letter . . . and find in it many ex- 
pressions of the pious and large affections of our reverend 
brethren in those parts, that having suffered do the better 
know how to comfort with the comfort they . . . who are 
able to speak by experience to us. ... We did not think fit 
to call you in to acknowledge the receipt of a book till we 
had read the autograph. . . . All we have been able to 
do is to read the letter. We are not able to give so full 
an answer, but it is resolved that there shall, with what 
convenient speed we can, [be] an answer given in writin[g] 
both by way of acknowledgment of the book and letter . . . 
and am to give you thanks for being the hand. This 
Assembly do hold themselves to be much indebted and 
engaged. 

Ordered Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Reynolds, 
to draw up an answer to the classis of Wala[cria] by way 
of thankful acknowledgment for this letter and book with 
all convenient speed. 

Ordered To advise what is further to be done about 
burial to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 335. December 5, 1644. Thursday morning. 
Report made of the votes concerning discipline. Read Report of 

votes con- 

1 For letter and book see ' Consideratio quarundam controversiarum, etc., cerning 
ex mandate Classis Walachrianae conscripts a Gul. Apollonii. ' discipline. 



1 6 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 335. by Dr. Temple . . . and the second time compared with 

th votcs m ^e book. 

Ordered- -Mr. Marshall and Mr. Palmer do prepare the 
Directory of fasting, and Mr. Goodwin do give in to them 
to be pre- fa s collections to that purpose. 

Ordered -To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 336. December 6. -Friday morning. 
Mr. Taylor, Mr. Stanton, Mr Lightfoote, to pray the 
week following. 

Debate on The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the report of 
Temple's the frame of government reported by Dr. Temple. 
Report. Debate about those words, ' Church governed by several 
sorts of Assemblies.' 

Ordered Dr. Temple, Mr. Herle, Mr. Reynolds, to 
withdraw a little to consider of this, and make report 
presently. 

Debate about the scribes entering the reasons of the 
dissenting brethren before the emendations are brought 
in. 

R : That the scribes shall go on in entering the reasons 
of the dissenting brethren into the record of the As- 
sembly. 

Directory Report made of the Directory for Thanksgiving drawn 
^vi^reld U P for the Parliament, read and voted, 
and voted. Debate about burial . . . and about the place of burial. 

Ordered Dr. Temple make his report on Monday 
morning. 

Ordered -To proceed in the debate of the Directory for 
Burial. 

Sess. 337. December 9, 1644. Monday morning. 
Protestation read. 

Further Debate of the Directory for Burial. . . . Nevertheless, 
Directory this doth not inhibit any minister at that time being pre- 
fer burial, sent to give some seasonable word of exhortation. 

Mr. Marshall offered a paper to express the affirmative 
part. 

Debate about something to be added to the negative. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES, I 7 

Dr. Temple made report of the alterations in the frame 1 SESS. 337, 
of government. 

Ordered This Draught of Government be transcribed 

T-* rp 

to be sent to both Houses of Parliament. pie mate 

Mr. Burroughs enters his dissent from the subordination re r rt of 

. . . . . , - , alterations. 

of Assemblies in that proposition, ' it is lawful and agree- ^ 

r r Draught to 

able/ and that ' of particular congregations assuming the be sent up 
power of ordination,' and that 'of the church of Ephesus,' ofpa^Ha 85 
if you mean that they were several congregations fixed. men t- 
Mr. Ny enters his dissent to the same propositions. Burroughs 

. and others 

Mr. Carter desires the same. dissent. 

Mr. Simpson desires the same. He also desired that 
Mr. Goodwin's dissent may be entered, he being not well. 
Ordered That he have leave against to-morrow. 
Mr. Bridge desires the same. 



Sess. 338. December 10, 1644. Tuesday morning. 

Debate upon the title ' Of the power of particular con- 
gregations.' The amendments considered. 
(Upon a motion Dr. Gouge.) 

Report ' of holy places ' debated. Debate of 

Mr. Palmer . . . The general notion of holiness, as it [ ep , r l as 

to holy 

relates to man for all and outward things, is such a dedica- places. 
tion to God as that it becomes His, and so no longer ours. 
If it were so under the Old Testament, I would be glad to 
know why it is not so now. That it was so in the Old is 
plain, in that 'burnt all the houses of God in the land.' This Ps. kxiv. 

Q 

can be no other but the synagogue, which had no typical ' 
relation. 

Mr. Rutherford This is acknowledged by all divines. 
No holiness in the time of gospel in any place. They say 
that the holiness in the Old Testament was all typical 
holiness. In New Testament there is no more holiness of 
place than of time, except the Lord's day. The time may 
be called holy, be[cause] the action performed in it is holy, 
and this will not bring any denomination of holiness . . . 
Synagogues only called God's houses because God was 

1 Draught written above ' frame ' in MS> 
B 



j8 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SF.SS. 338. worshipped there, and the burning of them was a profana- 

D ^' 10) tion of worship sccnndario, in respect that they are set 

apart for order's sake to the worship of God. We desire 

SJ ate n this to be proved, that it is the Lord's will to appropriate 

places. anv pi ace so to Himself as that it shall not be ours. . . , 

The houses of the New Testament have the same civil use 

that they would have had in the Old Testament. 

Mr. Gillcspy I speak to your order . . . consider 
whether not ... no contrary opinion in the negative that 
no one place is holier than another in the time of the 
gospel. 

Dr. Burges moved to reduce the three propositions to 
the last, which is comprehensive of what is necessary to 
the Directory. 

Mr. Seaman There is no way to expedite ourselves 
but consider how much is necessary upon this head for 
the Directory. . . . Confine yourselves to the affirmative 
de future. ... If you form any proposition, it must be 
doctrinal, though it be negative. 

Mr. Marshall \ do not yet understand any necessity 
of meddling with the business at all. It is a thing that is 
done. We have churches everywhere. No doubt about 
it, some 1 only two sorts of people : (i.) Some who think 
places not fitly prepared without a consecration ; (2.) 
Others think that places having been consecrated are so 
polluted that the servants of God should not make use of 
them. 

Mr. Pa&rter~*So as the place ... As no dedication or 
consecration doth make the place 2 more acceptable]. 

Mr. Goodwin being absent yesterday, desired to have 
his dissent entered to those propositions his brethren dis- 
sented to before. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate to-morrow morning. 

Upon a motion that the Committee for the drawing up 
the Directory or others that may be gotten, 

Ordered The same Committee that presented the 
Directory to send up the Draught of Government to-mor- 
row morning. 
1 Sic in MS., perhaps for 'save.' * Service written above ' place ' in MS. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 9 

Sess. 339. December u, 1644. Wednesday morning. SKSS. 339. 

Dec. n, 

Debate upon the Directory for days. l6 44- 

Report of Directory for visiting of the sick . . . debated Directory 
and voted. * 

Motion to make some provision for clandestine mar- debated 

and voted. 

nages. 

Mr. Greenhill desires to enter his dissent as the rest of Mr.Green- 
the dissenting brethren. sents.' b 

Sess. 340. December 12. Thursday morning. 

Dr. Burges made report of the delivery of the Draught 
of Government. 1 

The reasons of our dissenting brethren against the three Dissenting 
former propositions, mentioned in their dissents entered, brfng^ 
were brought in and read by Mr. Carter. reasons of 

/- T -ni r t-t . i dissent. 

Ordered Ihe former Committee appointed to consider _ 

- 1 Commit- 

of the former reasons of our dissenting brethren shall take tee to 
these reasons into consideration, and draw up answers to ^* 
them, and make report to the Assembly with all con- 
venient speed. R : No new Committee. 

R : [^ neg. Something put into the Directory for 
preventing of clandestine murders. 2 

A message from the House of Commons [for translation 
of Directory into Welsh]. 3 

Neg : Resolved The report concerning holy days shall 
not be waived. (?) 

Ordered Committee meet to-morrow in the afternoon 
to prepare Directory for Psalms. 

Mr. Seaman enters his dissent to that clause in the Seaman 
Directory for vi[si]tation concerning the poor, and so doth ^ dis ! " 
Mr. Wilson. sent. 

Sess. 341. December 13, 1644. Friday morning. 

Mr. Greene, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Langley for L. C, and To pray, 
Committee of both kingdoms. 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iii. pp. 721, 722. 

2 Sic in MS. for ' marriages. ' 

3 Journals of House of Commons, Vol. iii. p. 723. 



2O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 341. Report from the Committee for Singing. 
Dec. 13, Report for thanksgiving for women's deliverance from 

- childbirth. 
Dt P ecfory f Report for fasting. 

for fasting j[f r Mar\skall~\ moved to refer this of fasting to a Corn- 
recommit- . , ,, T , , 
ted. mittee of one or two, with Mr. Palmer. 

OrderedMr. Marshall, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Calamy, Mr. 
Tuckney, Mr. Harris, Mr. Ley, Mr. Ny, Mr. Herle, Mr. 
Carrell, Dr. Smith, or any three, to be a Committee to 
join with Mr. Palmer to consider of this report, and to 
present unto the Assembly what they think fit upon Mon- 
day morning. 

Directory Debate about churching, whether any Directory . . . 

churching The Directory for thanksgiving for women's churching 

of women shall be waived. R : aff. 

waived. 

Dr. Burges reported the delivery of the Directory, and 
we promised they should have it next week. 

Something to be considered about the head of petition. 
Ordered To go on with the Directory for singing Psalms. 

Scss. 342. December 16, 1644. Monday morning. 
Debate on Report of the Directory for visitation of the sick to be 
visitation^ sent U P to tne Parliament. Read. 

of sick. Mr. Tuckney moved to add something about the sacra- 
ment. 

R : The word[s] ' out of displeasure for sin ' shall stand. 
Ordered Those words, ' out of love,' left out. 
R - Those words, ' if but light it were heavy and press- 
ing,' shall be left out 

# * Those words, ' being lost in himself,' shall stand. 
Ordered' To an humbled sinner,' left out 
Ordered Instead of ' persuade,' ' advise.' 
Report made by Mr. Palmer of the Directory for fasting 
formerly recommitted. 
Addition An addition concerning the sacrament to the Directory 

concerning / . ., ,. ,. . . , J 

sacrament f Visitation of the Sick. 

adopted. R ; ~~ Notnin g added to the Directory for visitation con- 
cerning sacrament. 

Ordered That the Committee for answering the reasons 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2 I 

of the dissenting brethren make their report to-morrow SESS. 342. 
Corning. D ^ 6 ' 

Ordered That Dr. Burges inform the Hon ble . Houses 
of Parliament that the reason why the Assembly have sent tion why 
up nothing in the Directory concerning the Creed and the ree ^ and 

_; _ .... 1 en Corn- 

Ten Comm[andmen]ts, is because they reserve it for the mand- 

Directory for catechizing, where they conceive it will be j^"^ ^ 

most proper. 1 Directory. 

Sess. 343. December 17. Tuesday morning. 

An order from the Lords and Commons for admitting 
of Sir William Massam to the Assembly as a member. 3 

The answer to the reasons of dissenting brethren 
brought in and read. 

R. N. C. That the Committee to whom it was referred Answers to 
to draw up the answers shall take care for the drawing it dissent 
up and transcribing it to be sent up to both the Hon ble . a r ain , 

TT r 11 referred to 

Houses of Parliament, allowing them liberty to avoid Commit- 
expressions, which upon suggestion shall appear unfit, tee- 
without altering the matter : and give an account of the 
alterations to the Assembly. 

Ordered To debate the report of singing of Psalms the 
next session. 

Ordered To adjourn till Thursday. 

Sess. 344. December 19. Thursday morning. 

Debate about singing of Psalms. 

Ordered Mr. Marshall, Mr. Hill, Mr. Ley, Dr. Burges, Christmas 
to be a Committee to go up to the Honble. Houses of j^^^ 6 
Parliament to desire that they would be pleased to take fast. 
some order about the solemn keeping of the next fast, and 
that notice may be given of it in the several churches. 3 

Ordered That the Commissioners of Scotland be 
desired to present something to the Assembly concerning 
the third proposition in the Directory for singing of Psalms 
to-morrow morning, to be considered of in the Assembly. 

Debate about fasting. Debate on 

Directory 
1 See Journals of House of Lords, vol. vii. p. 103. 2 Ibid. p. 89. f or f as t_ 

3 Journals of House of Lords, vol. vii. pp. 105, 106. ing. 



'22 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 344. Debate about the time a natural day. . . . Debate about 

, D ^' I9> the authority. . . . Debate about the revolution of several days. 

Ordered Mr. Samuel Ball, Mr. James Ball, Mr. Samuel 

Nicholls, Mr. John Pypard, be approved to be Fellows in 

the Colleges to which they shall be appointed. 

Sess. ^.December 20, 1644. Friday morning. 

Directory Mr. Young, Mr. Connant, Mr. Chambers, [to pray, etc.], 
for singing jyj r Henderson made report of that committed to them. 

of Psalms 

ordered. It was ordered. 

Further Proceed in the debate of the Directory for fasting. 

debate on Debate about that of fasting and eating. 

Directory 

lor fast- Report of ministers for Durham. 

Mr. Agas was excepted against by Dr. Stanton. 
Ordered The information against Mr. Agas to be 
examined by that Committee upon Monday next. 

That the ministers to be sent down be heard to preach 
by some appointed by the Committee, before they be sent 
down to any place in the counties of Durham, Northum- 
berland, etc. 

An order for the sending up the reasons. 1 

Resolution A Directory for the practical part of discipline and 
Directory 1 * government to be drawn up. 

for dis- A Committee for the carrying up the reasons (Mr. Mar- 
Church" 1 shall, Mr. Vines, Mr. Herle, Mr. Hodges). 2 The same Corn- 
govern- mittee that carried up the votes carr 
ment. r 

Dr. Smith, Dr. Temple (Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney), 2 

Mr. Prophet, Mr. Hodges, Mr. Salway, Mr. Herle, Mr. 
Wilson, Mr. White, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Hill, Mr. 
Stanton, Mr. Cawdry to be a Committee to meet this 
afternoon to examine what is written of reasons or answers 
to them. . . . To consider . . . 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left in the 
Directory for fasting. 

Sess. 346. December 23, 1644. Monday morning. 
Ordered That the Committee that is to go up with the 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iii. p. 730. 

2 The names within parentheses are enclosed as if meant to be left out. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 23 

reasons and answers do signify that there shall be some- SKSS. 546. 
thing about excommunication shall be considered of, and ^Lf 3 ' 
sent up as speedily as we can. 1 

A letter from the Earl of Manchester for Dr. Love, to excommu- 
be Master of Trinity College in Cambridge. nicatkm to 

be con- 

R : That Dr. Love be approved by this Assembly as sidered. 
fit to be M r . of Trinity College in Cambridge. 

Debate upon the asserting of liberty of families together 
fasting. 

The Directory concerning fasting shall be drawn up, to Directory 
be worded and reported to the Assembly on Thursday ^ a ' 
morning. 

R: ^. That the liberty of the persons of divers families 
meeting together in private to fast shall be next de- 
bated. 

Sess. 347. 

Lord Warriston. . . . LordWar- 

Mr. Marshall As this noble Lord hath honoured us 



with his presence and assistance, and manifested his returned 
integrity and love to the public cause . . . desire that you 
would be pleased, in the name of the Assembly, to return 
our thankful acknowledgment. 

Which was accordingly done by the Prolocutor. 

Sess. 348. December 27, 1644. Friday morning. 

Mr. Scudder, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Strickland, to pray. 

Report of the Appendix concerning days and places for 
public worship. 

Report of the Directory for fasting drawn up and read, Directory 
and debated in the Assembly. [ r fast " 

R: Those words, 'as on a Sabbath,' shall be waived. adopted. 

R. N. C. This Directory for fasting shall be sent up to 
both Houses of Parliament 

Report of the Directory for singing of Psalms ordered to Directory 
be sent up. %s 

Debate about holy days. to be sent 

Ordered To take into consideration the report con- up ' 
1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iii. p. 733. 



24 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 348. cerning excommunication, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Seaman, Mr. 
7 ' Herle, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Vines. 



Sess. 349. December 30, 1640.' Monday morning. 

Letter to Ordered A letter to be drawn up to the General 
Assembly of Scotland by Dr. Burges, Mr. Marshall, Mr. 



of Church Arrowsmith, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Reynolds, 
land to'be Mr. Vines. The heads of those things passed the As- 
prepared. sem biy to be put into the letter, and to give them of Scot- 

land an account of how far the Assembly hath proceeded. 
A motion about the Directory in Welsh. 
Memorandum To represent something to Parliament, 

to desire them to review the superstitions that may be in 

the order of knighthood. 

Commit- A Committee to consider of this, and of all matters in 
siderof n " which there use to be any forms of prayers, or any 
forms of religious ceremony, in the Universities or elsewhere. 
SsedTn Ordered Mr. Seaman, Mr. Perne, Mr. Herle, Mr. 

mroies in Ra y ner > Mr - N 7> Dr - Temple, Mr. Hodges, Dr. Stanton, 
Universi- to be a Committee for this purpose. 

Memorandum To consider of something to express 

concerning Registers for burials and baptizings. 
Directory A paper read by Mr. Marshall about Church censures 



given m. R : This paper be considered to-morrow morning. 

Ordered That the Appendix be sent up to-morrow 
morning. 
A letter from [a minister of Zurich] 2 read. 

Sess. 350. December 31, 1644. Tuesday morning. 
Directory Debate about the Directory for excommunication. First 

for excom- u , , , ,. _ 

munica- branch ordered. Upon the second branch. . . . 
orderff 17 Mr ' ^oodwinW^x^ have you any ground for so dif- 
Rest de- ferin S proceedings ? It is worth our debate to consider 
hated. what sins they are that must be the object of excommuni- 
cation. . . . Said signs of repentance must be clear and 
evident ; so it must be in every case. Why, then, is it 
added there ? 

1 Sic in MS. ; should be 1644. * Gillespie's Notes of Debates, p. 97. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 25 

Mr. Ny . . . SF.SS. 350. 

Mr. Marshall All that is held out in this may be 
proved out of the story of the incestuous Corinthian, in 

_, r .. Directory 

I Cor. [V.J. f or 



Mr. Herle I do agree we should be very careful in this 

J . tion de- 

WOrk ; but if we should take in hand to set in a catalogue bated. 
of sins, we should do as they go to the Rota to learn to sin. 
. . . Why should it rest in the nature of sin to make it liable 
to excommunication . . . Sin hath its height from the will, 
then the least sin that is may arise to a contumacy ... A 
little stone thrown with a strong hand may kill a Goliah. 

Mr. Marshall To order. 

Mr. Ny We grant that if any sin come to obstinacy, it 
is liable to excommunication ; but this branch speaks of a 
case in which there are some atrocious sins committed . . . 
There may be a fundamental error in one age, that is not 
a fundamental error in another, as the resurrection to be 
denied now is a fundamental error. 

Mr. Henderson In the matter of excommunication, this 
difference of sins use to be observed by divines ... I think 
the words of this paper are the words of that treatise on 
the power of the keys set out by our brethren. 

Mr. Vines For that of fundamental . . . there is some- 
thing like it in Chillingworth . . . If fundamentum in se, it Pt. I. ch. 
is semper . . . We need not talk of obstinacy here, for that ^ ^ I3> 
is when one is convicted ; this is founded upon the noto- 
riety of the heinous sin. . . . The sin being heinous, we 
need not go to name it. We only name it by those aggra- 
vations which is the proper naming of sin to excommuni- 
cation. . . . All the reason is not to call the sinner to 
repentance, but to purge the Church from scandal. 

Dr. Gouge It is true that there are some sins in their 
own nature not to be suffered. . . . One word may be put 
in to satisfy all, ' as incest and such like.' 

Mr. Gillespy Much hath been spoken that needs not at 
this time . . . All that is spoken to specify that sort of sin 
that deserves excommunication, that is not before you . . . 
But for the ground of such a different proceeding in several 
sorts of public sins . . . the ground of that will appear 



26 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 350. from the vote in the Assembly . . . Voted the suspension 
D * 3I of a person not yet cast out of the Church. There is 
gradus to excommunication. They will not say that the 
for r exc om- incestuous Corinthian should first have been suspended 
munica- f rom t h e sacrament. ... In other cases there is a proceed- 
bau*?. 6 " ing by more degrees, as that place, ' a heretic after once or 
Tit. iii 10 twice admonition reject ' . . . and that place, ' them that sin 
v.*' reprove before all men, that others may fear.' 

Mr. Goodwin I observe your Directory is defective in 
the main thing. 

Mr. Reynolds A sin may be heinous two ways. 

Mr. Goodwin Whether there may be an excommuni- 
cation without admonition in case of heinous sins, this is 
the question. 

Mr. Marshall It is stated in the paper, in such sins 
they may proceed against them without the usual degrees. 

Mr. Goodivin -Without the usual degrees, that is admo- 
nition. Then doth not the apost. in the I Corin. v. make 
all other sins parallel to that of incest ? The doctrine is for 
one as well as another . . . You have but this example of 
excommunication, and here is also the rule. 

Mr. Marshall ... a short answer to this argument, 
because both in the same place. . . . Because they are 
named in the same chapter, it doth not follow that they 
are parallel sins, or must be dealt with in the same way. 
. . . Those sins are condemned in other epistles, and [he] 
doth not will them to excommunicate for them. 

Mr. Rutherford There should have been an argument 
against the very words of the Directory. . . . There is 
nothing in this paper for excommunication ipso facto, nor 
anything that doth exclude all the degrees of process . . . 
Only the paper saith there is no necessity to proceed in 
those usual degrees, yet there are degrees in the paper to 
such, as in case they be swallowed up in grief. . . . This to 
be proved, that there are no sins so atrocious but the 
Church ought to proceed against them with all the degrees 
of... 

Mr. Calamy1\& part of the I Cor. doth not speak of 
sacramental eating. . . . Dr. Ames puts this question, whe- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 27 



ther he [that] is contumax be $ statim excommuni- SKSS. 350. 
candus, 1 he resolves that the ap[ostle] judges so in the . . . 1644 '' 

Mr. Wilson I have one scruple about the usual degrees. 
I Tim. v. 20. Those that sin are to be rebuked, and re- 
buked publicly. There is to be an increpation before 
excommunication. ... 2 Cor. ii. 7. 

Mr. Ley I question not but a difference of sins, but my 
scruple is whether it be put in the right place. 

Sess. 351. January I, 1644. Wednesday morning. 

R. That Mr. Goodall shall not have a certificate with- 
out further inquiry. 

Ordered That Mr. Goodall bring a testimony under 
the hands of Mr. Coales and other known ministers about 
Nottingham, and then he is to have his [certificate]. 

Debate upon the Directory for excommunication. Debate 

Debate about that 'longer delay the admitting to the' .. 

Memorandum That either in the Discipline or Direc- munica 
tory, something be expressed concerning receiving of oaths, 

Memorandum That something be considered of to set 
out what sins are to be taken cognizance of by the elder- 
ship for Church censures. 

Sess. 352. January 2, 1644. Tlairsday morning. 
A paper was brought from the Commissioners of 
Scotland. 2 



Sess. 353. January 3, Friday morning. 
Mr. Harris, Mr. Salway, Mr. Simpson. To pray 

Ordered Mr. Calvert for York. 7 ith , 

Lords, etc. 

Ordered Mr. Rogers for Barney Castle. 

Report of a letter from the Committee to be sent to the 
Assembly of Scotland, read . . . Debated. 

Resolved upon the Q., that those words shall stand. 

Resolved Those words, 'the common interest,' and 'to 
us and you,' shall stand. 

1 Amesii de Conscientia, lib. iv. cap. xxix. quest. 8. 

2 Reformation of Church Government in Scotland cleared from some Mis- 
jtakes and Prejudices. Edin. 1644. 



28 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 353. Mr. Gillc\s\py I acknowledge it to be one of the 
^1644' g reat; est mercies that I ever received in this world to have 
- , liberty . . . that I might contribute . . . and be edified . . . 
speedTbe- and now when I am called away, I thank God for it. I 
foregoing g O awa y m ore confirmed in my own conscience that the 
land. government is most agreeable to the word of God . . . And 
what I say for myself, Mr. Bayly is of the same mind . . . 
I must return humble thanks ... I am assured that my 
infirmities have appeared too much in this Assembly, that 
at some times I have offended some, and that at some 
times I have taken up time in speaking, to hinder others 
that would have spoken better . . . and ... I am confident 
that He that hath begun the good work will finish it ... 
Your difficulties have been many . . . The greatest difficul- 
ties sometimes was the Prelacy and Book of Common 
Prayer . . . but other impediments are fallen in, which I 
pray God may . . . You have here some dissenting brethren 
to whom I owe great respect ... a word of love and affec- 
tion ... I wish they prove to be as unwilling to divide from 
Prefers us, as we have been unwilling to divide from them. I 
dationTo" W ' 1S ^ ^ at mst ead of toleration, there may be a mutual 
toleration, endeavour for a happy accommodation . . . There is a cer- 
tain measure of forbearance, but it is not so seasonable 
now to be talking of forbearance, but mutual endeavours 
for accommodation ... It is true two are better than one, 
but it is not true of parties . . . since God hath promised 
to give His people one heart and one way . . . Now, if you 
have any other commands for us that are going home, 
we shall be careful of them ; though we go from you, we 
shall [be] present with you in spirit. 

Dr. Bttrgeslt hath pleased the Commissioner to ac- 
knowledge it a great happiness that he had opportunity to 
be amongst us so long. I think the Assembly will ac- 
knowledge it a happiness to have enjoyed their help . . . 
For his modest expression of speaking in the Assembly, 
the Assembly acknowledged with all thankfulness . . . It's 
a pious and Christian close . . . What he hath desired is the 
desire of us all ... I hope you will be pleased to let them 
know how much we do value their pains. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 29 

Prolocutor ordered by ... I am unfit for such an cm- SESS. 353. 
ployment that divers times do fall upon me . . . All of us - T ^ 44 3 ' 
have had great experience of your learned pains ; for my- 
self, I have taken great comfort in your learned discourses, tor'sreply. 

That this letter be transcribed, and something added by Letter 
Mr. Marshall concerning . U J,P te s. 

with addi- 
tion to be 

Sess. 354. January 6, 1644. Monday morning. made by 

Mr. Mar- 
Report of some alterations in the letter sent to Scotland, shall. 

Ordered. 

Proceed in the debate of Directory for excommuni- Debate on 
ration Directory 

Catl0n ' for excom- 

Debate about the ministers expressing of the penitent's munica- 

c , . tion re- 

Slgn of his repentance. sumed. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left. 

Sess. 355. January 7, 1644. Tuesday morning. 

Report made by Mr. Ley of the distribution of books to 
several members of the Assembly. 

Proceed in debate of the Directory for excommuni- 
cation. 

Mr. Goodwin . . . 

Mr. Marshall This paragraph is no more than what 
any one would promise and say. ... If any will draw an 
error out of a truth, his weakness will appear. 

Dr. Surges If they have anything to say against this 
proposition in debate, it is reason we should hear them ; 
but if we ... 

Debate about the word ' proceed.' 

Next paragraph proceeded] in. 

Mr. Marshall Now come upon that branch of the 
Church censure deservedly acknowledged to be the great- 
est . . . wherein the servants of Christ have the greatest 
variety of their senses and apprehensions, and amongst 
ourselves hardly anything before you wherein we have 
found more too to differ; and an irreparable division may be 
of as sad consequence as in any other point . . . And there- 
fore I desire the Lord of Heaven to direct us in it, and 
compose our spirits so that we may . . . The reason of pre- 



;O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

_/ 

SKSS. 355. senting us this is of purpose to prevent long, dangerous, 
J a ?' 7> and difficult debate. Three sorts of opinions in this 

I ( '4 } 

Assembly: (i) some hold it only in the congregational 
Direclory" presbytery ; (2) others think that both the congregation 
for excom- anc j greater assemblies may do it ; (3) others, it may be, 

munica- . . , . 

tion. think that particular congregations may not do it ... 
Directory These words are so tied down as that all they who 
os- can Dut submit to have the business carried before a 



sible to (jreater assembly may enjoy their own way, their own 

unitethose 53 . . J *' J . 

of different opinions, and practice ... Ihe most obvious objection is, 

views. we were better speak out where it will become this Assem- 
bly to do it ambiguously . . . But I shall tell you what 
satisfied me ... I look upon our present divisions . . . We 
have another party to contend with who may be much 
helped . . . But their hopes and expectations may be frus- 
trated ; and therefore I thought, if at the present we can 
settle it in such a way as that men of several judgments, it 
would be a great mercy at the present, and it may please 
God that we may grow up together. 

Dr. Surges I only move this for our better and more 
orderly proceeding . . . Looke upon this as a point of 
practice ... if any debates against it contain ourselves 
within the limits of our paper. 

Mr. Goodwin The business hath been of long expecta- 
tion, and needs a great deal of composedness of spirit to 
proceed in the debate about it ... I am sorry that there 
fell out any occasion of heat amongst us, than which there 
could not be a greater ... I hope for this debate it shall 
not any way unsettle bur spirits . . . There is use of 
synods to frame up the spirits of men to a way of 
peace . . . I think the winding up of things in a way of 
peace and accommodation should not be when things are 
brought in by a committee or brethren as this was, but 
after debates of things . . . That this may be made up so 
as to satisfy two differing judgments in this Assembly . . . 
But it had been well if you had taken in some of the other, 
that they also might have been consulted with in it ... I 
desire in the debate nothing may be stated. . . . 

Mr. Marshall Said things that are for accommoda- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 3! 

tion are done after debates, when the divisions do ap- SKSS. 355, 

Tan. 7," 

pear. J l644 . 

A. I think this did appear abundantly in former 
debates ... If it had been only a suspected thing, it Directory 
miefht have been too much care or fear aforehand, but for e . xcom - 

munica- 

nothing is more clear than the declared opinions of tion. 
brethren on this point . . . That which seems most of all 
to touch upon those that present the paper is, that it was 
not communicated ... If any neglect in it, it is to be im- 
puted me. . . . After some few of us had digested it, few 
days before I presented it to you . . . One of the brethren 
that are dissenting I advised with, and gave it home with 
him one night, and did not limit him to communicate it to 
whom he pleased . . . The Commissioners of Scotland did 
really intend that it might suit with their way, so that it 
might be but heard in the classis. 

Mr. Henderson The differing judgments of some of the 
brethren in the Assembly are very well known already, 
and as well as can be made known by a debate . . . For 
this exception there is as much spoken as may give satis- 
faction ... I humbly move that if any conference with 
our dissenting brethren may prepare it more for the public 
debate, it may be done ... I have heard some of our 
brethren say, if they could get satisfaction in this, they did 
not see any great difference. 

Mr. Goodwin The motion now made is a good one, 
only I do not know what you can well go to. 

Mr. Rutherford I. conceive the question now will be 
whether this controversy will be tanti that the Assembly 
must determine what is the primutn subjectum potestatis 
jurisdictionis. There is no necessity to determine this, 
be[cause] many writers learned have Written accurately of 
it, and yet never settled this controversy ... 2. Not a 
Protestant Synod that can be produced that hath deter- 
mined it on either side . . . The words will carry nothing 
that may condemn either side . . . Though it be not com- 
mitted by the Assembly, yet there are divers things that 
are equivalent to a commitment 

Mr. Palmer . 



32 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 355. Dr. Surges I desire we may not cast any prejudice 

J a g- 7 ' upon this paper, which was drawn up to prevent heats . . . 

If you commit this, I desire it may be to think of some 

Dfrectorf Wa 7 to make this P assable > and not draW US tO ther 

for excom- debates. 

munica- , , 

ti n Mr. Ny . . . 

Mr. Goodwin It you had any other thing to be dis- 
puted, it were well if either you entered upon now or 
resolved to do it ... I suppose this paper hath lain long 
upon the thoughts of many ... It will concern us to have 
time more than an afternoon. 

Mr. Reynolds This put into the hands of our dissenting 
brethren, and they to consider how far they can agree, and 
where they stick. 

Mr. Ny There is no reason for that motion . . . This 
is as if this paper were a rule, which is no more a rule than 
any paper. . . . Let us frame new propositions de novo 
without looking upon this paper. 

Mr. Rutherford -The whole Assembly did agree of a 
commitment of this ; the end is unity and peace, without 
any hurt or violation of truth, the same is recommitted 
. . . This paper is ordered to be taken into consideration, 
and therefore the recommitment is no reversing of your 
former order. 

Mr. Palmer I desire you would continue your thoughts 
. . . One thing I desire may be avoided . . . not to speak 
of three parties . . . For your Committee I desire the 
Assembly may be a Committee, that the Assembly may 
meet as a Committee, and then no man shall be excluded. 

Mr. Marshall I apprehend the fewer there are that do 
this, the sooner it will be done . . . That this be committed, 
Paragraph 6. [R.] That the paragraph in the remaining part of the 
commit- Directory for excommunication now in debate be recom- 
mitted for accommodation, the number to be 6. 

OrderedMr. Goodwin, Mr. Ny, Mr. Marshall, Mr. 
Vines, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Seaman. The Commissioners of 
the Church of Scotland are desired to be assisting to that 
Committee, to meet in the afternoon, and to make report 
to-morrow morning. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 33 

Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Young, Mr. Reynolds added. SESS. 355. 

The Assembly to proceed in the debate of the rest of ,6^7' 
Directory. 

Sess. 356. January 8, 1644. Wednesday morning. 

That the Committee . . . 

A letter brought from the ministers of York, and a peti- 
tion to be presented to the House of Commons. 

Memorandum The Parliament be desired to think of 
an honourable maintenance for ministers, the dues being 
now taken off by the Directory. 

Ordered Mr. Marshall, Dr. Burges, Mr. Strickland, Mr. 
Michaelthwaite, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Whitaker, to present this 
petition from York, and also to desire some course to be 
taken that ministers put into seques[tra]tions may not be 
ou[s]ted upon the resignation or death of those. 

That the petition of the Yorkshire ministers to the House Petition of 

of Commons, now read, shall be from this Assembly pre- Y ? rksnire 

J r ministers 

sented, and recommended to that Hon ble . House, with recom- 
request that it may be speedily taken into consideration. House of 
Debate on that paragraph of the Directory concerning Commons. 
shunning of communion with the excommunicate person. 

Sess. 357. January 9, 1644. -Thursday morning. 

Mr. Marshall made report [that he had presented the 
petition to the House of Commons, and that it was read ; 
but not being brought in regularly, the House proceeded 
no farther upon it]. 1 

Ordered The petition from the ministers of Yorke be 
delivered to Sir Thomas Widrington. 

Report made from the Committee appointed to consider 
of the paragraph in the Directory. 

Ordered Mr. John Wolfhall, Stamfordham in North- 
umberland. 

Dr. Gouge moved concerning Mr. Agas, the Committee 
thought him fit. 

Debate upon the excommunicate coming to the preach- 
ing. 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 14. 



34 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 357. [A blank page.] 

Mr. ColemanThis proposition takes for granted (i) 
that the preaching is no peculiar privilege, but the sacra- 
ments are ; (2) that the sacraments arc no converting 



" 



municated ordinances I mean the second conversion ... I see no 
StaShig difference why the sacraments may not as well work upon 
preaching. & man fa j len &s the m i n i stry of the word. 

Mr. Ny _ . . . For that of private exhortation therefore 
public. A. Two differences: (i) private is to be formed 
directly to this man's state to make him more ashamed, 
but in the public you may preach six or seven sermons 
that may not reach him for humiliation. (2) There is 
nothing of the honourable communion of saints in private. 
It is no more than a family communion. 

Mr. Hodges If the minister should in public reprove 
this man, would it not tend more to his shame, than to do 
it in private ? 

Mr. Marshall For that, that the communion of saints 
doth not lie in private conversation, but in public ordi- 
nances ... A. Church communion doth carry the private 
communion of saints as well as the public. ... If divers 
duties are to be performed in private virtute communionis, 
then the communion of saints reacheth to the private . . . 
If excommunicating shut out from communion of saints, 
then look what falls under that notion, that * he must be 
debarred from. 

Mr. Delaplace I know not what excommunication 
means except ab omnibus sacris ; and we have types of it 
in the law, etc. 

Mr. Palmer It is not enough to exclude the excom- 
municate from the preaching of the word, except we can 
find a rule in the word to debar them of it. ... If it be 
in the word, it must be in one of those, let him be a pub- 
lican, etc., or put him away from amongst you, and deliver- 
ing unto Satan. 

OrderedMr. Abner Coe approved of for a Fellowship 
in Keyes * College. 

To debate . . . 

1 In MS. that that notion. * Query Caius College. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 35 

SESS. 358. 
Sess. 358. January 10, 1644. Friday morning. J an - I0 - 

Mr. Burges, Mr. Vines, Mr. Ash. 

Report made by Mr. Marshall from the Committee for 
accommodation. Read and debated. 

Mr. Carter desired to debate as upon Monday, that there 
might be time to consider of it for one day till the next 
session. 

Debate about excommunicate person joining in prayer. Debate on 

Mr. Rutherford -He that joins in prayer prays with ^ u ~ 
the Church, and saith Amen, but not so in hearing of the resumed. 
word. 

. . . The minister may pray with him, but not for him ; 
and therefore there is not par ratio. 

Mr. Calamy Consider the state of the question. You 
must suppose he comes not as a member, and you must 
suppose him to be a child of God ; and then prayer may 
be used for his recovery out of that sin, as well as hearing. 
. . . He is not excommunicated from the invisible Church, 
nor from the inward communion with Jesus Christ. . . . He 
is to be admitted to the prayers because he is fit to pray, 
and to join in prayer he is fitter than a heathen. . . . This 
will be an argument to show that we prefer the prayers of 
the Church before preaching. . . . The reason why excom- 
municate persons were not admitted in primitive times was 
because the Liturgy was in order to the sacraments, from 
which they were excluded. 

Mr. Rutherford It is granted that those that have an 
internal communion with the invisible Church may be ex- 
communicated . . . and so it is argued they are fit to pray 
be[cause] of that communion. ... A. The fitness must be 
a visible and external fitness, else he speaks nothing. . . . 
If he speaks of an inward fitness in regard of faith, then he 
is as fit for the sacrament of the Lord's Supper as for the 
prayers of the Church. 2. Said the Church may pray for 
him, therefore with him. ... I deny the consequence, and 
the words out of the ' Synopsis Purioris Theologiae ' ' do 
not affirm so much. . . . True, in ancient times they were 

1 Synopsis Purioris Theologiae, Disput. xlviii. Thes. Sdvii. 



36 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 358. debarred from the prayers, but not in order to the sacra- 
Jan. 10, 
1644. ment - 

Dr. Temple Upon the same ground you have admitted 

Debate on . __-,_,." . \\i\ 

excommu- him to the mystery l of the Word for his restoring. . . . Why 

nication. s h O uld there not be the same act of Church fellowship in 
joining in hearing God speak to us that there is in our 
speaking to God ? 

Mr. Marshall I cannot dispute against the thing. That 
of joining in prayer is darker to me ; not satisfied that he 
should come to join in prayer. . . . Not that I think the 
one to be more an act of communion, but upon this ground ; 
he is not to be admitted to those ordinances, but only as 
means to bring him to repentance. If any of those ordi- 
nances could reach him with as good effect in his absence, 
then he ought not to be present at any of them ; but 
preaching cannot do it, prayer may. 

Mr. Reynolds He hath prevented me. . . . Two argu- 
ments afoot : one from the parity of the ordinances, the 
other from the mystical communion. For the former there 
is not a parity. ... In the business of prayer the case is 
others. 2 . . . Joining in prayer \sformaliter communion. . . . 
For the other. . . . True, a regenerate person may be ex- 
communicate ; yet it follows not that because he is in the 
body of Christ he may join in such. . . . There is communio 
habitualis . . . yet, quoad exercitium, this actual communion 
may be suspended. 

Mr. Carter There is an apparent difference betwixt. . . . 
Prayer is a communion out of the whole company, but 
taking in the word is a particular act. 

Mr. Ny For that of interruption of our communion with 
Christ quoad exercitium [it] is not safe. 

Mr. Coleman For the different nature of the preaching 
of the word and prayer. . . . 

Ordered Mr. Samuel Langden, Mr. William Moses, Mr. 
John Fairfaxe, approved for Fellows. 

Ordered Mr. William Beecher, 3 Mr. of Arts ; Mr. 
George Sickes, for Fellows. 

1 In MS. mistery. Perhaps it may be for ministery. 
s Probably for otherwise. 8 Or Becetor. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 37 

Sess. 359. January 13, 1644. Monday morning. SKSS. 359. 

Debate about admitting the excommunicate person to '1644?' 
public prayers. . . . Debate about the meaning of it. 

Ordered A Committee to consider of the business of 
the excommunicate person's presence at the hearing of 
the word and the public prayers, and also to consider 
of the causes for which any person is to be excommu- 
nicated. 

The former Committee that are appointed to consider of 
that branch in the Directory concerning excommunication 
by the Eldership shall be a Committee. 

Dr. Temple, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Bridge, 
Mr. Gataker, added to this Committee to meet upon 
Tuesday, in the afternoon. 

The Commissioners of Scotland are desired to be assist- 
ing to this Committee. 

Debate about the degrees of admonition. 

Sess. 360. January 14, 1644. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Field be approved for a Fellow in 
Christ College. 

R. That Mr. Agas shall be approved by this Assembly 
for that place the Committee for the North shall think him 
meet for. 

Ordered The remainder of that Directory for excom- Remainder 

, , of Direc- 

mumcation be recommitted ; yet so as to proceed in the tory 

debate to-morrow, if nothing be reported. recom- 

Sess. 361. January 15, 1644. Wednesday morning. 

Report about the Directory for excommunication com- Report 
mitted. Debate upon it. brought 

Debate about that the minister pronouncing the sen- U P- 
tence. Debated. 

Mr. Ny This act is one of the least ministerial acts. . . . 
The main work is despatched by the suffrage of many. 

Mr. Rutherford This divine argues thus : The ruling 
elder may do that which is more, therefore the less. ... A. 
This argument will conclude that he may baptize. There 
may be a controversy whether such a child is to be bap- 



38 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 361. tized. In this case the elder is a judge, but he will not 

- f ^J5. therefore say that he may baptize. ... It is altogether 

denied that the single suffrage of one ruling elder is of 

continued, more worth than the pronouncing of the sentence by the 

minister. . . . That any should preach the word, or pray 

publicly, but only the pastor, I think will be denied by the 

Assembly. 

Mr. Vines What act to be done in the congregation 
that may be done by a ruling officer. 

Mr. Ny The elder may speak in the presbytery, classis, 
provincial and national, and therefore why not in the con- 
gregation ? 

Mr. Rutherford -He speaks in the eldership in his own 
name as a particular elder, but in the Church he speaks in 
the name of the Church and . . . Said ruling officers may 
prophesy. . . . I Cor. xii. How can the word of God ascribe 
prophes[y]ing, since the word restricts it only to govern- 
ing? 

Mr. Marshall It is one thing to say a gifted man may 
preach, but another thing to say a ruling elder qua ruling 
elder, by virtue of his office, may do it. 

Sess. 362. January 16, 1644. Thursday morning. 

Dr. Hoyle made report of a letter to Ireland. 
Letter as Ordered Dr. Hoyle, Dr. Temple, Dr. Gouge, and the 

to Ireland r , . . , 

to be sent rest ot tnat Committee appointed to draw up the letter 
claSi in sha11 ac( l uaint the House of Commons with this letter, and 
Holland, desire that it may be sent to the several classes in Holland. 
Ordered That this letter be sent in the name of the 
Assembly to the several classes in Holland. 
Upon a motion made by Mr. Tuckney, it was 
Ordered Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Wilkinson, jun., be sent as 
from the Assembly to visit the assessor, Dr. Burges. 

Ordered Dr. Temple, Dr. Hoyle, and Dr. Smith to 
address themselves to the Committee of both kingdoms, 
to desire them to acquaint their agents in Ireland with 
that report of the Assembly writing a letter. 

Mr ' Marshal1 made re P r t of the Report concerning the 
Directory for excommunication. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 39 

It was considered and ordered. SKSS. 362. 

Mr. Marshall delivered the words of the prayer to be j^A ' 
used, which was read and debated. 

Debate about those words, ' that God would ratify this tory for 



Ordered This recommitted. 

Sess. 363. January 17, 1644. Friday morning. 

[Mr. Greenhilll, Dr. Temple, Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Carter. To pray 
Mr. Marshall made report from the Committee about the Lord* et 
Directory for excommunication. 

Mr. Greenhill excused upon his alleging of his weakness. 

The paper reported being voted, there was some debate 
about what we should next debate. . . . There was some- 
thing remaining in the report not yet concluded in the 
Committee, which was a great stick, about going to the 
presbytery in case of absolution . . . which be[cause] the 
Committee could not meet about it in the afternoon, the 
Assembly entered upon the debate and consideration of it, 
to see if there may be anything found out to satisfy all 
sides. . . . Some forms were tendered, and were debated in Proposed 
the Committee, but not concluded. Of the forms were 



these : ' Where, if nothing be alleged against him, he may f p r absolu- 

11 i 1 r 11-1 1-11- l i n from 

be brought before the classical presbytery, which being excommu- 
also satisfied with his humiliation and trial of his repent- mcatlon - 
ance, he is to be absolved from the sentence of excom- 
munication by the particular eldership, and before the 
congregation where the offence is given, which may be 
done in this manner ' ... or thus : ' The classical presby- 
tery may also be satisfied from him with the signs of his 
unfeigned repentance, and when his repentance is mani- 
fested, he is to be absolved from the sentence of ex- 
communication, which may thus be done "... This last 
was testified by Mr. Marshall ; the Commissioners of Scot- 
land were willing to assent unto if one word may be put 
in, viz. upon examination. . . . Mr. Henderson offered 
two more . . . ' An[d] all who have power and interest be 
satisfied therewith, the penitent' . . . or, 'If after the excom- 

1 See Government and Order of the Church of Scotland, p. 42. 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



Dissenting 
brethren 
assent to 
last of 
proposed 
forms. 
Debate on 
this. 



SESS. 363. munication the signs of his repentance appear, the pen[i- 
^1644' ten t]-' The dissenting brethren do consider of those four 
forms presented against Monday morning. 

Sess. 364. January 20, 1644. Monday morning. 

Dr. Burges I know not how sufficiently to acknowledge 
my thankfulness to this Assembly for their great and 
unexpected respect in sending to visit me. 

The dissenting brethren brought in the paper again, and 
did assent to the last form : ' The signs of his repentance 
appear,' etc., which was debated. 

Dr. Temple I fear this will be a seed of perpetual 
division. 

Mr. Marshall I think rather it may be a means of 
concord. . . . We are not to expect that we shall be able to 
carry all things in practice first ; that may be another 
work at another time. . . . Therefore what we can attain at 
the first, let us receive it. 

Dr. Gouge I desire the accommodation may be upon 
equal terms, no mention of the congregation. 

Mr. Henderson 

Prolocutor by order of the Assembly spoke to Sir 
Charles Erskine, one of the Scotch Commissioners now 
added to the Assembly. 

The dissenters declare that they give their affirmative 
to that vote, they gave their negative unto in the former 
vote, upon the carrying of the second question negative. 

Moved by the Commissioners of Scotland that the dis- 
senters would declare whether they did all agree to the 
Directory of Ordination. 

Lord Chancellor Honble. Houses . . . The Parliament 
. . . that religion may be settled ... In the propositions it 
is but a general (?) . . . and now some things are given in 
as the Directory . . . and some propositions for ... If any- 
thing be before you ... as the reasons and solutions of 
the Assembly, etc. 

That the Committee for answering the reasons of the 
dissenting brethren do hasten their report unto the 
Assembly. 



Welcome 
of Sir C. 
Erskine, 
an addi- 
tional 
Scotch 
Commis- 



THE ASSEMBLY OP^ DIVINES. 4 I 

Sess. 365. January 21, 1644. Tuesday morning. SESS. 365. 

Report made by Mr. Marshall of the mould of the 1644.' 
Directory as it was altered and transposed by the Com- p; TT~ r 
mittee. It was read, and considered, and ordered. as altered, 

Mr. Henderson brought in a paper of form of prayer and or d ere d. 
absolution of the penit[ent]. 

Sess. 366. January 22, 1644. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. French, of Emanuel College ; ~) 

Ordered Mr. Bradshaw, of Trinity College ; \ 
for Fellows in the Colleges they shall be designed unto. 

Dr. Stanton attend the Committee of plundered ministers. 

Report made by Mr. Marshall of the sins worthy of Debate on 
excommunication. j*7 

Debate whether those propositions shall be taken into munica- 

, , tion. 

debate. 

Mr. Henderson This is a matter of the greatest import- 
ance that ever you took in hand. ... It were to be wished 
that we might clearly see no church hath gone so far on as 
this paper doth. ... I offer it that some general rules . . . 

Mr. Marshall If the Socinians nor Arminians do not 
overthrow. 

Mr. Bridge This cannot open a gap for the Arminians 
and Socinians. ... I think they are heretics, and blas- 
pheme too, etc. 

Mr. Ny If the Arminian be not a heretic, how will 
you. . . . 

Dr. Surges If you enter upon a debate of this kind, 
wherein there will be such difference, worthy of your con- 
sideration, whether you will not waive it altogether. 

Mr. Reynolds It was referred to a committee to con- 
sider of it, and they have reported. 

Sess. 367. 1 

Ordered To examine Mr. Howard. 
S r . Goodday, S r . Simonds, approved for Fellows. 
Commissioners brought in a paper concerning the causes 
of excom[munication]. 

1 The minutes of this Session are in another hand. 



42 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 367. Ordered That this paper and the other reported yester- 
day shall be compared. 

Ordered' Such sins as subvert the faith, or any other 
errors which overthrow the power of godliness, if he that 
hold them spread them, seeking to draw others after 
him.' 

Sess. 368. January 24, 1644. Friday morning. 

To pray. Mr. Hodges, Mr. Perne, Mr. Prophet. 
Debate Debate upon the sins for excommunication. Both papers 
' compared together. . . . Sins in practice. 

Mr. Calamy Whatsoever sin is admonishable, that sin 
in excommunicable. 

Debate about the third branch, ' tend to subvert and dis- 
turb,' etc. 

Mr. Bridge Whether the breach of the order of the 
Church be the materiale of the censure of excommunica- 
tion, I think not. . . . None but lost men . . . None but shut 
out of the kingdom of heaven. 

Mr. Ny There may be some practices against order so 
manifest as may tend to the subversion ... I do not think 
that every particular breach of order . . . 

Sess. 369. January 27, 1644. Monday morning. 

Debate upon the negative part of the report in both 
papers. 

Mr. Henderson . . . We desire the Assembly will not 
mistake us so far as to think that we set down our paper 
by way of antithesis. . . . We cannot accommodate further 
than we have set down in this paper. . . . That in this paper 
... If you give way to that paper, I see not how any error 
can be suppressed. 

Mr. Bridge I know not how that paper ' of Reformed 
Churches ' can stand. ... I must enter my dissent to the 
former vote. 

Mr. Rutherford The latter proposition hath been 
spoken against, but they have not contradicted the words 
of the proposition. . . . Something said against that ' errors 
in Reformed Churches,' but it is said 'commonly held in the 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 43 

best Reformed Churches.' . . . For that ' such errors the SKSS. 369. 
Lord may leave His own to,' the Lord may leave His own 1644 

to fundamental errors. . . Said this is opposed to the first 

...,/. Debate 

proposition. . . . Here is no restriction in the first, continued. 

Mr. Marshall I am sorry that they do still harp upon 
that string, as if the Committee did hold out any such 
thing. ... If the proposition stood alone, the most clear 
sense of it will be that which the Commissioner makes ; but 
take it as it is, a negative of the other affirmative. 

Mr. Henderson We conceive that a man may be ex- 
communicated for an error that is not fundamental, though 
he do not hold it against the light of his conscience. 

A form was tendered by Dr. Burges. . . . ' But for other 
errors, sins, and practices, as the truly godly may some- 
times be left unto, although all should endeavour to help 
their brethren against them, we do not judge that they 
should be shut out of the communion of the Church.' 

Dr. Temple I offer another way : put both the propo- 
sitions into one ; one will explain another. 

Mr. Reynolds offers this . . . ' Such other errors in judg- 
ment as are matters not of faith, but opinion, not being in 
their own nature pernicious, but such wherein the learned 
and godly men may and do usually differ.' 

Mr. Ny offers one word to be added, ' pernicious to god- 
liness.' 

Moved to add ' possibly,' which was resolved. 

Moved to add ' the best Reformed Churches.' 

Mr. Goodwin This puts the renown * upon the Reformed 
Churches, which the Scripture doth not upon any Churches 
in the world. . . . This is to set all truth in the pillory, and 
Reformed Churches over them. 

Debate upon the negative in point of practice. 

Debate upon the 3rd. 

Mr. Ny I think neither of those papers will serve in this. 

An order from the Lords and Commons for admitting 
of Mr. Edward Corbet. 

Mr. Edward Corbet appeared in the Assembly, and took 
the protestation. 

1 renowne in MS., or corowne, for crown. 



44 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 369. Mr. Ny We do not rightly understand order, nor the 

1644 hedge. ... If by the hedge you mean the prudential rules 

of men, it cannot be of more value than . . . Where is the 

continued, word unity applied to any particular visible Church, but 

only to the general . . . Wherein is this unity ? Is it in 

doctrine ? That you will not say. Is it in practice ? 

Dr. Burges Always ready to be under the pedagey l of 
this brother. ... It may be he will think everything in 
discipline must be an institution . . . and we may agree to 
prudentials. 

Mr. Sed\_g\wicke offered this . . . ' But such as cannot 
come up in their practice to everything established, and do 
not subvert the order appointed by Christ in His Church.' 

Sess. 370. January 30, 1644. Thursday morning. 

Proceed in the debate of sins of excommunication. 

Dr. Temple To me the question is : What is the hedge 
to preserve the government, whether excommunication or 
some power of the civil magistrate. 

Mr. Reynolds offered a form. 

Mr. Chambers offered a form. 

A Committee to consider of this clause, and all other 
cases in which the Parliament may be desired to make 
such provision as they shall conceive meet for conserva- 
tion of government and points of doctrine or life which do 
not fall under excommunication, and what proceedings 
they shall think fit with those that stand out excommu- 
nication. 

An order from the House of Commons to write to the 
distressed Protestants of Ireland : read. 

Ordered Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Ny, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. 
Young, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Palmer, Mr. 
Herle, Dr. Temple, to meet to-morrow in the afternoon. 
The Commissioners of the Church of Scotland are to 
assist. 

Sess. 371. January 31, 1644. Friday morning. 
Mr. Newcomen, Dr. Wincop, Mr. Guibon, to pray. 
1 Sic in MS., probably for pedagogy (<) x*?"*)- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 45 

Debate of fo&formale in the sins worthy of excommu- SKSS. 371. 
nication. 1644' 

Mr. Rutherford There is one thing in the first paper, 
' impenitently persisted in,' I desire that may be left out, resumed. 
and this put in, 'when sufficiently convinced of them.' In 
matters of doctrine it is a hard thing to convince that the 
erroneous person is convinced in his own conscience. 

Mr. Ny The reason of the Committee is a principle, I 
think, granted amongst us ; we are so to bind on earth as 
in heaven. I think the sin is not bound in heaven except 
impenitently persisted in. 

Mr. Rutherford This is an argument brought before, 
and it received an answer. The cause and reason is if the 
delinquent be convinced by sufficient evidence and testi- 
mony of the fact. . . . To say that impenitency must be 
as clear as the fact itself, I conceive this is formaliter in 
the mind and heart. 

Mr. Newcomen You have agreed to excommunicate 
for the sin you do not say contumaciously persisted in. 

Mr. Ny We say atrocious sins may be excommuni- 
cated ; but what will you call atrocious sins, such as are 
materially so ? 

Mr. Rutherford The atrocity itself is called a leaven, 
and the apostle charges that that be purged out. 

Ordered The Committee formerly appointed for the Commit- 
wording of the votes of the Assembly do draw up the -J^r to p ju 
Directory for excommunication, and report on Monday Directory 

for excom- 

morning. munica . 

Dr. Burges, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Chambers. tion - 

Mr. Rutherford I think this the saddest session that 
ever I sat in regard of the reverend brethren's renouncing 
of the whole accommodation. . . . I desire to know whether 
we shall proceed in the way of argumentation or in the 
way of accommodation in the receiving I particulars. 

Sess. 372. February 3, 1644. 

An order for admitting Mr. Ward to the Assembly. 
Mr. John Ward appeared, and took the protestation. 

1 Query, remaining. 



46 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 372. Report of the Directory for excommunication read. 

Debate upon the alterations. 

Any of those [8 1 ] left out. 

f Uneven E arl f Manchester We have received a letter from 

in and the Commissioners at Ux[bridge] . . . Lords command 

me to desire to hasten what is behind of Church govern- 

Earl of . . 

Manches- ment, because this makes some stop in the business there, 
sage from Mr - Goodwin, Mr. Ny, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Bridge, Mr. 
House of Carter gave in a paper of their dissent and reasons. 

A Committee to answer the reasons upon the dissent of 
our brethren. 

Ordered Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Young, 
Mr. Palmer, Mr. Seaman. 

Sess. 373. February 4, 1644. Tuesday morning. 

An order from the House of Commons to send up what 
is remaining in government. 2 

Debate on Report made from the Committee for answer to the 
dissent 5 Reasons and dissent of the brethren read, 
from Mr. Goodwin I did use those very words, ' that this 

Directory 

for excom- thing was professedly ambiguously penned ' . . . For the 

tion UCa business itself . . . this accommodation running upon those 

terms . . . for us to go to enter this in the practice ... I 

appeal whether the end will be attained, whether it will not 

be a great prejudice. ... To me it is no accommodation. 

Debate about the withdrawing of their dissent . . . We 
withdraw the sending of them up. ... We withdraw the 
entering of them under the notion of a dissent. 

Prolocutor The dissenting brethren are desired to 
express themselves whether [they] will withdraw their 
dissent. 

Mr. Ny If the other way remain upon record, then so, 
otherwise not 
Dissents Mr. Goodwin I say, and said before, desire the dissent 

adhered , 

to may stand. 

Mr. Bridge The same. 
Mr. Carter The same. 
Mr. Simpson I desire to enter my dissent. 
1 Erased. Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 40. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 47 

Sess. 374. February 5, 1644. Wednesday morning. SESS. 374. 

An order for admitting Mr. Delmy. He appeared, and fg^ 
took the protestation. 

Debate upon the answer of the Assembly to the Reasons 
of the dissenting brethren against the Directory of Excom- 
munication. 

The business of a Committee for a Directory for Dis- 
cipline. 

That it be taken into consideration to-morrow morning. 

OrderedMr. Palmer, Mr. Herle, Dr. Temple, Mr. Sea- 
man, Mr. Bridge, to be added to the Committee for con- 
formation of government, to meet this afternoon. 

Sess. 375. February 6, 1644. Thursday morning. 

A report from the Committee about the conformation of 
government. 

Sir William Massam appeared and took the protes- 
tation. 

Upon a motion made by Dr. Burges of some reports in 
the city, that the reason of the entering the dissent was 
be[cause] himself and some others did say 1 the accom- 
modation. 

A debate thereupon. 

Resolved The Assembly did never give or hold fit to 
give any sense of the accommodation at all, but what the 
very words thereof do properly bear and express. 

Prolocutor Desire they would declare whether they will 
withdraw. 

Mr. Ny Our mind is fully known. ... If nothing may 
be left in the room by us, we have well considered both 
before and since . . . we ... if ever any action seriously, we 
did this seriously. . . . The rest said they were of that mind. 

Mr. Carter In all accommodations every man. ... If we 
can have no security, I hope you will not desire we should 
withdraw. . . . The dissenting brethren withdrew to see if 
they could add a word. . . . They brought in a form. The 
vote before made thus altered : ' The Assembly did never Assembly 
give or hold fit to give any sense of the words of the ^^ s [ 
1 Query, sense. 



48 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 375. 

Fe A b - 6> 
1044* 



in their 

full lati- 



To pray. 



Reynolds 



Commit- 

Cate- n 
chism. 



Report 

from Com* 

mittee 
appeal!" 18 



accommodation, but leave them to that sense which the 
words do bear ; neither do they think fit to restrain them 
from their full latitude.' 

Ordered That the Dissent and Answer be not carried 
up before the Assembly sit to-morrow. 

Sess. 376. February 7, 1644. Friday morning. 

Mr. Maynard, Mr. Michaelthwaite, 1 Mr. Wilkinson, jun., 
Mr. Woodcocke. 

Mr. Tate I think it is a breach of privileges to meddle 
with the interpretation of anything that is now before the 
Houses. 

Mr. Marshall If the Assembly go about to declare 
anything against what is in the Houses, it were a ... 
The reason of it is to show that our brethren were mistaken. 

Mr. Tate You have acquainted the Houses that there 
was a dissent, and therefore now you cannot enter upon 
this debate. 

Ordered Mr. Alexander Achhurst, Mr. Peter Vinche, 
approved for Fellows of Colleges. 

A Committee to draw up something about appeals, and 
what other parts of government do yet remain. 

Ordered The Committee that drew up the Directory 
for excommunication. 

Mr. Hill, Mr. Herle, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Delmy, Mr. 
Harris, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Ward, Mr. Coleman, 
added to the former Committee. 

Ordered Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Delmy, be added to the 
Committee for the Catechism. 

^ ess ' *-~' 



IO 1644. Monday morning. 
protestat i on rea d. 

The covenant was taken by Mr. Harris, Mr. Ward, Mr. 
Corbet, Mr. Delmy. 

j} rt Stanton made report from the Committee for per- 
fectmg of government concerning appeals. 

Debate u P on the proposition about the word ' may be.' 

1 Mr. Maynard's name is written above Mr. Michaelthwaite's, which is 
underscored. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 49 

Mr. Rutherford I speak it to this, that causes may not SF.SS. 377 
be drawn at first to that which we do not judge to be the ^544' 
only proper court. ... I desire to know whether a congre- 
gational assembly may not draw to themselves all the appeals. ' 
questions in primo instanti till they be taken from them 
by appeal or transmission. 

Dr. Gouge Agreeableness to the word of God doth 
not impose a necessity. 

Mr. Gataker I think it should rather be said, ' be.' 

Dr. Smith I think it should be said, ' should be.' 

Mr. Seaman There is a mistake ... for there can be 
no appeal but grounded upon one of those two supposi- 
tions : either the judge is not competent, or the cause he 
is not to meddle in ... The lawfulness of the point of 
appeal is the first thing to be debated, and so it is a pro- 
per expression that ' it may be.' 

Mr. Rutherford If a congregational assembly judge of 
heresy, is not this of common concernment, and so belongs 
to a national assembly? . . . That 'is agreeable' doth neither 
infer a negative or affirmative precept, it. ... 

Mr. Seaman If nobody questioned the lawfulness of 
appeals, then it were well, but I would we were over that 
rub. 

Mr. Henderson The word appeal is sometimes taken 
more largely, and sometimes more strictly. . , . Properly, 
appellation is from a competent judge, but he finds a gra- 
vamen he proceeds unjustly, 

Mr. Herle We take the word appeal too largely and 
too strictly. 

Mr. Reynolds Say ' may be, which being they are to be 
from the inferior to the superior.' 

Mr. Carter It hath not been the manner of this 
Assembly. . . . 

Mr. Bridge I give a reason against the proposition. 
You have not said what you mean by an appeal. Your 
second reason doth express it ... That such an one may 
not be. To me it seems diverse and opposite to the way 
of the Old and New Testament. ... 17 Deut, the place 
brought for appeals . . . This place is diverse from, if not 

D 



50 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 377. opposite unto that, (i) It is in case a matter too hard for 
*i644' tneir judgment, therefore only in that case; (2) it is not 
the person wronged, but the judge, to carry it up ; (3) all 
that this judge was to do, was only to declare what ought 
to be done. He was not to be cut off by that court . . . 
For that of the New Testament ; i8th of Matthew is against 
it. There the sentence is to be executed by the Church. A 
Synod or Sanhedrim is nowhere called Ecclesia . . . Said 
1 5 Acts : Paul and Barnabas were sent up, but was there 
any person wronged, and did they rescind the sentence ? 

Mr. Seaman He speaks of three places of Scripture. 
Touching the last place, I should not instance in that as 
touching appeal. That proves a transmission, but not an 
appeal. . . . But for that of i8th of Math., I cannot but 
wonder that he should think it so strange for the word 
Ecclesia to be taken for an assembly of officers. It is a 
company of this sort or that sort, applied according to the 
nature of the company and business for which they meet. 
... It is the weakest argument in matters of divinity to 
build our opinions upon dictionaries and grammars. . . . 
For that in Deut. there is a distinguishing of causes greater 
and lesser, and in that there is an appeal implied. Suppose 
an inferior court would meddle with the thing too hard 
for them, what relief is there for the oppressed man ? . . . 
For that observation this court hath power of sentence, but 
not of execution, then there must be a greater court than 
this, and so three courts ; but clearly he is to sentence 
definitively, so as that there is no appeal to any other, 
except from the same to another. 

Mr. Herle You do a little overrun yourselves. You 
are fallen upon the proofs, when yet the proposition is 
before you. ... If this be brought by way of argument, it 
lies thus: there is nothing spoken but in difficult cases, 
ergo, no appeal. I deny the consequence. . . . Suppose 
those places do not hold it out so clearly, yet it follows 
not, but [?] it may be in other Scriptures. 

Mr. Rutherford Hz did draw arguments out of those 
places to prove the proposition is not true. . . . The first 
argument is not against the proposition. Said i;th Deut. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 5 I 

is opposite to appeals, be[cause] it is when the case is diffi- SESS. 377 
cult ... I deny the consequence. The difficulty of the 
cause is but one case of appeals. There is a gravamen that 
is the ground also of appeal. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left. Debate on 

appeals 
Sess. 378. February II. Tuesday morning. 

A petition about Printing ... an invention of Blake, 
committed to the Committee for Printing. 

Ordered The Assembly meet as a Committee in the 
afternoon to hear the report of the answers of the Assem- 
bly to the Reasons of dissenting brethren against subordi- 
nation of Assemblies. 

Proceed in the debate. Debate on 

The dissenting brethren shall be a Committee to bring; a PP eals 

resumed. 

in propositions concerning appeals. 1 

Mr. Bridge I take it for granted that this is the sense, an 
appeal to a hig[h]er that hath power to rescind the sentence. 

Mr. Herle Appeals are larger than the rescinding of 
the sentence. 

Mr, Bridge The argument was this : that which is 
diverse from and opposite to the way of Old and New 
Testament, is not agreeable to the Word . . . Not from the 
i8th of Math. ... In that place the power of sentence and 
censuring is put into the hands of Ecclcsia, and therefore 
we must inquire what that is ... Carolus Sigonius saith 
this* . . . All agree in this, it is taken for such a court where 
the people are a part of the court. . t . Ecclesia in the Old 
Testament is never put for elders alone. ... If so, the power 
of censuring cannot be in a Synod alone . . . Again, accord- 
ing to that, the Church or court told hath the power of cen- 
sure; but if a man do appeal then, they have not, for appella- 
tion hinders the sentence, and so they cannot reduce this 
into act. . . . By the i8th of Math., the Church is commanded 
to excommunicate the person that doth not hear, but in 
this way he shall not do it. . . . By this a man shall never 
be obstinate till the National Assembly have admonished 
him. ... It is agreeable to the i8th that the censure should 

1 This is partially erased in MS. * De Republica Hebraorum, p. 696. 



52 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 378. be with the consent of the people ; how can this be in a 
1< ^ 11 ' National Assembly ? 

Mr. Goodwin Add one thing. ... If the sentence of 
excommunication be pronounced by the Church, there is 
continued. a bj n di n g i n heaven. . . . Where the power lawfully lies 
to excommunicate, there is in the i8th of Math, a binding 
in heaven ; but this all the power on earth cannot rescind. 

Mr. Herle The first part of his argument was answered 
yesterday, or the text will answer it to take in the coetus 
will not stand with this two or three. . . . Said, then the 
Church shall not be able to do that which it is bid to 
do. ... He doth restrain the word Church too much. A 
congregation is not only here meant, nor hearing and tell- 
ing the Church is only meant excommunication. . . . Said 
the party may not come to be excommunicated till he 
comes to highest Assembly. True, it may be so ; yet he 
hears the Church still . . . when such a judicatory doth 
pass a sentence from which there lies no appeal, or the 
party doth not appeal. 

Mr. Palmer Concerning this of i8th of Math, the 
argument reduced to four heads: (i) From the word 
Ecclesia. For this I am not able to give at present any 
particular instance where the Septuagint doth use. . . . 
Congregation often used in the Old Testament for only 
the congregation of elders. 82d Psalm . . . where the 
words do signify the people ; yet it must be taken re- 
spectively. . . . Qth Joh. . . . 1 2th John ... for fear of 
the Jews, that was not the common people. ... (2) For 
the necessity of proceeding, there are two sorts of appeals 
a gravamine; a sententia. Though the first be granted, 
yet ... (3) For the binding in heaven. . . . That is a 
mistake. . . . Where there is a lawful authority, if they use 
that authority lawfully, then it is bound in heaven. . . . 
But if this doth not appear ... In case he be indeed 
wronged, is it bound in heaven ? . . . They confess another 
Church may relieve him. Certainly this they cannot do if 
bound in heaven. ... (4) For that consent of the people, 
I conceive this place in the i8th of Math, doth not 
imply the people. Shall there be two distinct bodies 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 53 

the eldership and people that have a plurality of voices, SKSS. 378 

that sit . . and all this called one Ecclesia. ] ' e l x n> 

1044. 

Mr. Seaman For that word Ecclesia . . , Do they 
verily believe the word must be interpreted by heathen continued 
authors, or parallel words in Old Testament, or a peculiar 
use of it in the New Testament ? ... If by heathen 
authors, then it must be interpreted according to those 
several policies in which they live and about which they 
treat. ... In Scripture we are not to interpret the original 
word by the Septuagint, but the Septuagint by the original. 
. . . Christ doth allude to the policy of the Jews. Take 
out but those two word[s] die ecclesice, and it may be 
understood of the Jewish policy. . . . For that appeals 
suspend a sententia, and then the power of the Church 
may be frustrate. . . . There are appeals before the sen- 
tence, and after the ^sentence. . . . Said it is bound in 
heaven. . . . Consider out of the circumstances of the text 
a double power of binding and loosing held out : (i) That 
in a particular brother. . . . 

Sess. 379. Febntary 12. Wednesday morning. 

Proceed in the debate. Debate 

Mr. Simpson An appeal is thus described a provocation re 
from a lesser to a superior judicatory. ... It lies not in 
numbers. . . . Then there should be appeals from greater. 
. . . Called to order be[cause] they are the same argu- 
ments. . . . He proceeded. ... Or else there must be 
some law of God, and this either: (i) The law of nature, 
or [2] Some Scripture injunction. . . . The law of nature 
teacheth a man to appeal as well from those who do 
most gravare, and therefore from a national Assembly. . . . 
The law of nature teacheth to go to any that can relieve 
them. . . . Neither is it any Scripture injunction. . . . The 
law of God saith sit tibi ethnicus, and yet the appeal saith 
not so. ... Nothing of an appeal in the i Cor. v. . . . 
You lay this upon the law of nature, contradistinct from 
an instistutution. 1 . . . All that is said is a consequence 
from Math. 18. Authority can never be raised by a con- 

* Sic in MS. for institution. 



54 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 379. sequence. (2) If there be appeals, then Synods are not 
F i644. 2 ' elective. In the i5th Acts the persons were elective. . . . 
According to the law and the reason of the thing, the 
n common law makes two sorts of judges ordinarius and 



continued. ar fotcr. From the latter there lies no appeal. (3) There 
can be no greater punishment for the appellant than in 
a particular congregation. (4) There are many incon- 
veniences upon those appeals: I. Vexatious suits bred 
and continued ; 2. You will defer for a long time the using 
of the means of repentance to the offender at least a 
year ; 3. In those appeals you lay down a ground of 
monarchy and primacy : the Pope argues from appeals ; 
4. Then you may appeal from King and Parliament to a 
national assembly; 5. Ames, in his 2d tome, 139 page. 1 

Mr. Herle For that against subordinations, it is one 
part of the proposition [in] deba[te]. . . . Two heads of 
his argumentation: (i) Not by the law of nature, be- 
[cause] that prompts to any help. . . . The law of nature 
here is taken too largely. . . . You must take it here for 
the reasonable law of nature for the governing of men, 
which cannot be done without order. ... A law properly 
is that rule that hath a moral obligation, and then it must 
imply a reasonable creature. . . . Said if the law of nature, 
... a gravamen in the highest Court. . . . The law of 
nature hath its sphere in this reasonable capacity. It is 
bounded when its extent . . . though possibly in that 
highest bound there may be a gravamen, yet the law 
doth not put any notion beyond its sphere. . . . We can- 
not possibly in any society to 2 arrive to a certainty of 
relief; if we can attain to that which is the most moral 
and rational help it is sufficient. . . . For that of Scripture 
it hath no rule. . . . That of the i8th of Math, next 
spoken to, and the rest, do but amount to a negative 
argument. . . . For the inconveniences . . . said it will lose 
time and hinder dispatch. ... A. The canons say this, 
excommunicatio et articulus mortis equiparantur, and no 
time is too long when we consult about the lives of men. 
The like may be said of civil courts. . . . Said an institu- 

1 Perhaps Amesii Bellarminus Enervates. 2 Sic in MS. for too. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 55 

tion must require not a consequence, but have an imme- SESS. 379. 
diate authority. . . . The law of nature, taken in its right 1644."' 
sense, is a good institution. , . Said a judicibus clcctis 

8 Debate 

non provocatur. . . . True, but so that they be elected to continued. 
that very purpose, but not if they chosen to have an 
appeal from, as there are some judges that are to im- 
petrate, others that are [to] fill up and end the cause. 
. . . Said there is no greater punishment, therefore no 
provocation to a higher. A. There is a greater punish- 
ment, as the apostle holds out in the case of the inces- 
tuous Corinthian. . . . As in matters of civil death, there 
is as much difference betwixt two deaths as betwixt life 
and death. . . . For that of vexatious. ... It is better 
to admit of a mischief than an inconvenience. . . . For 
that the Popes claim ... he doth it personally as Christ's 
vicar, and they make it summum (?) rei Christiana. . . . 
But to unite all under one counsel, no men deny. It is 
not the claiming power of appeal, but his power of ap- 
peal. 

Mr. Seaman The arguments seem to be well composed, 
and therefore deliberate. . . . Four arguments used: (i) 
From the description of an appeal out of the proposition. 
The main argument, no law of nature. . . . Some of his 
expressions do savour of a self-conviction, if it teach a 
man to appeal from most wrong to those that are able to 
relieve him. ... A Church is of a double confederation, 
a common confederation as a society, and as such a society. 
. . . Why should those privileges that belong to human 
society be denied unto them except there be an institution 
to the contrary ? ... It is lawful to appeal from any servant 
to Jesus Christ. . . . For that application of marriage, a 
question whether that be only of the law of nature nega- 
tively. . . . Said the law teacheth to appeal from a national 
Synod as well as others. ... A. There is no end of 
appealing in regard of time, though in regard of policy 
you may come to the highest pitch. You may appeal 
from them at that time to another time. . . . For that ' no 
Scripture injunction ; ' that hath 1 [best] be left till we come 
1 Sic in MS. for ' had. ' 



56 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 379. to the affirmative. . . . Said then Synods are not to stand. 
F i6. 2 ' * do not apprehend that consequence. 

Mr. Simpson Said I took the law of nature in too large 

a sense I suppose I did not; since the ground of appeals 

continued. j s oppression, I am to take it as large as that principle . . . 
If taken for the principles of reason, I do not think that 
the law doth bind a man. . . . Said the civil policy bounds 
the appeal. . . . This is to refer all ecclesiastical power for- 
mally into the Synod. . . . Said that it is the most likely 
way. (2) Better than ... It is not the likeliest way, for 
the greatest number is an Ecumenical Council . . . Said 
the arguments are only negative. . . . 

Mr. Goodwin [A blank space]. 

Dr. Burges It is asserted that upon the point the busi- 
ness will be the greatest part of it in the clergy ... He 
knows the contrary when ruling elders are joined with it. 
. . . Reasons against an appeal except to an elective judge. 
. . . Said not known to those remote . . . The more reason 
they should meddle with it. 

Mr. Seaman To appeal is nothing else but to call in 
another for some aid and help. . . . This doth suppose some 
power, authority, and ability to help, or else you take away 
the ground of the action whether you call this a moral or 
political power. . . . Amongst the civilians appellare and 
querulare are all one, equivocal terms. . . . The Church is the 
kingdom of Jesus Christ, and kingdom is a political word. 

Ordered Mr. Houlden, Sr Reading examined and 
approved for St. John's College. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left. 

Sess. 380. February 13, 1644. Thursday morning. 
Debate Proceed in debate. 

resumed. , _ ~ , . 

Mr. Goodwin urged an argument against appeals. Was 
answered by Mr. Palmer and Mr. Rutherford. 

[A blank page.] 

Mr. Herle Said he allows of a moral and not a politic 

power. True, the critics do differ about that word The 

force of the arguments from the word rescinding, coercive 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 57 



power, and excommunication of a Church. . . . For the word SKSS. 380. 
rescinding there may be a double- a declarative and 1644^' 
destructive. . . . Here it is only interpretative, not by making 
it no sentence, but no just sentence. . . . Said to rescind a continued. 
sentence doth deny that congregation a power to take in 
that party cut off. . . . Take away the liberty of a congre- 
gation in admission of his members. . . . This party is a 
member of the whole, and so it is not debarred of any 
right but that by consent given to the whole . . . An argu- 
ment against a coercive power is to argue against our 
Assembly, and the ordinance by which we sit. So govern- 
ment, and what government can there be without a coercive 
power, a power proper to that government ? ... If there be 
no government, it is not regmim, but tumultus . . . For that 
of excommunicating a church . . . Said it is morally untrue ; 
it ought not so to be, for so a church should be deprived 
of ordinances ... A. I ask them whether they did not in 
the urging of this argument conceive that our opinion is a 
sufficient answer. . . . We say none, but the governors are 
active in this, not the people, as if we hold that every 
member is equally joined . . . What inconvenience more in 
excommunicating a whole Church ? . . . For that historical 
truth it hath not been done, that is so much the more for 
our advantage. 

Mr. Calamy Our brother doth argue thus if after the 
sentence a man be bound. . . . Then there must be a key to 
unlock three locks, and that we had need to have authority 
from Scripture. ... A. In the Old Testament there was 
such a key, and in the New Testament it is one of our 
privileges. . . . By way of retortion, if a man be unjustly 
excommunicated, I demand what is his misery to have 
no key. . . . For the coercive power . . . consider it 
would be hard that the government of Christ should be 
inferior to the Old Testament, there was a help for it in 
the Old ... If none, then no help for a church when it 
proves heretical. ... It will appear by the i8th of Math, a 
part ratione, if a member be excommunicated for heresy, 
then a church. . . . Said it could not be done, be[cause] 
where no Christian magistrate they cannot excommuni- 



58 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 380. cate. . . . But in the way of non-communion we can refuse 
to have communion with him. . . . Suppose one of their 
members would come and thrust in, they say they will 
suffer him to take it, I demand in their way how they can 

continued, hinder an intruder. 

Mr. Goodiuin This general answer is given, that the 
argument is therefore founded wrongly, be[cause] it is an 
appeal only in the case of an unjust sentence. Whilst 
there is an appeal, the question is whether this be just or 
unjust. ... If it be a mere declaring it to be unjust, I shall 
not contend. . . . Said there is not a coercive power parallel 
to that of excommunication. If that may be asserted, my 
argument also falls if you will hold it out. . . . Take excom- 
munication out of the government, that those Assemblies 
shall not practise it, and then I am satisfied. . . . Said the 
elders only are in the fault, and so to be excommunicate. 
... A. It is not in their power alone to receive him, it must 
be the whole Church. ... In this way you contend for a 
power that was never practised, and you say there was no 
occasion. There were Arminian churches, and yet not 
excommunicated. 

Sess, 381. February 14, Friday morning. 

To pray. Mr. Price, Mr. Bond, Mr. Tisdale. 

Ordered Mr. William Clarke. Approved Mr. Samuel 
Vandelure, Mr. Alexander Gibson. 

Debate on Proceed in the debate. 

resumed. Mr-. Carter There is no superior juridical power to 
which appeals may lie from a presbytery of ... That 
Assembly which is the body of Christ hath no juridical 
ecclesiastical power above it ... The body of Christ is 
invested with the power of Christ ... All ecclesiastical 
power is given as to His body, and therefore there can 

be but an equal, not a superior power . . . For the 
minor. . . . 

To go on in the report. 

On a letter c 

from Earl 2>ess. 382. February 17, 1644. Monday morning. 

of Man- 
chester, A letter from the Earl of Manchester. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 59 

R. Mr. Whitchcott be approved for Provost of King's SKSS. 382. 

College. 6 44 17 ' 

R. Mr. Hill for Master of Emmanuel College. 

R. Mr. Spurstow for Master of Clare Hall. cottap- 

Proceed in the debate upon the first argument. P r . ove , d for 

r Kings 

Mr. Whitakcrs If subordination ... do not infer a College. 
power of rescinding, then the power of a particular con- Debate on 
gregation is so full as that the sentence is unreversible. . . . s 
There is no such clear institution for an independent con- 
gregation to have such a power. . . . This, of all others, 
needs a most clear institution, because it crosseth the law 
of nature, and therefore must stand merely upon the in- 
stitution. . . . Yea, it claims a power more than any classis, 
provincial or national Assembly. . . . though our brethren 
have not cleared this institution . . . That which hath 
neither precept in Scripture nor any practice, and so can 
have no promise, that is not by institution. . . . That 
government that carries with it absurdities and inconsis- 
tencies, and opens a door to schism and finds no way to 
shut it ... it crosseth the nature of government in general 
as it is now practised. It is no government at all, no 
more than a painted fire is fire, if two or three join in a 
body and claim all power. ... In New England they will 
not allow any to gather churches without going to the 
civil magistrate. . . . This crosseth the end of government. 
. . . Thus the whole body must be joined together, then 
there must be some ligaments . . . and this was the end 
why Christ ascended. ... (3) It crosseth and takes off from 
the glory of censures ; that that makes the censures ridicu- 
lous, and emboldens him to scorn all censures, that is 
not the way. ... (4) It opens a way to schisms, and no way 
to shut them. If it do so, it is a way to be avoided and 
not countenanced. . . . This may seem to be too heavy a 
charge. ... I would know whether they limit the nature 
of schism to one particular congregation, if so . . . If a 
man will join to no congregation at all, and condemn 
all churches, then he is no schismatic. I think him the 
greatest schismatic. ... If a man go out of this Church, 
can they censure him ? . . . An inconsistency with their 



6O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 382. own precepts. . . . In their apology, 24th page, they disclaim 
F< i644. 7> all independency. . . . This the most abhorred maxime 

that any congregation . . or to be censurable by them. 
Debate on y *> & . . . 

appeals If they be bound to give an account, then a classis 

continued. may ca jj t } lcm to an accO unt. If censurable by them, 
then they have power to do it. ... Strange that God 
should provide a remedy against offending brother, and 
not an offending church. ... If particular churches be 
bound to associate themselves, and this be a holy and 
wholesome ordinance of Jesus Christ . . . 54th page of Mr. 
Cotton. 1 . . . Then Christ must give them power to attain 
those ends. ... If there be some particular cases wherein 
the Church's censures are null and void, not bound in 
heaven, then it is no great power to rescind that sentence. 

Mr. Rutherford When I read through that treatise of 
the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, 1 1 thought it an easy 
labour for an universal pacification, he comes so near unto us. 

Mr. Herle I conceive it is a part of our unhappiness 
when we are upon disputation we fall accommodating, and 
when accommodating then disputing . . . we have . . . You 
are now only to prove that be[cause] this proves subordi- 
nation, it proves also appeals. 

Mr. Burroughs Here are new arguments. 

Mr. Seaman I think that subordination doth in the 
very nature of the thing prove appeals. Subordination 
doth prove the liberty of appeals in civil government. 

Ordered Proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 383. February 18, 1644. Tuesday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded to debate the second reason 
from the light of nature. 

[A blank page.] 

Mr. HerbSaid if this be of the law of nature, then it 
is indispensable and unalterable ; but this is alterable, for 
in a democracy there is no appeal. I do not see how this 
hold[s]. It may be in a democracy. . . . Said if this be agree- 

1 Keys of Kingdom of Heaven, by John Cotton. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 6 I 

able to the law of nature, then it must take its rise either SKSS. 383. 
from the principia prima or ... Not from the prima prin- j 6 \* ' 
cipia ... I think it may be from these that zxe primo prima 
of the highest nature. . . . The government, as laid upon continued, 
Christ's shoulder, is not laid upon the law of nature, yet 
there may be something in this government and tending to 
it that may be of the law of nature. . . . Said this discourse 
is human, and therefore the argument must be so too. . . . 
A. The error is in this. We do not maintain that this 
government is grounded only upon the discourse of men, 
but we say this, appeal in this government is grounded 
upon the light of nature. . . . Said against the nature of 
excommunication because of the precedaneous consent of 
the people. ... A. The precedaneous consent of the 
people is not causa sine qua non. . . . Whatsoever a thing 
cannot be without, that must concur to the essence of a 
thing ; but this is extrinsical to the thing, and therefore 
cannot be of the essence. . . . Said whatsoever is de jure 
natures must be a Deo tanquam author\e\ natures, but this 
is not so. ... Said if agreeable to nature, yet not from the 
inferior to the superior, but only from one to another . . . 
Said if from nature, then go no further than nature. ... A. 
The natural light in this appeal is in the inferiority and 
superiority : for men in their generical nature, there is 
no difference at all. . . . The light in nature is from 
the generical nature of appeals. The end is relief of 
wrong. 

Dr. Hoyle Concerning the jus natures, we are not only 
to consider the natural deduction, but the conditional. A 
man must defend himself when put to it. ... If he had read 
Demosthenes, he would have known that in democracy 
there is an appeal. 

Mr. Seaman For that of appeals in democracy, I 
think he means that when you come down to the last 
concio of the people, from that there is no appeal. ... In 
such governments they have divers courts, and from them 
there is no appeal. . . . It's as if he should say there is 
no appeal from the supreme judicatory. . . . For that of 
Frankfurt there was a great contest concerning the power 



62 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 383. of the officers and people, and never determined, but the 

1 i&u 8 ' Church dissolved in that contest. . . . For that the Scrip- 

tures lays the government upon the shoulder of Christ, 

continued, and founds it upon the incarnation of Christ, and there- 
fore not upon the light of nature. . . . God's will and God's 
nature, they do not destroy one another. ... In the incar- 
nation, nature and institution do also agree well together. 
... In no institution did God go against nature, but made 
His institutions salva naturd. 

Mr. Reynolds Said the precepts of nature are indis- 
pensable. ... A. We do not intend them to bejtiris natu- 
ralis in regard of an obligatory precept, but of a direction. 
. . . The precepts of nature may not be dispensed with, 
but the direction may. . . . Said our law condemns without 
appeal. ... A. There is something analogous to an appeal 
in our law. In matters of fact there is no difficulty, but 
in the judgment of the fact. ... A man hath liberty to take 
his exceptions against the jury. . . . Said the government 
would be merely human if this be admitted. . . . By this 
argument many theological doctrines will be human too, 
which must be proved by discourse from principles of 
reason. . . . Said the people must have an antecedent con- 
sent in rescinding of the sentence. . . . This is not yet 
resolved by any in this Assembly. Yet admit it, consent 
is involved in the subordination. 

Sess. 384. February 19. Wednesday morning. 

Mr. Thomas Cummins ordered for a Fellow. 

Ordered That no minister do pass this Assembly upon 
any former certificate, till he have first satisfied the Com- 
mittee for the examination of ministers of the reason of 
his remove, to be reported to the Assembly. 

Report Report from the Committee about Synods read and 
deba ted k ist proposition debated. 



Directory Ordered Proceed in the debate. 

about 

Sess. 385. February 20. Thursday. 

Mr. Bellchambr, John Ley, Peter Smith, John Guibon, 
Sam. Delaplace, Tho> Wilson, certified], 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 63 

Sess. 386. February 21. Friday morning. g ESS . ->86. 

Feb. 21, 

Mr. Sterry, Mr. Foxcraft, Mr. Channcll, for the Lords 1644- 
Commons. 

A letter from the Hertfordshire ministers read, and the 
petitions to the Houses. 

They were called in, and told they did commiserate 
their case. But we cannot appear as the body of an As- 
sembly in this business, but particular members of the 
Assembly shall solicit in their behalf. 

Ordered Mr. Rosevvell (?) and Mr. Balson for the north. 

Report by Dr. Stanton of the proposition committed to Debate on 
them . . . debated. 

Mr. Seaman I move it may be waived wholly. I was 
never satisfied with two etceteras. 

Mr. Rutherford This proposition was drawn up to 
satisfy, the censure was of all of different judgments. . . . 
Said the Nonconformists' etcetera could never be under- 
stood. ... A. The particulars in the proposition takes 
away this, for there is this specification, ' those particular 
circumstances which are inseparable from the acts of 
worship, etc.' . . . The proposition only saith they may not 
impose and command ; but there is difference betwixt 
directing, and imposing, and commanding. . . . Said the 
places speak not of a Synod. . . . True, but it will prove 
that they ought to command nothing but that that will 
tend to decency and edification. 

Mr. Burougkes Said there is no truth in this 1 this pro- 
position, because all the power of governments lies in in- 
different things. . . . This, I think, is not good. This hath 
brought a great mischief. . . . It's honour enough to gover- 
nors that they have power to look to worship of God, that 
it be observed according to the mind of Christ. 

Dr. Hoyle . . . 

Dr. Temple In this proposition, some things in it upon 

which we may waive the proposition. You will find it a 

great debate, whether there be not some authority to 

determing 2 things ad unum in things indifferent. . . . The 

1 Sic in MS. * Sic in MS. for ' determine. ' 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



Debate 
about 
power of 
Synods. 



SESS. 386. affirmative in the proposition is not so large as the negative 

^644'' is - Some thin s s th y mav not cn J in > and thers y u sa y 

they may declare. 

Mr. Wilson . . . 

Mr. Herlc I would have this waived . . . All that you 
have to do is included in the negative. Here is either an 
etcetera or an imperfection. . . . They were to bring in 
what Synods may do, and they tell us what they may 
not do. 

Dr. B urges I am of the same opinion. It will be 
better to waive this proposition. 

Mr. Price I subscribe to their opinion, be[cause] one 
part of this proposition is opposite to the other. 

Mr. Seaman I humbly and ingenuously give you an 
account of the meaning of this proposition. ... I was 
always cast behind rocks. . . . All authors do grant this 
doctrinal proposition, that there is a power somewhere to 
regulate those things indifferent which the Nonconformists 
express to be time and place, etcetera, or such like ; and 
so it is here. 

Mr. Hill Not only myself but many others are en- 
gaged for the truth of this proposition. . . . Said then we 
must bid farewell to all policy. Their power is to order 
as far as the word of God doth. . . . Necessary things we 
may command . . . Expediency we may advise . . . In- 
differences we must leave at liberty ... as, for instance, 
preaching in a gown or cloak ... I think it seasonable . . . 
If power in Synods to command indifferent things, and 
judge what is indifferent; and then what shall we come 
unto ? 

Dr. Temple For his own instance of a cloak or gown . . . 
Suppose it come to this, the congregation is divided, one 
will have it in a cloak. ... If no power to determine this, I 
desire to know what is to be done. 

Mr. Hill I think here is a confusion of things expe- 
dient and purely indifferent. 

Mr. Rutherford Loath to propound any arguments if 
I thought this proposition would entangle the Assembly. 
... I thought it would have passed with the liking of 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 65 

all. . . . All the ceremonies intruded upon the consciences SESS. 386. 
of the people were intruded under this notion, the church ^ 2r> 
may command in those things indifferent. . . . Where there 
are conveniences to ground a determination upon, that will 
warrant the de[te]rmining it. ... But if there be no neces- 
sity or conveniency, then it is purely indifferent. . . . Said 
who shall judge of the expediency or indifference. A. 
The word of God is so perfect as that it shows what is 
necessary and expedient, Jiic and mine, and what indif- 
ferent. 

Mr. Seaman The reverend brother drives things some- 
what low. He saith there is ... 

Mr. Buroughs The case is only in this when themselves 
declare it to be indifferent, and that hie and mine, yet they 
will impose it. 

Mr. Herle I think this distinction of necessary, expe- 
dient, and indifferent, will entangle you. . . . The question in 
the Bishops was whether that the command of the Church 
did not make thing[s] indifferent to become necessary. . . . 
But we do not say this doth make it ... but only declares 
a thing that in his nature is indifferent, yet in its use it is 
expedient. 

Sess. 387. February 24, 1644. Monday morning. 

Dr. Surges moved 'the Assembly from the Lord Mayor Complaint 
about a letter from a grave divine of the Assembly con- f s to let . tcl 

J by a divine 

cerning the Uxbridge treaty. He thinks many passages of the As- 
in it tend to sedition ; but because there is the name of st 
a divine of the Assembly, and he would first acquaint the 
Assembly with it if any of the Assembly will own it ... 
If not, then he shall take a course to find out the author, 
and to vindicate the Assembly and do justice. 

R. The Assembly doth disclaim this letter. 

Ordered Dr. Burges, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Calamy to 
acquaint the Lord Mayor with this, and to give him thanks 
for his great respect showed unto this Assembly. 

Protestation was read. 

Debate of the 3d proposition. ' Synodical Assemblies 
may excommunicate.' 



66 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 388. Sess. 388. February 27, 1644. Thursday morning. 
Feb. 27, 

1644. Debate upon the proposition. 

DebZTon Mr. Goodwin It they may excommunicate, they may 
Synods excommunicate a church. 

Ordered That the scribes take care of the printing of 
[sic.} Ordinance of Parliament for the taking 

the Directory for worship, and that they do appoint who 
shall print it. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left. 
Ordered Mr. Bine approved for Fellow. 

Sess. 389. March I. 
To pray. Mr. Greenhill, Mr. Good, Mr. Ward. 

Ordered Mr. Holcroft approved for Fellow. 
Upon a debate about the order of printing the Directory, 
it was concluded that it was ordered the day before. 

Dr. Temple, Mr. Marshall, Dr. Burges, Mr Herle, a Com- 
mittee to draw up something to be humbly presented to both 
Houses of Parliament, to preserve the sacraments pure. 

Sess. 390. March 3, 1644. Monday morning. 
Ordered The scribes shall inquire of a fit man to be the 
doorkeeper, in the room of Mr Frame (?), and present one 
to the Assembly to be approved of for that service. 
Debate on Debate upon the reason to prove the proposition. 

power of 
Synods 

resumed. Mr. Marshall From the parity of reason. 

Mr. Marshall I think this argument will not do it, for 
a man may find a distinction of binding by doctrine and 
censure. . . . The thing to be proved is that a Synodical 
Assembly is a ministerial Church. 

Mr. Herle -I think there is such a distinction as that the 
one doth imply the other ; that if it have power to bind by 
doctrine, it must have the other. . . . Said this is not a 
church. . . . They are a body, whereof Christ is the head, 
and have right to ordinances, and power to make decrees ; 
and therefore a church. 

Mr. JV>_Why should not the formality of a church be 
as well gathering together in the name of Christ as binding 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 67 

and loosing ? . . . I say they have not power of all ordinances SK.SS. 390. 
. . . else you must make two sorts of churches one sort " I^M 
capable of all ordinances, and another not capable ; and 
then you must show us that distinction. 

Mr. Herle He should have taken notice of the argu- 
ment. . . . It's proved to be an assembly for government, 
and power to make decrees, and therefore must have 
power to back them. . . . Why may they not have all 
ordinances ? . . . Said they have not constantly those, 
neither hath a congregation all those. 

Mr. Colcman The meeting of the officers in the church 
of the Jews is called the Church. . . . Scriptures to prove 
meeting of officers to be a church : 27 Numb., 5 Prov. 14 
for illustration ; 1 Kings, 12, 20, 35 Numb. 12, 24. Unto 
this doth Christ allude in iSth of Math. 

Mr. Herle That power must be either in a synod or 
congregation, and in some cases cannot be in a congrega- 
tion . . . that in some cases must be in a synod. 

Mr. Vines I desire to make a motion. . . . You have 
ordered appeals. . . . This form must be pursued as well in 
synods and classes say, then, as classis and synod. 

R. Proceed in the debate to-morrow morning. 

Scss. 391. March 4. 

Report of the title for the Directory. 

Ordered Dr. Temple, Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Proposal 
Gataker, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Carrell, to be a fjJ^JJ^ 
Committee to think of fit men to be employed in the Directory 
translating of the Directory into Welsh, to make report to Welsh. 
the Assembly. 

Ordered Dr. Stanton, Mr. Delaplace, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. 
Hill, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Whitakers, added to the Com- 
mittee for the title, and the title recommitted. 

Report of an additional report to the proof of Synodical 
Assemblies excommunicating. 

R. Second proof to be debated to-morrow. 

Sess. 392. Marcli 5, 1644. Wednesday morning. 
Report from the Committee for preserving the sacra- 
ments pure. 



68 MIXUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 392. Mr Seaman enters his dissent against that vote, 'against 
11 5> whom the Assembly hath no just exception.' 

Mr. Palmer If those words must stand, I desire to 
enter my dissent. 

They recall their dissents upon the altering of the words. 

Scss. 393. March 6, 1644. TJiursday morning. 

Leather- Ordered Mr. Letherhead (?) be admitted to waite upon 
imtted " the Assembly, in the room of Mr. Frame, lately dead, 
door- Debate about the alterations in Directory last made ; 

moved by Dr. Temple. 

Proceed to the debate of the second reason. 

Sess. 394. March 7, 1644. Friday morning. 

Mr. Michaelthwaite and Mr. Corbet to pray. 

Mr. Langly. 

Ordered That the letter and book [to] be now given in 
the Assembly shall be taken into consideration on Monday 
next, when the book is read by the several members, and 
that the scribes do put the Assembly in mind of it. 

Proceed in the debate of the second reason. 
Lord Lord Warwicke desired the Assembly to think of some 

Admiral ... -^11- 

asks mini- ministers to go to sea with him. 

sters for The members of the Assembly do give an account of 

those ministers that they can think of, to be recommended 

to the Lord Admiral. 

To proceed in the debate of the 3d reason on Monday 

morning. 

Scss. 395. March 10, 1644. Monday morning. 

Protestation read. 

Dr. Temple gives an account of Mr. Watson, for the 
Lord of Warwicke, for the sea ; and 

Mr. Mew names Mr. Norris for one of the greater ships. 

Ordered That the several members of the Assembly 
that are to preach on Wednesday be entreated to recom- 
mend this to the people, to be helpful to the furnishing of 
ministers for the ships. 

Debate about the book presented on Friday last. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 69 

Mr. Young and Mr. Calamy to give notice to Mr. Marl- SESS - 395- 
lip 1 that it will not be fit for this Assembly to meddle in 1644. 
such a business. It may be to their prejudice, and there- 
fore to let the minister know from whom he received the 
letter, that this Assembly doth take notice of their condi- 
tion, and will commend it to God ; and doubt not but 
that God will direct them, as He hath done already in that 
answer they have given and now presented. 

Debate upon the 3d proof for Synods excommunicating. 

An order from the House of Commons for the next 
Wednesday, to be kept as a day of thanksgivings. 

Debate about the waiving of this proposition. 

This 3d proof shall be recommitted. 

Sess. 396. March 13, 1644. Thursday morning. 

A letter was read by Dr. Hoyle of thanks to the classes 
of Holland. Read and ordered. 

Report was made of the 3d reason recommitted. It was 
brought in again in the same terms. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the 3d reason. Debate on 

Mr. Goodwin This reason . . . (i) Supposeth the Syods 
Church universal to be a politic body ; (2.) The institution resumed. 
of elders to fall primarily upon elders as of the universal 
Church ; (3.) . . . 

Ordered To proceed. 

Sess. 397. March 14, 1644. Friday morning. 

Mr. Delmy, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Hardwicke. To pray. 

Proceed in the debate. . . . Q. That the question shall 
be put. . . . Res[olved] aff. That the arguments brought 
against the reason are answered, 2 d s . 

Ordered To go on. 

Sess. 398. March 17, 1644. Monday morning. 
The Assembly proceeded in the debate where they left Debate 
R. That the arguments against the reason in debate re 

is answered, etc. Aff. 

R. Whether this question shall be put. Aff. O. 

Res. Aff. 

1 Perhaps Hartlieb. 



TO MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 398. R. Nf^.To go on with the debate of the reason to- 



March 17, morrow . 
1044. 



Aff. A report shall be received from the sub-com- 
mittee to-morrow touching the classes. 

Scss. 399- Tuesday, March 18, 1644. 

Report brought in by Dr. Temple, read and debated. 

1st Proposition resolved. 

The rest of the report recommitted. 

Ordered The Committee to consider of what is fit to 
be added to this report in reference to the present condi- 
tion of our Church. They are to meet this afternoon, and 
to make report to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 400. Wednesday morning. March 19, 1644. 

Upon information made by Mr. Wilson, that another 
man was in the same place by the certificate from the 
Assembly, and debate thereupon. 

R. Mr. Bladen shall have his certificate. 

Mr. Reynolds made report of that committed to them 
the former session. Debate thereupon. 

Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Pal- 
mer, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. Herle, Mr. Arrowsmith. The 
same Committee appointed to consider of the power of 
classes shall meet this afternoon, to make report to-mor- 
row morning. 

The Committee appointed to consider of congregations 
shall make report to-morrow morning 

Sess. 401. 

Mr. Jno. Bevane, Mr. Ley, John Guibon, Tho. Thorough- 
good, Ed. Corbett, Humph. Hardwicke. 

Sess. 402. March 21. Friday morning. 

Mr. Valentine, Mr. Rayner, Dr. Hoyle, to pray. 

That the dissenting brethren do bring into the Assembly 
what they think fit for the right, and power, and practice 
of particular congregations not yet concluded in the As- 
sembly. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 7 I 

Mr. Ny, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Simpson, Mr. SESS. 402. 
Carter. Mr. Buroughs, and Mr. Grccnhill, 

A Cwi^niittcs may bring in what they would have 
further in the reformation [of] our particular congrega- 
tions, and what they would have in reference to their own. 

Sir Robert Harley brought an order from the House of 
Commons. 

Also to take care how Sir Thomas Fairfaxe may have 
ministers, their pay is settled 8s. a day. 

Ordered The former appointed to consider of some- 
thing to preserve the sacraments pure. 

A Committee for to prepare something for to report to 
the Assembly according to this order of the Hon ble . 
House of Commons. 

Dr. Smith, Mr. Young, Mr. Carrell, Mr. Burges, Mr. 
Mew, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Gower, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Delamarch, 
added to the Committee, or any 5 of them to meet this 
afternoon, to make report to this Assembly on Monday 
morning. 

The members of the Assembly are desired to think of 
that supply of ministers for Sir Thomas Fairfaxe his army 
against Monday morning. 

Sess. 403. March 24, 1644. Monday morning. 

Report from the Committee appointed to consider of Report of 
the particulars of that ignorance and scandal for which te e!"ex- 
persons should be excluded from the sacrament. elusion of 

T , , , , ignorant 

It Was debated. and scan- 



Ld. Admiral desired, inasmuch as he was to go to sea aou s 

from the 

this week, the Assembly would pray for him especially sacrament. 
upon the first day. 

For Mr. Reading, Mr. Ley, Mr. Guibon, Mr. Delamarch, 
Mr. Wilson, Mr. Foxecroft. 

Sess. 404. March 27, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Ordered S r Damnell l approved for a Fellow. 

A petition concerning Bibles was brought in. 

The Committee for printing to meet to-morrow, in the 

1 Or Danniell. 



72 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 404. afternoon, to consider of this petition, and other abuses of 
March 27, the Hke nature> concerning the suppressing of Bibles. 

Mr. Coleman, Dr. Temple, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Tuck- 
ney, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Newcomen, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Ley, 
Dr. Burges, Mr. Gataker, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Palmer, Mr. 
Herle. Mr. Ny, Mr. Hodges, Mr. Wilkinson, junr., added 
to the Committee. 

A paper of dissent brought in and read. 
Ordered The Committee, for answer to the reasons of 
the dissenting brethren about subordination of Assemblies, 
are to meet forthwith. 

Ordered -Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Strickland, to go and 
visit Mr. Assessor White, in the name of this Assembly. 
Ny's pro- Mr. Ny brought in certain propositions, which conduce 

positions to t j ie se ttling of your congregations. 
as to power & / * 

of congre- They were read by Mr. Ny. 



gations. j^ r Seaman If they bring in those propositions, with 

their prefaces (?) annexed, we shall receive them. 
Debate on Mr. Rutherford Those propositions concern Church 
Ny's pro- government in general. ... If you create new debates, you 

positions. . & 

will be longer than you have been already. 

Mr. Marshall -So far as I can remember what he had, 
they may be brought to two heads. . . . Some concern 
Church government general, and some particular congre- 
gations. . . . The first run upon this a jus divinum of a 
platform, and of the particular officers. . . . Concerning 
this, by a vote in the Assembly you did lay aside the dis- 
puting of that point, whether a perfect platform of govern- 
ment. . . . And for the jus divinum, you have been careful 
to go this way not to seek for a divine institution. It's 
contrary to the whole way you have gone, and to the 
intent and purpose of the Parliament. . . . For that con- 
cerning particular congregations. ... I thought they would 
have pitched upon something concerning the moulding of 
Assemblies rather than the point of excommunication. 
There is something sent up by way of accommodation 
and ordination 's passed too. ... If they will give any pro- 
position tending to the constraining (?) of congregations 
in their numbers, this will be of great use. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 73 

Mr. Henderson This notion crosses, and is contrary to SKSS. 404. 
our desires. We thought we had been near to the har- ' ^le. 
bour, and now we are sailing out into the deep. . . I desire 

Debate 

you would enter upon some compendious way how the continued. 
matter may be concluded. 

Mr. Ny I think there is a mistake of our intentions in 
this. There was a necessity for us to do it to discharge 
our consciences. . . . We are called to this work, and you 
must give us leave to make our own consciences the rule. 
. . . For that of calling back that again rejected or con- 
cluded, that was said before. . . . All those propositions 
appertain to particular congregations. They are natural 
to it. ... And they do not transgress upon the accommo- 
dation sent up. . . . We conceive, in the forming of a con- 
gregation, it will conduce much to the members to know 
that it is the authority of Jesus Christ. . . . For the consti- 
tution of churches, we know not whether it be committed 
to you. 

Mr. Seaman None of all this was committed to them, 
or desired of them. 

Mr. Henderson I desire the Assembly would enter 
upon that which is yet to be done, and necessary to be 
done. 

Mr. Herle It is in your choice where you will begin. 
You may begin at the 7th, the latter part. 

Mr. Newcomen If you accept of any of those propo- 
sitions, you hinder the last you have done already. 

Mr. Carter I offer one word concerning the jus divi- 
num ; if there be a jus divinum, this will be an addition 
worth the while. 

Mr. Marshall True, we had need to underlay it well. 
If we let it go up under this notion as agreeable to the 
word, is it not sufficient ? 

Mr. Burroughs I desire you would . . . 

The dissenting brethren be desired to bring in a plat- 
form of government concerning particular congregations. 

The Committee for the considering of what is remaining 
in government do meet in the afternoon, and make report 
to-morrow morning. 



74 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 405. Sess. 405. Friday morning. 

To pray. Mft G^..!.., fe -Girrs, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Marshall, 
Mr. Sedgwicke. 

Mr. Marshall moved in regard of late coming, which 
was a great loss of time. The Assembly might first meet 
in a Committee. 

Sir Robert Harley and Mr. Tate brought an order from 



House of the House of Commons, to set down what we mean by a 

Commons. ... , . ,. 

competent measure of knowledge, and understanding con- 
cerning God the Father, etc. 

R. 10 at the least 

Ordered The members of this Assembly that shall 
come first into the place of the Assembly every morning, 
shall be a Committee to consider of the work of the day, 
and prepare it for the Assembly, and that all the members 
of the Assembly that shall come in afterwards shall have 
votes with them, and that when the number is full, to 
make an Assembly, the Prolocutor may be called into the 
chair. 

The order of the House of Commons was debated. 

R. A Committee of 6 : Mr. Marshall, Mr. Newcomen, 

Dr. Stanton, Mr. Palmer, Dr. Temple, Mr. Vines, to be a 

Committee to consider of this, and prepare an answer for 

the House of Commons. 

Reynolds' Mr. Reynolds made report concerning; congregations. 

Report Tt ... 

concerning It was read and debated. 
congrega- Ist Proposition debated. 

tions. 

Report made from the Committee to prepare an answer 
to the Parliament about a competent measure of know- 
ledge concerning God. It was debated. 

Mr. Palmer enters his dissent against this vote, leaving 
out ' almighty, most wise, eternal spirit.' 

Mr. Corbet and Mr. Young make this information known 
against Mr. Bridges to the Committee of our members. 

Mr. Wilkinson to be spoken with about Mr. Bridges. 

Sess. 406. March 31, 1645. Monday morning. 

Protestation read. 5th Proposition debated. Moved to 
be waived. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 75 

'A minister ought to have the rational and regulated SESS. 406, 
consent of the people before he sit down with them.' ^^eke 3 '' 

Ordered Mr. Byfield do pay Ten pounds to Mr. Dcla- 
place. 

Dr. Burges, Dr. Temple, Dr. Wincop, to go and visit the 
Prolocutor. 



Sess. 407. April I, 1645. Titcsday morning. 
Dr. Wincop made report from the Prolocutor, that he Report as 

to Pro 
cuter. 



was very sick, and in great straits. 



Ordered That this business concerning supply of the 
members of the Assembly be taken into consideration on 
Thursday morning. 

Report made from the Committee for supplement of Additional 
government, and the Committee of the Assembly met o^vem- Oa 
this morning. ment. 

Three propositions by both Committees, a 4th added, 
and 3 more by the Committee of the Assembly ; 3 latter 
only voted for debate. 

Proceed to debate the 4 propositions. Debate 

Debate the first. thereupon. 

Debate about the people's power of refusing. 
R. When any minister is to be ordained for a parti- People to 
cular congregation, or translated from one place to another, ^ e h ,f a . rd , 

' in all just 

the people of that congregation to which he is to be exceptions. 
ordained or admitted shall have notice, and be heard in 
all their just exceptions. 

Sess. 408. 

Dr. Hoyle made report of Timothy Wade, approved of 
by the Committee to be a Fellow. 

Report made by Dr. Gouge from the Committee of the 
Assembly. It was read and debated. 

An argument brought by Mr. Ny. 

J?. That this argument shall be further debated. 

R. That Mr. Wade's approbation shall be respited till 
a testimonial from the College be brought. 

An order brought from the House of Commons to give 
in what we mean by a competent measure of knowledge. 



76 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 408. Ordered This order be referred to the Committee that 
were appointed to preserve the sacraments, to consider 
what answer to be given to this order. They are [to] give 
an account with all convenient speed. 

Scss. 409. Thursday morning. April 3, 1645. 

Ordered S r Stanely approved for a Fellow. 

Ordered 1\&.\. Mr. Blakewell have a certificate from 
this Assembly upon his former examination. 

Dr. Gouge made report from the Committee of the 
Assembly of the alterations in the propositions for debate. 

ist Proposition debated. 

Sess. 410. April 4, 1645. Friday morning. 
To pray. Mr. Clayton, Mr. Wilson for Mr. Ny, Mr. Gower. 

Ordered S r Clarkeson, S r Palmer, S r Clarke, approved 
for Fellows. 

An order from the Lords and Commons, and another 
from the House of Commons, about 1000 for the As- 
sembly, as followeth i 1 

Mr. Palmer made report from the Committee in answer 
to the order of the House of Commons. It was read. 

Upon a motion made by Mr. Newcomen, the dissenting 
brethren made a Committee. 

Sess. 41 1. April 7. Monday morning. 
Ordered S r Wade approved for a Fellow in Cam- 
bridge. 

20 to be Ordered The Prolocutor have twenty pounds paid unto 
sently "to ^' im P resent ly out of this hundred pounds. 
Prolo- Mrs. Hall. 

R. A Committee of 7, or any 5 of them, to b. ... 
R. Dr. Gouge, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Herle, Mr. Rayner, 
Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Hodges, Mr. Spurstow, a Committee 
to meet at convenient time, and to make report to the 
Assembly. 

Dr. Burges, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Spurstow, 
declare they desire none of the present pay : others to 
declare to the Committee. 
1 Order not in MS. See it in Journals of Lords and Commons for 2d April 1645. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 77 

Mr. Ny moved that the former vote might be considered SESS. 411. 
and another put, whether for the substance of it the thing fel/' 
be not true. 

R. To proceed to debate Mr. Palmer's report to-morrow 
morning. 

Sess. 412. AprilR, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Sess. 413. April 9, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Proceed in the debate of the report of Mr. Palmer, and Debate on 
the alterations by the Committee of the Assembly. Report re- 

The Commissioners of Scotland returned from the sumetl - 
Church of Scotland. etu of 

Scotch 

Mr. Gillespy If the relation that we are to make of the Commis- 
letter we bring seem too late . . . desire you to take notice s " 
of the first excuse. . . . We did intend to be here a month 
ago, but were carried away to Holland. . . . We are com- 
forted to see this. . . . Present the great respects of the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and to 
assure you their hearts are much with you. . . . Men- 
tioned in their prayers both publicly and privately. . . . 
For the account. . . . The Directory accepted with great 
joy and contentment, both to the General Assembly and 
Parliament, approved in both without one contrary vote 
in either. ... So much comforted by those first-fruits, that 
it makes them long for the full harvest. . . . They pray, 
and are confident the Lord will not desert the work in 
your hand. . . . The propositions of government and ordi- 
nation are also approved. . . . The Psalms sent down with 
us they have put it in the hands of a select Committee. 
In the general the[y] like very well the correcting and 
amending of the Psaltery, and they wish the work may be 
carried on. ... It is desired that we may be as quickly at 
home as possible. 

A letter from the General Assembly of Scotland read, 
and a paper of the renewing of the Commission. 

Lord Chancellor We desire that the Grand Committee Scotch 
might meet that what might best advance this and bring lor >* n re_ 
it to perfection. . . . quest. 



78 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 413. Prolocutor Our reverend brethren . . . This Assembly 
A J64- 9 ' is so unanimously affected with joy in the good accept- 
ance of our endeavours here, and the good success . . . 

tos 10 rep~ly. Accepted with his people, and such a people expressing 
so much zeal, not loving their lives unto the death. ... As 
for the letter ... it could never come soon enough to 
satisfy our expectations ; and how late soever it comes, it 
come[s] with great acceptation and thankfulness. . . . We 
rejoice that there is such a concurrence in such a prudent 
state. ... I hope your eyes do now see, and your hearts 
shall more . . . We doubt not of the zeal of the Hon ble . 
Houses of Parliament. They will take care that it shall 
be observed with that . . . For the business of our 
government. . . . 

Answer to Ordered Dr. Burges, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. 

be drawn Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Reynolds, a Committee to 

from Scot- draw up a letter in answer to this from Scotland. 

land. 

Scss. 414. April 10, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Report on Mr. Ley made report of the business of printing, ' That 
f the Master and Wardens of the Stationers having made 
proof of many gross corruptions of two editions of Bibles 
imported from beyond sea, had authority from the Com- 
mittee of the Hon ble . House of Commons for printing to 
seize on such Bibles, and that divers have complained 
they have seized on other Bibles which are true, and not 
convicted of such or so great or many corruptions as 
should make them liable to the like seizure. That the 
Assembly will be pleased to take it into consideration how 
the kingdom may be furnished with true Bibles upon as 
easy rates as may be afforded.' 

Mr. Ley, Mr. Herle, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Tuckney, or any 
3 of the Committee of Bibles, shall, in the name of the 
Assembly, acquaint the Committee of printing with the 
[seizing 1 of all Bibles having only to the Assembly com- 
plained of two impressions] complaint and information 
brought into the Assembly by sundry merchants of the 

1 The whole of this paragraph is full of corrections, and Byfield has evi- 
dently forgotten to erase the words in brackets. TR. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 79 

city of London against the Master and Wardens of the SESS. 414. 
Company of Stationers, who, having complained of the J ^16*5' 
faults in two impressions of Bibles brought from beyond 
seas, and so by the mediation of the Assembly with the 
Hon ble . House of Commons complaining of those said two 
impressions, they have procured an order for the seizing of 
the said Bibles, and had, under this colour, seized upon 
many impressions, whether true or false, which is conceived 
to be a prejudice both to the Assembly and the parties 
interested in those copies so seized upon ; and further, to 
inform the said Committee that there are also many faults 
in the Bibles printed in London, and therefore the As- 
sembly doth desire that such course may be taken that 
the Bibles may be truly printed for the time to come, and 
a cheap rate set upon them ; and further, to inform them 
that the Committee of the Assembly, being now a pre- 
paring of something to offer to the said Committee to that 
purpose [and that upon a former complaint to that . . . 

Dr. Temple, Mr. Whitaker to go to visit Mr. Assessor 
White . . . who are to inquire also into his estate. 

That 20 be sent to Mr. Assessor White out of the [Erased.] 
hundred pounds lately brought into the Assembly from 
the Committee for Haberdashers' Hall. 

Debate upon the 2d and 3d propositions in the report of Debate on 
the Committee of the Assembly. chS f 

govern- 

S ess. 4.1$. April n, 1645. ment - 

Mr. Case, Mr. Smith, Mr. Ny. To pray. 

Report of the alteration of the 2d proposition read and 
voted. 

Third proposition debated. . . . ' Congregations being Debate 
constituted according to the votes formerly passed, and resumecl - 
enjoying ordinances formerly agreed on.' 

A letter from the Earl of Manchester. 

R. Mr. Hill be approved as fit and worthy, and so to Hill and 
be recommended for Master of Trinity College. Tuckney 

So to |, e 

R. Mr. Tuckney also for Master of Emmanuel College. Masters of 

Colleges at 
Cam- 
bridge. 



8o 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 416. 

April 14, 

1645. 



Debate on 
Church 
govern- 
ment 
resumed. 



Church 
govern- 
ment con- 
tinued. 



Scss. 416. April 14, 1645. Monday morning. 

A paper from the Grand Committee, brought in by 
Scotch Commissioners to the said Committee, read. 1 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the proposition. 
It was resolved. 

Debate about those words, 'notwithstanding such defects.' 

Mr. Seaman enters his dissent to that word 'such' added 
before the vote. 

Sess. 417. April 15, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Alteration in the 2d proposition reported by the Com- 
mittee. The word 'lawful' left out. 
Debate on 2d Proposition debated and resolved. 

The next pro[po]sition, ' In regard of the government of 
them.' . . . This proposition to be debated. 

1 This paper was presented to the Houses of Parliament as well as to the 
Assembly, and is here given from the Journals of the House of Lords : 

' The return of our brethren from the late General Assembly of the Kirk 
of Scotland hath occasioned us to desire the meeting of this honourable and 
reverend Committee at this time, that we might make known unto them, and 
by them to the honourable Houses of Parliament and the reverend Assembly 
of Divines, that the Directory for the Public Worship of God, and the pro- 
positions concerning Kirk Government and Ordination agreed upon by both 
Houses according to the advice of the Assembly of Divines, was not only 
acceptable to the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, and to the Par- 
liament of that kingdom, but was also received of them as a matter of thanks- 
giving unto God, who had so far promoted his own work of refreshment unto 
themselves in this time of their trouble, and of encouragement in their constant 
assistance by their joint prayers, counsels, and forces, till, by the blessing of 
God, the work be finished, and this kingdom settled in peace. 

' And that, from their zeal to uniformity according to the Covenant, having 
parted with some lawful customs universally practised in that Kirk ever since 
the first Reformation of religion, they, by their several acts and authority 
respectively, have ordained the Directory to be forthwith printed, and there- 
after to be observed in all the kirks of the kingdom, and in the armies. 

' That they have also agreed unto and approved of the aforementioned pro- 
positions, as a ground-work of the intended Uniformity in Kirk Government, 
according to the Covenant. 

' And that their ernest and incessant desire is, that the Directory for Public 
Worship, which, after so long time and so much travel!, is at last brought to 
a final conclusion by the Assemblies and Parliaments of both kingdoms, may 
be presently put in execution in all the parts thereof ; and that neither mini- 
sters nor people, of whatsoever quality or degree, be permitted to preach or 
write against it, or to practise that which by public authority is abolished, 
which, beside the dishonour done to the name of God, and provoking of His 
displeasure, would prove nothing else but a contempt of order and authority, 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 8 1 

Sess. 418. April 16, 1645. Wednesday morning. SESS. 418. 

April 1 6, 

Ordered Mr Carrill was approved of by the Assembly 1645. 
for St. Magnus. 

Debate about the proposition of renouncing membership 
in regard of the government of churches, etc. . . in regard 
of their subjecting of themselves to presbyterial and syno- 
dical government. 

Mr. Goodwin read his paper. 

Ordered To debate the proposition for gathering of 
churches in case this proposition be not concluded on. 

Sess. 419. April 17, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Dr. Temple made report that they had laid aside the 
proposition concerning separation, and thought there would 
be occasion to debate that in the business of gathering of 
churches. 

Report from the Committee of the Assembly. 

a real proclamation of liberty, a destroying of that which hath been in build- 
ing, and a frustrating of all future endeavours for reformation. 

' And it is with no less zeal and earnestness desired and expected by that 
whole Kirk and kingdom, that the remanent parts of Uniformity be expedited, 
especially that the materials of Kirk Government, which hath been so long in 
the hands of the Assembly of Divines, may be formed into a practical Direc- 
tory with all possible diligence, which, beside the Uniformity longed for by all 
the Reformed Kirks, especially by the Kirk of Scotland, will be a hedge and 
fence to the Directory of Worship, a mean to procure ready obedience to the 
ordinances of Parliament, a settling of the minds of such as are hovering and 
halting betwixt two opinions, a remedy of many doubts and jealousies, a pre- 
servative against errors and schisms, a terror and matter of despair to the 
common enemy, and a mighty confirmation of the hearts of the godly in their 
adventuring and undertaking for defence of religion and order of the Kirk once 
established, and of that power without which religion can neither be reformed 
nor preserved. 

'We therefore, according to the commandment which we have received, 
and the great trust put upon us, do move and entreat that this honourable and 
reverend Committee may be pleased to represent to the honourable Houses 
and reverend Assembly, that acceptation, and these desires of the Parliament 
of Scotland, and the National Assembly of that Kirk, that in their wisdom, 
the best and readiest ways may be found out and prescribed, for bringing 
matters so necessary, after so long deliberation, to a wished conclusion ; and 
we may have their answer, to be sent to the Committees of the Parliament 
and Assembly in Scotland, for our exoneration and their satisfaction. What 
we have moved concerning the Directories for Public Worship and Kirk 
Government, we desire may be extended to the Church and kingdom of Ire- 
land.' Journals of House of Lords, vol. vii. pp. 317, 318. 

F 



82 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SBSS. 419. Debate whether it be order. 
Al i6 4 5 17 ' R - Ne The order of yesterday concerning debating of 

gathering of Churches shall not stand. 
Church r Debate about that of joining, 
govern- jff r Q 00 dwin Would you have the man to be without 

merit con- J 

tinued. ordinances all his days. If you cannot excommunicate 
him, you cannot keep him without ordinances. 

Mr. Palmer 

Mr. Gillespy There is no necessity of living without 
ordinances all his days. He may see his error, so the 
necessity is not absolutely. . . . He must have the ordi- 
nances, but how ? In a lawful way. He must not do evil 
that good may come of it. Separation is an unlawful 
way, etc. . . . They will insist upon that, he is persuaded 
it's unlawful. The argument will resolve upon this. Upon 
this corrupt principle I must rather do that which is in 
itself a sin, than do that which appears to be a sin. 

Ordered To debate the gathering of churches to-mor- 
row morning. 

Sess. 420. April 18, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Pickering, Mr. Goodwin, to pray with 
the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both king- 
doms. 

20 voted Ordered That Mr. Reynolds have twenty pounds paid 

Reynolds. unto ^ im out ^ t ^ ie monies brought into the Assembly. 

Report of Report from the Committee of the Assembly about the 

tioTon ~ proposition for gathering of churches. 

gathering Debate about the stating of the controversy. 

churches. r- T> i_ ^ TT i i i ... 

Sir Robert Harley brought an order to send ministers to 
Ireland. 1 Two petitions from Ireland. 

Dr. Temple, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Herle, Dr. 
Hoyle, Mr. Gower, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Ny, Mr. Palmer, Dr. 
Stanton. 

Ordered To be a committee to join with Sir Robert 
Harley : Sir John Clotworthy, Colonel Jephson, Mr. Sal- 
way, and Mr. Tate. 

The Commissioners of Scotland to be assisting] to 
1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 113. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 8 j 

meet this afternoon at ... and to make report with all con- SES.S. 420. 
venient speed. A ^ 8 ' 

A Committee to put this order 1 into an ... 

Ordered M^- -" L 1 " -, ll^-4r~~~--3, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Sic. 
Tuckney, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Young, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. 
Rayner, Mr. Vines, Mr. Delamarch, to consider of this 
order. They are to meet this afternoon, and to make 
report on Monday morning. 

Report made by Dr. Stanton from the Committee for Repon 
perfecting of government, of 4 propositions. mittee on" 

R. To go on in the debate of gathering of churches next Church 

govern - 
time. men t. 

Sess. 421. April 21, 1645. Monday morning. 

Ordered Dr. Temple, Mr. Hickes, Mr. Hodges, to speak 
with Sir Robert Harley about the ministers for the army. 

Report from the Committee desire the 39 Articles may 
be reviewed. 

Ordered That the 39 Articles be reviewed by the for- Thirty- 
mer Committee, and the Committee to consider how far c "g s t ^" 1)e 
they or any of them may be useful to be recommended reviewed. 
to both Houses of Parliament for the present, till a Con- 
fession of Faith can be drawn up by this Assembly, to 
meet this afternoon. 

R. To be referred to one Committee. 

Ordered The Committee for Confession of Faith do Commit- 
meet on Wednesday, in the afternoon. ^ n . 

J ' Confession 

Ordered The Committee for printing to meet on ofFaith 



Wednesday, in the afternoon, and take this petition into 



consideration. 

They are . . . 

Debate about the stating of the former proposition for Debate on 
gathering of churches. A form offered by Mr. Vines was ofchurdfes 

debated. resumed. 

Sess. 422. April 22, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Debate of the proposition, whether the question shall 
be put. 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 114. 



84 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 422. The dissenting brethren coming in, it was debated. 
A ?64 5 22 ' Dr. Gouge This is an argument that any heretic or 

schismatic may use. 
gathering" Mr. Case Said if he can, with a good conscience, gather 

of churches churches in a congregational . . . True, it is unlawful to him 
continued. & fc> 

to join ; but the question is not what is unlawful to him, 

but what is unlawful in itself. 

Dr. Temple That which is an erroneous conscience is 
not a good conscience. 

Mr. Burroughs No heretic can say he can do it with a 
good conscience. . . . Suppose the Presbyterial government 
lawful, yet if another be lawful too, and I cannot be con- 
vinced. . . . 

Mr. Gillespy That supposition being laid, destroys the 
argument. The conscience is erroneous that judgeth it 
unlawful ... so that it resolves into the binding power of 
an erroneous conscience. ... It is a common maxim con- 
scientia errans ligat non obligat . . . This makes the con- 
science obligare to the positive duty of gathering churches 
into an independent form of government. 

Mr. Burroughs I do not aim at any strength for the 
bond for erring conscience. . . . When I see 2 things, though 
both lawful, yet if I see the one to be more apparently 
lawful, I may choose that. . . . Suppose a man do doubt 
whether it be lawful to eat flesh, I appeal whether it be a 
sin to eat herbs. 

Mr. Marshall . . . Our question is not of the joining 
. . . but the gathering of such churches out of churches 
under a Presbyterial government 

Dr. Burges He illustrates his argument by an instance 
of eating flesh and herbs. ... It is one thing to consider 
of things that are neither commanded nor forbidden . . . 
and another to speak of things commanded and forbidden. 

Dr. Temple This is the thing to be proved, that they 
cannot join with the Presbyterial government and un- 
lawful . . . and that without all doubt that indep[end]ent 
Sic in MS. form is unlawful. 

Mr. Ny Here are many questions that lie far before 
you in this proposition. . . . Say but upon what part you 



THE ASSEMBLY OV DIVINES. 



place your emphasis ; we shall speak to it as we are able. S ESS. ^ 422 
. The. 



Mr. Marshall Said in that comparison, suppose a sheep 



April 22, 
1645- 



Debate 

must starve if he come into that pasture again. . . . There- continued. 
fore saith he, the Lord would have churches, to give leave 
to them to join with such churches. . . . This will follow, 
if in churches of a classical government any be scrupled, 
they ought to give leave ... by the same rule, in the 
independent way any scruple, they must give them leave 
to join with the Brownists, and the Brownists with the 
Anabaptists. 

Mr. Burroughs Answer very briefly. . . . This will very 
well hold if 2 before me, and this I think lawful, and 
another government is lawful too. ... I think I were bound 
to let him go if I did think that government lawful. ... If 
the Church is bound in such a case to let members go, 
then gathering is lawful. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate of the report of Dr. 
Stanton to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 42 3 . April 2 3. 

Ordered Elias Pledger approved for a Fellow. 

For Mr. Chandler, Mr. Ley, Mr. Delamarch, Mr. Picker- 
ing, Mr. Prophet, Mr. Gower. 

Debate upon the first proposition, ' of positive signs of Debate on 
conversion.' g^ 

Church 
. members. 

Sess. 424. April 24. Thursday morning. 
Ordered Mr. Browning approved of for a Fellow. 



Sess. 425. April 2$, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Coleman, Mr. Herle, Mr. Herricke. To pray. 

Ordered Sr Woodcocke approved for a Fellow. 
Proceed in the debate. Debate of 

By scandalous we understand the omission of necessary s i ns . 
duties, as well as the commission of gross sins. 



86 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 426. Sc'ss. 426. April 28, 1645. 

A ?64 5 28 ' Ordered Mr. Aldcrson's certificate be stayed till he 
bring a testimonial from his neighbour ministers. 

Ordered Mr. Westwood's order be respited. 

Ordered Mr. Alerton's order be respited. 

Ordered Mr. Daniel Delaplace approved for a Fellow. 
Debate on Debate about the proposition of going from their own 
tion POS congregation, whether waived or not. 

about Mr. BurrougJis I cannot see by the words of the propo- 

goinglfrom sition how you will be able to justify practices in England 
their own wn ich you all grant. Suppose a man be for some time 

congrega- 

tion. from home, he must ordinarily. . . . 

Mr. Marshall I am persuaded of the truth of the propo- 
sition. He that is a church member in a place, and ordinarily 
goes for his food in another place when he may at home, 
doth transgress from the rule, but it would be unseasonable. 

Mr. Ley I think the season is very fit, and the way will 
carry great force with it. Many straggle from their pastors 
be[cause] they are orthodox. 

Mr. Seaman . . . How far we shall prevail in it I know 
not ; but yet let us exonerate our consciences. ... I think 
it is a seasonable and necessary truth. 

Mr. Whitaker Said it is true and expedient, and that 
expediency is so great, as that in a degree of necessity, 
be[cause] of that of the seekers, they take themselves to 
be above ordinances : they will not go to hear at all. 

Mr. Herle I question the truth of the proposition in 
the bi 

Mr. Marshall Said if there be a concurrence in the 
truth, order it, and then debate the expediency of it This 
is a strange course to me. If it be inexpedient for us to 
give up our advice of it to the Parliament, shall we go to 
debate the truth of it. 

Mr. Ny I think there was a mistake. ... I think you 
have not voted your former propositions as seasonable to 
be sent up. 

Mr. Palmer -To grant that liberty is to destroy all 
congregations ; as you will not grant that liberty, you must 
hold it out. ... It is so absolutely and essentially necessary 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 87 

to the being of government, that I know not how it can be SESS. 426. 
granted. ^f' 

Debate upon the 36 proposition, ' anticipating the deter- 
minations of the Parliament.' 

Ordered Proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 427. May I, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Proceed in the debate of the proposition about antici- 
pating the determinations of the Parliament, by setting up 
a new form of government, and about the meaning of it. 

An order from the House of Commons. 1 Order for 

(Ordered] R. Mr. Edward Rayner shall be recom- a fast 
mended by this Assembly as a man fit for Lincoln. 

A letter from York for the approbation of Mr. Nathaniel 
Wrathband. 

Ordered That Mr. Nathaniel Wrathband shall be re- 
commended by this Assembly as fit to be the 4th minister 
for York. 

The former proposition waived. 

Debate upon the 4th proposition about the power of the Debate on 
Magistrate in suppressing of heresies. Magistrate. 

Sess. 428. May 2. Friday morning. 

Mr. Mew, Mr. Hickes, Mr. Gippes. To pray. 

Ordered Mr. Corbett have 15, paid by the scribe. 

Ordered That Mr. Alderson have his testimonials back 
again. 

Report from the Committee of the Assembly of the 
proposition committed to them in 2 propositions. The 
first ordered to be debated in the Assembly, the second 
drawn up, but not concluded of. 

The former proposition ordered, the second debated. 

A letter from Norwich. 

Ordered A Committee to consider of this letter, and 
of all other requests made to this Assembly of the like 
nature, that the substance of them may be represented to 
both Houses, with humble request to them for expedition 

7- 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 124. 



88 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SKSS. 428. 



Thanks 
given to 
Lord 
Lauder- 
dale. 



Letter to 
be sent to 
Scotland. 

Report 
concerning 
Civil Ma- 
gistrate to 
be sent to 
House of 
Commons. 



Ordered Dr. Burges, Mr. Ward, Mr. Herricke, Mr. 
Young, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Thorowgood, 
Mr. Case, to be this Committee, to make report on 
Monday morning. 

Ld. Lotlierdale 1 The honour I have had to be so long 
amongst you lays an obligation upon me to take my 
leave. I hope to be there by the sitting of the Com- 
missioners of the General Assembly. I therefore come to 
receive your commands. 

Prolocutor, by order of the Assembly, gave him thanks 
in the name of the Assembly, for his presence and assist- 
ance in the Assembly. 

Ordered The Committee appointed to draw up a letter 
to Scotland, to meet this afternoon, to prepare a letter to 
Scotland. Mr. Spurstow to be added to this Committee. 

Sess. 429. May 5, 1645. Monday morning. 

Report made from the Committee of a letter to be sent 
to the Commissioners of the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland. It was read. 

Ordered That Mr. Allerton have his testimonial. 

Ordered That Mr. Knightbridge be approved of for 
Fellow. 

Mr. Ward made report from the Committee of the 
letters. They conceive that the House of Co[mmons] have 
the same matter depending before them. 2 They hope they 
will prevent this Assembly. ... In case the House be hin- 
dered by any intervening business, then they will be ready 
to receive the commands of this Assembly. 

The letter was debated. 

Debate about that of 'not in a syllable condemn our 
practice.' 

Ordered That this letter be sent to the General As- 
sembly of Scotland in the name of the Assembly. 

Report by Dr Stanton concerning Civil Magistrate, read. 

Dr. Burges to deliver it to Mr. Rolfe, to acquaint the 
House of Commons. 

Ordered To debate this report to-morrow morning. 
1 Sic for Lauderdale. * Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 131. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 89 

Sess. 430. May 6, 1645. Tuesday morning. SESS. 430. 

Ordered That Mr. Tompson be approved of for Hoi- M ^/'' 
den, in Yorkshire. 

Report from the Committee of the Assembly of the Report 
alterations in the propositions concerning Civil Magistrate. m e f m ~ 

The first proposition was thus altered. altering 

' The Civil Magistrate hath authority, and it is his duty to Uomcon- 
provide that the word of God be truly and duly preached, , ernin s 
the sacraments rightly administered, church government Magistrate. 
and discipline established and duly executed according to 
the word of God.' 

Debate whether to bring this under the head of govern- 
ment or a Confession of Faith, ... or the contracting of 
them for the present. 

The propositions waived in reference to the discipline. 

Ordered A Committee of 7 : Mr. Marshall, Mr. Palmer, Committee 
Mr. Gataker, Mr. Delmy, Dr. Burges, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. ^vSes 
Herle, Mr. Young, a Committee to consider of what onChurch 
votes are already passed this Assembly concerning go- 



vernment not yet sent up to Parliament, and to put them yet se " t 

. . up to Par- 

into their method, and consider what is wanting to meet liament. 
this afternoon, and to make report to-morrow morning. 

Ordered The proposition concerning the Magistrate to 
be considered to-morrow morning, in case there be nothing 
ready for the Committee. 

Sess. 431. May 7, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Report made from the Committee for considering what 
is wanting in government. 

Something added to that, ' concerning the moderator.' Additions 
Something concerning ruling elders' summoning. Some- ^1^*' 
thing concerning the manner of ruling elders' electing and s ardm g 

moderator 
Choosing. and ruling 

Debate whether the ruling elders should summon the elders - 
persons before them. 

Sess. 432. May 8, 1645. Thursday morning. 

R. Mr. Marmaduke Mason, Mr. John Lindsey, Mr. 
William Lodgerd, shall have a certificate from this As- 



9O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 432. sembly, (according) l upon the testimonials brought in con- 

^1645?' cernin g them, in case they shall be upon examination 

approved by the ministers whom the Lord Fairfaxe hath 

associated to advise in Church affairs. 

Debate Report from the Committee of the Assembly about the 

additi 3 if ^ W addition, agreed by the Committee to be waived. 
Debate whether waived. 

An order from the L[ords] & Co[mmons] for dispatch. 
Debate whether those words ' by the eldership ' shall 
stand. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Scss. 433. May 9, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Greene, Mr. Carter, and Mr. Walker to pray. 
Several Proposition concerning inspection by several officers in 
congrega- several parts of the congregation debated and voted, 
uon to be j report from the Committee of an addition to that 

inspected 

by several proposition and other propositions. 

Debate about the addition, ' visiting the several families.' 
as to ' Mr. Ny enters his dissent against the addition of those 
visiting, words by them. 

Ordered 'That the Assembly consider on Monday 
Two Com mornm S ^e best way to expedite the Confession of Faith, 
mittees on ... and that the two Committees for the Confession of 
offSTo Faith be put into one. 
be con- 
Joined- Sess. 434. May [12]. Monday morning. 

R. Byfield An order for admitting of Mr. Byfield to the Assembly. 2 

member^ He tO k the Potation. 

Assembly. Mr. Tate took the protestation also. 

3 Letters from the Earl of Manchester for 

Spurstow R. The Assembly doth approve of the removal of Mr. 
worthap"- Spurstow to Catherine Hall. 

proved as R. The Assembly doth approve of the nomination of 
Colleges Mr. Ralph Cudworth to be master of Clarehall, in Cam- 
atCam- bridge. 

bndge. 

R- The Assembly doth approve of the nomination of 

1 Inserted above ' upon ' in MS. 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 127. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 



Mr. Craddocke, Master of Arts, of Immanuel College, to 
be a Fellow of Trinity College. 

Report of the Confession of Faith read and debated. 
The first voted. Debate about the Committee for draw- 
ing up the Confession. 

The first draught of the Confession of Faith shall be 
drawn up by a Committee of a few. 

R. The Committee shall be 



SESS. 434. 
May 
1645. 

Report 
concerning 
Confession 
of Faith. 



Dr. Gouge. 
Mr. Reynolds. 
Mr. Vines. 
Mr. Tuckney. 
Dr. Hoyle. 
Mr. Herle. 
Mr. Gataker. 



Mr. Gataker, Mr. Harris. 
Dr. Temple. 
Mr. Burges. 
Mr. Reynolds. 
Dr. Hoyle. 
Mr. Herle. 



They are to meet 
this afternoon. 



Commit- 
tee for 
Confes- 
sion. 



./?. Mr. 



for Mr. Tuckney. 



The Commissioners of the Church of Scotland are de- 
sired to be assisting to this Committee. 

R. Mr. Tuckney and Mr. Vines be exchanged for Dr. 
Temple and Mr. Burges. Mr. Harris be for Mr. Palmer. 

Ordered Sr Loase l (?) be approved of by this Assembly. 

Ordered The Committee for the Catechism do meet Commit- 
this afternoon. g hism 

Ordered Mr. Dods' certificate be respited, be[cause] to meet, 
the Assembly is informed that he is unwilling himself to 
accept it at the present. 

Ordered To proceed in the report about government. 



Sess. 435. May 13. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Harrington approved for a Fellow. 
Report from the Committee about the Catechism. 
Debated. 



Report 
from Com- 
mittee on 
Catechism. 



Mr. Rutherford ... I would not have those questions Debate on 
to be cardinal and principal questions, but printed in a ^method 
smaller letter . . . Said the apostles did not use such a way. of cate- 
I think they did use it : 'Is then the law of God of none c 
effect ? ' . . . The answer is easy to it. ... It should be in 

1 Perhaps Joase. 



92 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 435. the plainest and easiest way. It is a feeding of the 
^XJ 3 ' iambs. . . . Said it takes away the proper work of the 
minister. There is as much art in catechising as in any- 
cat<Sizing thing in the world. It may be doubted whether every 
continued, minister do understand the most dexterous way of doing it. 
Mr. Marshall I confess the pains which that brother 
that brought in the report is both accepted with God and 
hath been blessed by Him. . . . But I crave leave to give 
a few dissenting thoughts to the method propounded. . . . 
Said people will come to learn things by rote, and can 
answer it as a parrot, but not understand the thing. True, 
I think it a good way to be so done in the catechiser, but 
put it into the catechism, and it produceth no other effect 
but what the proposition doth. He got that by heart as 
he doth the other. ... I think if you could set down 
questions in propositions, this will not do the deed ; but 
let it be the care of godly ministers to try all ways. . . . 
I like it well, that in your preface you should commend 
all this. ... I think you do not intend to tie them to 
those words, and no other. Let your Catechism be as 
the Directory : ' those, or to that effect.' 

Mr. Bridge I conceive there are two ends of cate- 
chism : (i.) Increase of knowledge ; (2.) To give you some 
test of their knowledge. For the first there should be an 
explication of the terms of divinity : the terms of re- 
demption and sanctification must be first explained. 2. 
The matter should run both affirmatively and negatively. 
. . . For the test of their knowledge it is better that 
answers should be made by sentences than by aye and 
no. Not amiss to have such an expression as this, that 
you intend not only the words, but to express the sense. 

Mr. Gillespy This is a profitable discourse, which is 
the best way of catechising. ... I like well the form offered 
to you, the capital questions by themselves, and parti- 
cular questions by aye and no, both put together in the 
body of the Catechism. . . . When we were lately in Scot- 
land, in conference, we had occasion to speak of this way, 
and showed them the example of it, and they all liked it 
very well For the objections made against it For 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 93 

the Directory. ... It never entered into the thoughts of SESS. 435. 
any to tie to the words and syllables in that Catechism, JQ c^' 
as in the Directory of preaching. You may use the words 
in the preface as in the Directory for preaching. . . . Many C0 ntfnued. 
need no helpe in that kind, yet many do ; and though no 
ministers to x need help, yet masters of families may need 
it. ... For that, ' the formality of the thing,' the same for- 
mality and inconvenience is in both. A. The same incon- 
venience is not. There may be a degenerating of the 
best thing into formality. . . . But this will not so soon 
degenerate into formality as the other, where there is both 
general and particular answers, that must needs inculcate 
more knowledge than one of them alone. . . . For that 
other way, it may suffice to recommend it in a preface. 
I offer this, longum iter per precepta. ... It will be easier to 
set down an example. . . I offer this reason for the thing. 
. . . The light of nature and natural reason leads men this 
way in the explanation of things. . . . As in disputing to 
go upon induction of particulars, if scholars have need of 
light in this kind. ... So in Scripture questions. 

Dr. Gouge There is a difference, when one thing is in 
question to enlarge that, and to enlarge every point in reli- 
gion. . . . Ministers are physicians : they must observe the _- 
patient. 

Mr. Herle I would have aye and no to be expressed, 
but not distinct. It should be the first word of the answer. 

Mr. Seaman There are two distinct things before us : 
about a catechism, and about catechising. . . . The Cate- 
chism is a Directory, both to the catechiser and the child. 
. . . For the minister, it is a little too much to prescribe 
to him in this form or that form. . . . The greatest care 
should be taken for the answer, and yet 2 to be formed, not 
to the model of knowledge that the child hath, but to that 
the child ought to have. ... I desire you would make 
those two distinct. 

Mr. Reynolds We all agree that way which is most 
for ingenerating knowledge is most to be used. . . . But 
that this way before you is the best way, I cannot discern. 

1 Sic in MS., perhaps for do. 2 Or yt for that. 



94 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 435. You resolve it shall be but a Directory, then how shall 
M j6 y , 13 ' those ayes or noes be of use. . . . You will obtain your end 
as well by setting it down in the preface to the Catechism. 
Mr. Delmy In this matter we are to consider the na- 
ture of a catechism, the propounding of doctrine in the 
most familiar manner. . . . That manner which answers 
most to this is best, that which brings and conveys the 
knowledge of religion. . . . We must consider the choice 
ends of catechism : to inquire into the measure of the 
knowledge of the party .... The experience of the Re- 
formed churches is to be considered. 

Mr. Palmer If I had not a peculiar interest in this I 
should have spoken more. . . . Something I am unsatisfied 
in. ... Much is spoken of children, but we have some 
others to deal withal than children. 

Sess. 436. May 14. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Lawson have an approbation from this 
Assembly, according to the order of the Committee of 
plundered ministers, without any further examination. 

Debate Debate about the alterations in the business of deacons. 

deacons. Debate about the deacons and churchwardens doing 
that which belongs to the overseers and churchwardens. 

Sess. 437. May 15. Thursday morning. 

Sr Dodwell is to bring another testimonial from mini- 
sters amongst whom he hath conversed. 

Committee Ordered That Mr. Seaman, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Vines, 

mm f Mn Hodges, Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Ward, shall be a Com- 

from taxes, mittee to consider of a way of presenting something from 

the Assembly to the Hon ble Houses of Parliament for 

the easing of godly ministers from immoderate taxes and 

free quarter, and that they have encouragement and some 

course taken for the receiving of their dues, and also fur- 

ther to consider of such as preach in the meantime Armi- 

nianism, and against the Sabbath : they are to meet about 

Additions , .1 r . 

to Com- !t thls afternoon. 

Ordered Mr. Seaman and Mr. Vines added to the 



Church ~ 

govern- Committee for perfecting of government. 

ment. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 95 

Sess. 438. May 16, 1645. Friday morning, SKSS. 438. 

Mr. Carrill, (Mr. Seaman,) Mr. Hill, 1 Mr. Reynolds. 

Ordered Mr. Carey, Mr. John Wilkinson, Mr. Nicholas 
Pitt, approved, upon the examination of the ministers ap- 
pointed to ordain. 

A petition from the parish. . . . Thirty-four, Clerks. 

Their petition hath been read. 

R. We cannot interpose ourselves in this business of 
the ordinance ?] and it is now before the Houses, and . . . 
And though the Assembly cannot own them under the 
notion of parish clerks and church officers, yet as they 
may be serviceable to the minister and congregation, the 
Assembly shall be ready to give them encouragement. 

This answer to be returned by Dr. Burges and Mr. Vines. 

Report from the Committee of the Assembly about the Deacon's 

, , . . , . -_ . , . tenure of 

deacon s continuance m his office debated. office. 

Moved to put the word (?) ' deacons ' to the former vote of Deacons 
ruling elders. added 

to ruling 

A proposition VOted. elders as 

Mr. Seaman enters his dissent. pfrtkuk" 

Debate about the sending up of the Draught of Govern- congrega- 
tions. 
ment. 

Ordered The Committee for the perfecting and metho- 
dising of government to meet this afternoon. 

Mr. Reynolds to be added to it. 

Ordered The sub-Committee concerning the classical 
Presbytery do make report of that committed to them on 
Monday morning. 

Sess, 439. May 19, 1645. Monday morning. 

R. Mr. Dodwell have his certificate from this As- 
sembly. 

Mr. Hughes, his business respited till the Assembly is 
informed more concerning the nature of the place to which 
he is sent. 

Dr. 

Ordered Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Wilkinson, jur., to visit 
Mr. Corbet of Merton College. 

1 Mr. Hill's name is written above Mr. Seaman's. 



96 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 439. Mr. Reynolds made report from the Committee con- 
M i645 9> cerning classical Presbyteries . . . read. 

Debate upon that addition to the 5th proposition 'of the 
concerning officers of a particular congregation.' 
classical Debate upon the additions to classical Presbyteries. 

Presbyte- 
ries read To proceed in the debate to-morrow morning, 
and de- 

Sess. 440. May 20, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Upon information against Mr. Knowles, his preaching 
in private, and venting his Antinomian opinions. 

Ordered Dr. Burges, Mr. Vines, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Ley, 
Mr. Ward, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Spurstow, 
Mr. Walker, a Committee to consider of this complaint, 
and of all other disorders formerly complained of, or fit 
to be complained of, to be of the like nature. 
Debate of Proceed in the debate of scandalous sins in a minister, 
scandalous Debate a bout this whether a catalogue of sins. 

Debate about the adjourning of the Assembly to-mor- 
row, by reason of a fast by the London ministers. 

R. To adjourn this Assembly till Friday, at 8 of the 
clock. 

The Committee. . . . 

R. n. c. 44 promise to endeavour to be present at the 
Assembly every forenoon session by 9 of the clock in the 
morning. 

Ordered The rest of the members of the Assembly, as 
they come in to the Assembly, to promise to endeavour 
the like. 

Sess. 441. May 23, 1645. Friday morning. 

To pray. Mr. Seaman, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Thorowgood. 

Commit- Ordered Mr. Ny, Dr. Smith, Mr. Herle, Dr. Stanton, 

endeavour Mr - Hill > Mr - Case > Mr - Lee > Mr - Young, shall be a Corn- 
to get mittee, to move the Committee of the revenue for the 
ofTrch- settling of the revenue of the Archbishop of Canterbury 
Canter f Up n ^ & Assembly, that it be constantly paid unto 
bury them. 

t'h" As- An order for admitting of Mr. Ford. He appeared, and 

sembiy. took the protestation. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 97 

Debate about the sins of ministers. SF.SS. 441. 

R. The offences of ministers be recommitted. The fLe" 3 ' 
Committee meet to this purpose in the afternoon. 

Sess. 4.4.2. May 26, 1645. Monday morning. 

Upon a motion about printing of the Bibles, it ... 

Dr. Burges, Mr. Ley, Mr. Hodges, to go to the House 
of Commons, according to the message formerly sent to 
the Committee of printing concerning Bibles. 

An order from the Sub-committee of the Grand Com- Order from 
mittee of the House of Commons, 1 about the way of con- m l j tte e of" 
stituting of congregational, etc. read and debated. Committee 

Ordered Mr. Gibson to pray for Mr. Thorowgood. of Com - 

Mr. Ley made report, the[y] could not be heard, because mons< 
the House had entered upon a great business, and could 
not quickly dispatch it, and so they promised to wait upon 
that House some other time. 

Dr. Burges (i.) That all those Assemblies be settled 
all together ; (2.) Though begun with congregational As- 
semblies, yet to consider what latitude you will cast a 
province into, and then you may discern how many classes 
to divide it into. 

Ordered Commissioners of Scotland assisting. 

Ordered Mr. Delmy, Mr. Wilkinson, sen., Mr. Herle, 
Mr. Hill, Mr. Gataker, Mr. Greene, Mr. Bathurst, Mr. 
Ford, Mr. Mew, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. 
Byfield, Dr. Stanton, Dr. Temple, Mr. Delamarch, Mr. 
Delaplace, Mr. Spurstow, Dr. Smith, Mr. Hodges, Mr. 
Gibson, a Committee to consider of this order of the Committee 
Sub-committee, and to prepare something to present ans'werTo 6 
by way of advice to the said Committee concerning a this order. 
way for the constituting of a congregational, classical, 
provincial, and national eldership, and for choosing of 
elders. They are to make report on Thursday morning. 

1 This order is not found in the Journals of the House, but it was meant to 
prepare the way for the Ordinance on Church Government subsequently 
passed. 



98 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 443. Sess. 443. May 29, 1645. Thursday morning. 

May 29, 

1645. Ordered Mr. Melvin (?) approved. 

Rejiort~of Report made by Mr. Reynolds from the Committee for 
answer. advice to the Sub-committee. 

A motion made from the L. Mayor of York, desiring, 
in a letter to Sir William Allinson, that the Assembly 
would write a few lines to the parishioners at Sowerby, to 
submit to their vote for his removal to York, which would 
satisfy both Mr. Wrathband and his people. 

A draught was drawn to that purpose and debated, but 
nothing concluded in it. 

Debate on Debate upon that ' provinces in every county.' Question 
Xing' resolved, 
the sub- Dr. Burges enters his dissent, and offers to bring in his 

Committee 

ofHouseof reasons to-morrow morning. 

Commons. Debate about the people's nominating of the elders in a 
congregation. 

Debate about the word ' nominate' to be put in instead 
of choose. 

About the people's nominating. 
Ordered to proceed in the debate. 

Sess. /\<\/[. May 30, 1645. Friday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Archer's certificate shall pass. 

Mr. Langley, 1 (Mr. Thorowgood), Mr. Whitakers, and Dr. 
Stanton, to pray with the House of Lords, Commons, and 
Committee of both kingdoms. 

Upon a debate about the paper drawn up in answer 
to the desire of the Mayor of York, it was taken into 
consideration, and voted to be sent in the name of this 
Assembly. 

Debate Proceed in the debate about the nominating and choos- 

resumed. j n g o f t h e officers. 

The proposition voted negative. 
Debate about the other particulars to be advised. 
R- To debate that of a select company of ministers 
and discreet persons, etc. It was debated. 

1 Mr. Langley's name is written above Mr. Thorowgood's. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 99 

Ordered Dr. Burges, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Herle, Mr. SESS. 444. 
Vines, to be a Committee, to carry up this advice, and to ^0' 
intimate that there is something more to be presented. 

Committee 
to carry up 

Sess. 445. June 2, 1645. Monday morning. Report. 

A report from the Committee about the sins of the 
minister. 

Report made from the Committee appointed to attend Report by 
the sub-Committee of the House of Commons, that they mittee, 
had delivered . . . They desired some addition ; what shall Wlth 

further re- 

be done in case the people and ministers do not agree quest from 

upon a fit choice, and where any elder shall be presented, m \k~^ e ^~ 
whether by consent or without consent, if they shall find House of 
that they are not fit, or will not choose fit, then they shall Commons - 
choose better themselves. Where ministers and people shall 
either nominate none at all, or persons unfit for the office, 
they shall be required by the said ministers of the classical 
or provincial division, by a certain time, to nominate fit 
persons ; wherein if they fail, then the said ministers shall, 
and those other elders already allowed, shall nominate fit 
persons for them. . . . The persons fit to be chosen are 
such as we have described. . . . The correctors formerly 
given, . . . whereof themselves may be part in their several 
divisions. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 446. June 3, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Proceed in the debate. 

Ordered Add ' and admit ' in the vote 402 concerning Addition 
the classical presbytery. 1 to votes . 

A * concerning 

Ordered 'The remaining part of government be tran- classical 
scribed to be reported to the Assembly. 
Debate about provincial Assemblies. 
Ordered This advice to the sub-Committee be drawn about pro- 

. . vincial As- 

up against tne j to-morrow morning. semblies. 

1 ' To examine, ordain, and admit ministers. ' Directory for Church 
Government. 

2 Sic in MS. 



100 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 447. Sess. 447. June 4. 

U i6 4 5 4> Ordered Dr. Temple, Mr. Whitakers, be added to the 
Additions Committee for the methodising of the votes concerning 
to Com- government 
Church The draught of the advice to the sub-Committee was 

Govern- rea< j and it was move d to add something concerning the 
ment. 

scandalous sins. 

Ordered NLr. Palmer and Mr. Hill be added to the 
Committee for giving advice to the sub-Committee of the 
House of Commons. 

A vote. Mr. Lightfoot's dissent to that of ' saved ' (?). 

Dr. Burges, Mr. Herle, enter their dissent, and give in 
their reasons. 

A letter from Hanaw read. 

Sess. 448. June 5, 1645. Thursday morning. 
Sub-Corn- Mr. Palmer made report from the sub-Committee. 
House of They accepted your advice, and desire the Assembly to 
Commons consider of a catalogue of sins to be added, 
sembly to A motion to adjourn the Assembly for an hour into 
draw up a Committees, to consider of the scandalous sins for which 

catalogue 

of scanda- any are to be kept from the sacrament, 
loussins. ^._To adjourn the Assembly for an hour into the 3 
general Committees. 

The Assembly adjourned for an hour, and met again. 
Report made from the ist Committee by Mr Palmer. 
Mr. Harris made report from the 2d Committee. 
Mr. Vines from the 3d Committee. 

Committee Ordered Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Spurstow, 

2? Mr - Palmer, Mr. Reynolds, and Mr. Vines, do compare 

logue. those three reports together, and make one draught out of 

them, to be presented to the Assembly to-morrow morning, 

and to add if they shall think fit. 

Sess. 449. June 6, 1645. 

To pray. Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Tisdale. 
Report of Report from the Committee of the scandalous sins to 
debated. " ^ e a ^ded to the former for suspension from the sacrament. 
Debate upon the . . . 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. IOI 

Debate about picture of Christ. 1 SESS. 449. 

Debate about absence from parochial congregations. ^"e^e 

Ordered Proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 450. June 9. Monday morning. 

Proceed in the debate. Debate 

Debate about naked breasts, 1 etc. resumed. 

Sess. 451. Jitne 10. Tuesday morning. 

A packet from York. A letter from the ministers of Opinions 
York about the blasphemous opinions of one Paul Best. g f e ^ aul 
The letter was read, and the . . . 

Mr. Tate The Parliament hath received letters from 
the armies : they are in a good posture. . . . They desire 
that you would set apart to-morrow to pray for a blessing Day to be 
upon our armies. t? pTaykr 

Mr. Millington brought a message from the House of a blessing 
Commons that the House desires as far as their urgent nientary a 
occasions will give them leave [they] may join too that he armies - 
that is to pray to-morrow may in a more solemn manner. . . 

Ordered Mr. Tate to acquaint the House of Commons 
with the desire of the Assembly to have the day of prayer 
as public as may be in the city and in Westminster. 

R. That the whole Assembly shall appear to complain Assembly 
to the House of Commons of those horrid blasphemies resol ^ e . to 

complain 

complained of by the ministers of York. to House 

f C* 

Ordered The two assessors shall speak in this business mon s^f 
besides the Prolocutor. the blas - 

,-. 7 ? _,, 11 -I 1111 i ITT phemies of 

Ordered lhat the like shall be presented to the House Best, 
of Lords. Also to 

R. To desire that they would use that authority that 
God hath put into their hands for the vindicating the 
honour of God and of Jesus Christ. . . . The opinions 
under the pretence of liberty of conscience vented in 
books might be suppressed the unbounded liberty of 
conscience mentioned in books and otherwise. 

1 Neither of these appears in the list of scandalous sins inserted in the Rules 
and Directions for suspension from the Lord's Supper approved by the Lords 
and Commons on 2Oth October 1645. 



IO2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 451. Ordered The liberty of all opinions and religions, under 
"645' tne pretence of liberty of conscience, maintained in books 
and otherwise, lately published, may be speedily sup- 
pressed, which hath been the occasion of those and the 
like blasphemous opinions. 

The Assembly adjourned to go to the House, and 
returned again. 1 

Mr. Tate reported that he had acquainted the House 
with the resolution of the Assembly, and they did not 
debate it 

Ordered Mr. Lightfoot to attend the House of Com- 
mons. 

Arrange- Ordered The day of prayer to be kept in six churches 
ments for j n L^^on liberties, and one in Westminster ; Andrew's 

services on 

day of Holbourne, Aldermanbury, Paul's, Bottolph Bishopsgate, 
Peter's Cornhill, Aldgate, Clement's Danes, Cripiegate. 
Margaret's Westminster. 

Andrew's Holbourne : Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Case, Mr. 
Wilson, Mr. Chambers. Paul's : Dr. Burges, Mr. Gower, 
Dr. Gouge, Mr. Connant. Aldermanbury : Mr. Calamy, 
Mr. Hickes, Mr. Burges, Mr. Ash. Peter's Cornhill : Mr. 
Coleman, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Guibon. Cle- 

1 ' The House being informed that the body of the Assembly of Divines 
were at the door, 

' They were called in : And Mr. Prolocutorand the two assessors represented 
severally the blasphemies of one Paul Best against the Deity of our Saviour 
Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Ghost, contained in books, treatises, and notes 
of his ; and in his answer to twelve interrogatories drawn out of the writings 
of the said Paul Best : and they desired that the Parliament would use that 
authority they were entrusted with for executing of condign punishment upon 
an offender of so high a nature ; that, in reference to the crime, he may be 
made exemplary ; that all the world may know how much you detest such 
prodigious blasphemies, and heresies of so fearful a nature. 

' The interrogatories and answers were severally read. 

' And the divines were again called in : And Mr. Speaker by command of 
the House acquainted them, that the House did acknowledge the assistance 
they had received from them ; and had ever found their care and desire of 
suppressing erroneous opinions, that spread too much abroad in this town and 
elsewhere : And for this particular, the House returns the Assembly thanks, 
both for their care in it, and for their speedy acquainting the House with it : 
And for the things themselves, the House will take them into consideration ; 
and put them into such a way, that there may be condign punishment executed 
for so horrid a blasphemy.' Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 170. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. IO' 



ment's Danes, Criplegate : Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Fox- SKSS - 45 r - 

June 10, 



croft, Mr. Carrill. Clement's Danes : Mr. Vines, Mr. Gips, 1645- 



Mr. Ford, Mr. Cawdry. Bottolph Bishopsgate : Mr. Harris, 
Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Delmy. Margaret's West- 
minster : Dr. Smith, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Good, Mr. Greene, 
Mr. Gibson, Mr. Lawes, Mr. Herle, Mr. Woodcocke, Mr. 
Whitaker, Mr. Lee. 

Sir Robert Harley saith the House have appointed a 
Committee to take it into examination, and this must be 
put into such a way as the 

Sess. 452. June 12, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Debate about love locks. Debate on 

Debate about previous admonition. scandalous 

x _ f sins 

Ordered A Committee to peruse this catalogue, and resumed, 
single out such sins as are unquestionable, and to draw up 
something to be added by way of desire that there may 
be some general proposition to leave it to presbytery to 
proceed in other cases or scandals of the like nature as in 
those, and some reasons for such a clause, Mr. Marshall, 
Mr. Vines, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. 
Reynolds, Mr. Newcomen, Dr. Temple, Mr. Herle, Mr. 
Rayner. 

The Commissioners of Scotland are desired to be assist- 
ing to them. 

The Committee to meet this afternoon, and to make 
report to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 453. June 13, 1645. 

Ordered to pray, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Young, Mr. 
Connant, Mr. Gosbrough, Mr. Saunders. 

Report from the Committee for the reviewing of the 
catalogue of sins, etc. It was read. 

Debated and voted. 

Debate about adding another reason to show and hold Debate 
out the jus divinum. We claim our power from Jesus abo ! n 1T> 

J J sertmg ;s 

Christ. divinum. 

Mr. Marshall added to the Committee for carrying up 
of the advice of this Assembly to the sub-Committee. 



IO4 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 453. Ordered The Committee for the Draught of Govern- 
1645?' mcnt to meet this afternoon. 

Scss. 454. June 1 6. Monday morning. 

Mr. Price gave thanks to the Assembly. 

Dr. Temple brought a paper from Sir John Lenthall, 
an information against some Anabaptists, etc. Sir John 
Lenthall desired the advice of this Assembly. 

Ordered Dr. Temple do inform the Committee of plun- 
dered ministers with this information. 

Mr. Marshall gave account to this Assembly that the 
sub-Committee did think it was most proper to carry that 
business to the House, as being most proper for them. 

Debate about leaving out the catalogue. 

Committee Ordered A Committee to draw up a preface to the 
to prepare ac j v ice ^ o fog sen ^ U p to the Parliament ; and so much of 

preface to r 

advice. this advice as they shall think fit to be sent to the 
Hon ble House of Commons, and to make report to this 
Assembly. 

Ordered Mr. Marshall, Mr, Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney, 
to be this Committee. 

Alterations The Draught of Government was read, and some altera- 
of Govern- tions made by the Committee, and approved by the As- 

ment ap- se mbly. 
proved. 

A report was made by Mr. Tuckney about the advice 
concerning the sacrament. 

Ordered This draught be delivered to the Committee 

to perfect it, and make report with all convenient speed. 6. 

Committee Mr. Marshall, Dr. Burges, Mr. Vines, Mr. Tuckney, 

upTdvice Dr. Gouge, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Gataker, Mr. Newcomen, 

to House M r Herle, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Calamy, to be a Com- 

of Com- * ' 

mons. mittee to carry up this humble advice to the House of 
Commons. 

A petition from the mayor and others of Salisbury 
read. 

Referred to the Committee for the north. 

Sess. 455. June 17, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
Mr. Wilson moved the Assembly about the Friday 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 1 05 

thanksgiving in the country in the same week that the SESS. 455 
fast is kept That the Committee appointed to attend 
the House of Commons desire both Houses of Parliament, 
that in regard of the difficulty of having both the days of 
fast and thanksgiving duly observed in the country the 
next week, that the day of fast may for that week be 
turned into a day of thanksgiving. 

ft. This debate shall be waved. 

The wardens of the stationers informed the Assembly 
of a book which they had taken this morning, with the 
person divulging of it, containing dangerous expressions 
against the Parliament. . . . Debate about it. 

Ordered Dr. Gouge, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Marshall, to 
give them thanks, and desire them to take that course 
they shall think fit. 

Ordered Catalogue of sins in a minister added unto the 
body of government. 

Debate about expressing what sins a man should be 
deposed for. 

The Committee for the methodising of government do 
consider what is fit to be done about a catalogue of sins of 
a minister, for which he should be deposed. Nothing con- 
cluded in this. 

Upon the motion for the better orderingof the Assemblies, Regula- 

Ordered1\x& the members of the Assembly do not t! s to , be 

J observed 

bring any news books 1 or other books into the Assembly to bersof"" 
read privately during the sitting of the Assembly, 1 books 

or papers to read privately in the Assembly during the 
sitting of the Assembly. 

Ordered That the members of the Assembly do for- 
bear private communication during the sitting of the 
Assembly. 

Ordered That the members of the Assembly do for- 
bear ordinary going from one place to another in the 
Assembly. 

Ordered That in case any member have an occasion to 
be out of his place, that then he be uncovered. 
1 Both these clauses are meant to be deleted. 



IO6 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 455. The Sheriffs were called in : We are sent as messengers 

J T6 e 4 5 7 ' f rom tne Lord Ma y r and our C[ourt] of A[ldermen]. 

A day of thanksgiving is set apart on Thursday next, 

and that both Houses do intend to meet at Christ Church. 

Assembly The Court have invited both Houses to a short dinner, 

dSwMrith and present the like request, ... at a place near unto the 

Lord church. 

" They were called in and told, the Assembly gives them 



Aldermen, thanks for this kindness, and they shall accept of it. 

Sess. 456. June 20, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Chambers, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Bond, to pray. 
Report made from the Committee for the methodising 
of government concerning some alterations in the Draught 
of Government. It was read. 

L or( i The Lord Loudon appeared in the Assembly to take 

Loudon hj s leave O f them, being to go into Scotland. He signified 

t'llvCS iCcLVC 

of the that there would be a Parliament the 8th of the next 

Assembly, mon th, and therefore desired that the Assembly would 

hasten their advice, to be transmitted to the Parliament, 

which would be acceptable news to their Parliament, if 

they could but hear that it were out of our hands. 

The Prolocutor, in the name and by order of the 
Assembly, gave him thanks for his pains for the good of 
both kingdoms and the Church, and promised the prayers 
of the Assembly for his safe return. 

Upon a motion, it was ordered that the Committee that 
drew up the last letter for Scotland should draw up a 
letter now, to be sent from this Assembly by the Lord 
Loudon. 

The report of the Committee was debated. 
Besides those votes in the report, it was resolved, 
New pro- R. That the new propositions, with Scriptures an- 
withScrip- nexed > which have not formerly been carried up, shall be 

tures an- carried up in a paper by themselves. 

nexed, 

to be car- ^ 

riedupin sess. 457. June 23, 1645. Monday morning. 

separate 

paper. Dr. Burges made report of a letter to the Commissioners 

Letter to of the General Assembly in Scotland. It was read. 

Commis- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 1 07 

R. IS Those words be left out, ' and know how to value SF.SS. 457. 

4 T 

a most faithful, prudent, pious, industrious councillor and 1645.' 
patriot.' 

sioners of 

Ordered That this letter be sent in the name of this Assembly 
Assembly to the Commissioners of the General Assembly }" nc i C de- 
in Scotland. bated - 

Ordered That Dr. Burges, Dr. Smith, do go to acquaint 
some members of the House of Commons to acquaint the 
House of Commons with this letter. 

Upon a motion made by Dr. Burges, that in case the 
House should be so busy that they could not speak with 
Mr. Rouse or Mr. Tate, that then they might have liberty 
to go to the bar of the House themselves and deliver this 
letter. 

Ordered That it be referred to their discretion. 

The Assembly proceed in the debate of the votes for 
government. 

Dr. Burges made report that the House is in extraordi- 
nary business, and therefore they cannot speak with them ; 
. . . and he did hint this, that the House did not much 
affect to be troubled with our letters ; but Mr. Rouse TO be 
hath promised to revise it about 2 o'clock in the after- ^ vls ,^ d by 

Mr. Rouse. 

noon. 

Sess. 458. June 26, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Salway, Mr. Burges. To pray. 

That a Committee 5 of this Assembly do examine Mr. 
Theodorick and Mr. Freeman to-morrow morning, and 
that their certificate be published in the Assembly upon 
Monday morning. 

A letter from the ministers of Durham was brought in 
and read. 

Ordered This letter be referred to the Committee for 
the north, and that the members of this Assembly that 
are of that Committee do make report on Monday morning 
what they think fit to be done. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the report of Church 
the Committee for methodising of government. 

resumed. 



IO8 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 459. Sess. 459. June 30, 1645. Monday morning, A. Do. 
June 30, 

1645. The Assembly proceed in the debate of the votes of 
government put into method. 

Mr. Prideaux brought an order from the House of 
Commons to set apart Tuesday next to pray for the 
forces. 

R. 10 churches, 4 ministers for each church. 

Westminster Abbey : Dr. Smith, Mr. Herle, Mr. Mar- 
shall, Mr. Gibson. Aldermanbury : Mr. Calamy, Mr. 
Good, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Hickes, Mr. Burges. Dun- 
stan's West : Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Gipps, Mr. 
Vines. Christ Church : Mr. Strong, Mr. Strickland, Mr. 
Whitakers, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Mew. Michael's Cornhill : 
Mr. Coleman, Mr. Thorowgood, Mr. Carter, jun., Mr. 
Prophet, Mr. Burroughs. Blackfriars : Dr. Gouge, Mr. 
Connant, (Mr. Foxcraft), Mr. Walker. Aldgate : Mr. 
Valentine, Mr. Scudder, Mr. Ford, Mr. Ash. Olave's 
Southwarke : Mr. Woodcock, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Foxcraft, 
Mr. Tisdale. Dunstan's East : Mr. Wilkinson, jun., Mr. 
Young, Mr. Harris, Mr. Carter, sen. 

Sess. 460. July 2, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

R- That Mr. Freeman shall not have his certificate at 
this present. 

[For] Mr. Freeman, Mr. Ley, Mr. Delamarch, Mr. May- 
nard, Mr. Hardwicke, Mr. Langley, Mr. Salway. 

A letter from Hall about Mr. Best. 

Mr. Herle, Dr. Smith, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Coleman, Mr. 
Rayner, Mr. Bathurst, Mr. Prophet, Mr. Langley, Mr. 
Delamarch, Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Foxcraft, Mr. Young, a 
Committee to attend the Committee of plundered mi- 
nisters. 

Debate as Debate about the word perpetual added to the deacon's 
to P er - . office. 

petuity of 

deacon's The Committee for the perfecting of the Draught of 
Government is to meet presently and hasten the perfecting 
of the body of government, and make report to-morrow 
morning. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. ICX) 

Scss. 461. July 3, 1645. Thursday morning. SESS. 461. 

Report made from the Committee of the Draught for 1645.' 
Government. It was read and debated, and upon some Drau "^ t of 

alterations, voted to be sent up. Govern- 

ment voted 
.. , T^ j to be sent 

Sess. 462. July 4, 1645. Friday morning. up _ 

An alteration in the number of the delegates from the 
province, brought in by the Committee of the Assembly, 
was read and debated. 

Dr. Temple, Mr. Ash, Mr. Newcomen. To pray. 

Ordered A Committee to carry up the humble advice 
of this Assembly to both Houses of Parliament on Mon- 
day morning, Mr. Marshall, Dr. Temple, Dr. Gouge, Mr. 
Hodges, Mr. Ash, Dr. Smith. 

Debate about the Confession of Faith. 

That the sub-Committee for the Confession of Faith Committee 
shall make report to the Assembly on Monday morning n " ei 

of what is in their hands concerning God and concerning make re- 
port on 
the Scriptures. Monday. 

Sess. 463. July 7, 1645. Monday morning. 

Mr. Marshall informed the Assembly that they had Draught of 
delivered it to the House of Commons, 1 etc. Sent" 

1 ' The House being informed that some of the Assembly of Divines were delivered, 
at the door, 

' They were called in, and Mr. Marshall acquainted the House, That 
whereas the House had been pleased, at several times, to order the Assembly 
of Divines to send to them such propositions as they had finished ; which they 
had done ; that there are some more which needed some proofs out of Scrip- 
ture, and had been under debate with them and were now finished : They 
had cast their votes into a model and method ; and now the House may see all 
before them. They have left out the proofs, both of Scripture and reason, 
having sent them in with their former votes ; but if the House please to com- 
mand the Assembly to give in the proofs, they are ready to do it. Some of 
these votes are plainly held out by Scripture ; others have reasons agreeable to 
Scripture, and have been alleged : And such as have the light of nature are 
received and practised in all Reformed Churches. This work, though it 
appears short, yet hath spent much time, by reason of dissenting judgments ; 
that, if possible, they might be satisfied. To this short paper of additional 
votes they have given in the proofs out of Scripture ; and if those proofs, at 
the first reading, be not convictive, in regard that God hath not laid down the 
points of Church discipline in such clear texts ; they desire they may not be 
laid aside, but that the House will command them to give in the proofs at 
large.' Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 199. 



I IO MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 463. Dr. Temple made report of that part of the Confession 
idLZ' f Faith touching the Scriptures. It was read, debated. 

Mr. Knightly informed the Assembly that they were 
Temple commanded to desire the Assembly to appoint some of 

reports their own number, or others, to bestow their pains amongst 

P art of . , , . , 

Confession the prisoners in the several prisons where they are now 

of Faith b estowe( j 

concerning u 

the Scrip- 7, or any 3 of them, to be a Committee, Mr. White, 
Dr. Surges, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Marshall, 
Mr. Rayner, Mr. Coleman, to meet to-morrow in the 
afternoon. 

Ordered To proceed in debate. 

Sess. 464. July 8, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Mr. Carter to pray with the Committee of both king- 
doms in the room of Mr. Newcomen. 

Dr. Gouge made report from the Committee for the 
north of their answer to the letter of the northern mini- 
sters. It was read. This to be referred to the Committee 
of the north that are members of this Assembly, to draw 
up what they think fit to present to the Parliament. 

Ordered Mr. Carrill, Mr. Corbet, to be added to the 
Committee. 

Dr. Gouge made report from the morning Committee of 
an alteration in the report concerning their places (?). 

Mr. Herle, Mr. Newcomen, 

Reynolds, That Mr. Reynolds A be desired to take care of the 
have wording of the Confession of Faith, as it is voted in the 

charge of Assembly from time to time, and to report to the As- 
wording of 
Confes- sembly when they think fit there should be any alteration 

tore p a o n rt in the words - The y are first to consult with the Corn- 
to Assem- missioners from the Church of Scotland, or one of them, 
alterations before tnev report to the Assembly. 

needed. A Committee to consider of the causes of the seldom 
and late coming of the members of this Assembly, and 
going away before the adjourning of the Assembly, and 
the way how it may be redressed, to meet to-morrow in 
the afternoon, and to make report with all convenient 
speed, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Herle, Mr. Ny, Dr. Smith, Dr. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I I I 

Burges, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Sed[g]wicke, Dr. SESS. 464- 
Temple, Mr. White, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Guibon, Mr. Chambers, ^fj 
Mr. Cawdrey, Mr. Ash. 

Ordered to proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 465. July 9, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Report from the Committee of the Assembly. It was 
read and voted. 

Proceeded in the debate. 

Dr. Burges moved from the Earl of Essex about Mr. 
Freeman excepted against by the Assembly. 

Ordered That Mr. Freeman be examined again to- 
morrow morning. 

That the 

Sess. 466. July 10, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Report made from the Committee for redress of seldom 
coming, etc. It was read and debated. A part first 
reported, and then report made of the names of those 
members of the Assembly that fail of their duty in pre- 
sence, etc. 

Sess. 467. July u. Friday morning. 

Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Prophet, Mr. Guibon. To pray. 

Debate about the rules to be sent up. 

Ordered The Committee appointed to consider of the 
seldom and late coming of the members of the Assembly, 
and how it may be redressed, to consider of the rules 
formerly voted for sitting by 9 o'clock in the morning, 
and for diligent attending of Committees and regulating 
the Assembly, and to make report to the Assembly 
which of them are fit to be presented to both Houses of 
Parliament to be confirmed. They are to meet in the 
afternoon, ... at 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

Debate about the Scriptures where we left ; about the Debate 
knowledge of the divine authority of the Scripture. Scriptures 

A motion about a book that maintains God to be the resumed. 
author of sin. 



I I 2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 467. Ordered Dr. Gouge, Mr. Gataker, Mr. Walker, Mr. 
J u] y \ I > White, Mr. Byfield, shall carry this information concerning 
those passages in the book complained of to both Houses 
of Parliament, and desire the suppressing of this book, all 
seized upon, and burning all the copies ; the printer and 
licencer questioned. 

The body Ordered Monday morning to divide the body of the 
fession to"" Confession of Faith to the three Committees. 

be dis- 
tributed to $ ess 453^ j u iy I A 1645. Monday morning. 
the three 

Commit- j) r ^ Gouge made report that they had been with the 
House of Lords, and acquainted with the position. They 
gave thanks to the Assembly for their care in observing 
such matters as might disturb the Church. The printer 
is to be sent for, the books to be burned by the public 
hangman, the Assembly to declare the[ir] de[te]station of 
that opinion. . . . We were this day with the House of 
Commons. They, hearing the author was dead, and a 
man of good note, they would inquire who should put in 
such positions. A Committee to inquire after that. . . . 
They concurred in the damning of the book, . . . burnt by 
the public hangman in Westminster, in Paul's Church- 
yard, in Cheapside, Paul's Exchange, with the sheriffs. . . . 
Desired some of our members to write about the position, 
and . . . the House did account it a very acceptable 
service. 



jMr. Marshall made report.) 

Ordered Mr. Reynolds be added to the Committee for 
the book complained ; the Committee to take into con- 
sideration what is required by the Lords and Commons. 

Mr. Marshall made report from the Committee for con- 
sidering of seldom and late coming, etc. It was read. 

Vote about sending up names to the Parliament. 

Mr. Woodcocke enters his dissent. 

Upon a motion made by Mr. Calamy, 

Dr. Burges, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Calamy, so 
many of the Assembly as are willing to join in a petition 
to the Parliament for a supply of the rest of the members 
of the Assembly that want 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 13 

Mr. Simpson saith that he hath occasion for his health s K.S.I. 40*. 
to be absent for two or three days. 

Debate about dividing of heads of confession. 

R. The Committee for the Confession of Faith shall Heads uf 
meet this afternoon to draw up some heads of the Confes- ^bepi-e-" 
sion, to be presented to-morrow morning-. paved. 

Debate about the Scriptures where we left. Debate 

Debate about the proposition ordered concerning; the J bo . ut the 
1 " ocnptures 

necessity of inward illumination for understanding, etc. resumed. 
Mr. Goodwin desired to be excused for his absence. 

Sess. 4.69. July 15, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Mr. Bond excuseth his absence, be[cause] of a journey 
to the waters for his health. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of an addition Debate 
about the necessity of the inward illumination of the Spirit m 10 ' 
for the understanding of such things as are revealed. 

R. The word ' saving ' be added. 1 

To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 470. July 16, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Mr. Freeman being passed the Assembly upon a further 
examination of him, it was ordered that Dr. Burges should 
present this certificate to the Earl of Essex, who had 
formerly moved in behalf of him. 

Report made from the Committee of the heads of Con- Report of 
fession read. J^ 

Dr. Gouge read the order of the House of Commons, Confession 

rCtid 

concerning the burning of the book complained of. The 
order is as followeth : 

Ordered A declaration to be drawn up in detestation of 
the book complained of, by the Committee that carried up 
the complaint concerning it. ... This declaration to be 
presented to House of Commons, with desire that it may 
be printed, and the same printed declaration published by 
some public officer at the time of the burning of the book. 

That^he Hon ble Hou^ of Commons sha^l be humbly 
desired to Excuse the members of the Assembly from their 
presence at the time of the bu\ning of the said b\>ok. 

1 'For the saving understanding,' etc., Confession of Faith, chap. I. sec. 71. 

H 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OK 



SESS. 470. 

July 1 6, 

1045. 



Heads of 

debute 
to several 



Debate 

tures re- 
sumed. 



The Committee is to meet this afternoon, and to bring 
^ detestation to-morrow morning;. 

Mr. Marshall informed that he was commanded to go 
into Scotland, and moved that he might carry a letter to 
the Commissioners of the General Assembly. 

Ordered Dr. Burges, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Newcomen, 
draw up a short letter to the Commissioners of the General 
Assembly in Scotland, to be sent from this Assembly by 
Mr. Marshall. 

Ordered The first Committee to prepare the Confession 

of Faith upon these heads : God and the Holy Trinit y > 
God's decrees, Predestination, Election, etc. ; the works of 

Creation and Providence ; Man's Fall. 

Ordered The second Committee : Sin, and the punish- 
ment thereof ; Free-will ; the Covenant of Grace ; Christ 
our Mediator. 

Ordered The third Committee : Effectual Vocation ; 
Justification ; Adoption ; Sanctification. 

Ordered Those three Committees to meet to-morrow 
in the afternoon. 

Ordered -If they think fit to leave out any of those 
heads, or add any other, they are to make report to the 
Assembly. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate concerning the 
Scriptures. 



lite- 

ral sense 

of Scrip- 



Sess. Atfi.July 17, 1645. Thursday morning. 

An order from the Committee of plundered ministers 
concerning Paul Best. 

Ordered That the Committee appointed to attend the 
Committee about the said Paul Best, do confer with him 
according to this order. 

Report of a letter to the Commissioners of the General 
Assembly of Scotland read. Ordered to be sent. 

Report of the declaration at the burning of the book- 
complained of. 

Proceed in the debate about ' literal sense.' 

Sess. 472. July 1 8, 1645. Friday morning. 
Mr - Greenhill, Mr. Perne, Mr. Wilkinson, jun. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVIXES, I I ^ 

Proceed in the debate of the Scriptures. SESS. 47 

Report concerning God, by Dr. Temple, read and de- 
bated. 

Report 

Sess. 473. July 23. Wednesday morning. Spread 

A letter from Dr. Wincop to the scribe was read. bated C 

Ordered The Committee for the Catechism to meet in 

the afternoon, and to prepare something to be reported to 

the Assembly on Monday morning. 

Proceed in debate about the propositions concerning God. Debate 
Report made from the Committee of the article of the R^O""^ 

Trinity. concernin 

Trinity, 

Sess. 474. 



Scss. 475. July 25, 1645. Friday morning. 

Upon motion that some members of the Assembly should 
be appointed to attend the burning of the book. It was 
debated. 

R, Four to be present at the burning of the book at 
each place. 

R. These twelve or 1 the number (?) to be present Dr. 
Gouge, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Walker, Mr. Foxcraft, Mr, 



Burges, Mr. Greenhill, Mr. Delmy, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Ny, 



Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Case. 

R. These eight added : Mr. Calamy, Mr. Newcomen, 
Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Carter of London, Mr. 
Burroughs, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Cawdry. 

At Westminster Mr. Case, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Gibson, 
Mr. Ny. 

In Smithfield Dr. Gouge, Mr. Carter, Mr. Foxcraft, 
Mr. Spurstow. 

In Paul's Churchyard Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Calamy, Mr. 
Burroughs, Mr. Reynolds. 

In Cheapside Mr. Walker, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Burges, 
Mr. Delmy. 

At Exchange Mr. Coleman, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Green- 
hill, Mr. Seaman. 

1 Perhaps ' ar, ' for are. 



Il6 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 475. The scribes of the Assembly shall send in the name of 
^ ul 2 , 5 ' this Assembly to those members that are absent to attend 
this House. 

Ordered Dr. Burges, Mr. Herle, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Vines, 
Mr. Calamy, Mr. Ny, Dr. Smith, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Bridge, 
Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Spurstow, to draw up a pet[it]ion and 
a narrative to be presented to both Houses of Parliament, 
for the better settling of a constant supply of the members 
of the Assembly To meet this afternoon. 

Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Maynard, Mr. Harris, to pray. 

Ordered Mr. Newcomen, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Chambers, 
Mr. Rayner, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Ward, Mr. Delmy, Mr. Burges, 
Mr. Wilson, Mr. Delaplace, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Byfield, 
Mr. Hickes, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Delamarch, they or any 5 
[w.l of them to be a Committee to prepare a pet[it]ion, R. and 
a narrative to be presented to both Houses for the hasting 
of business of the sacraments. 

R. neg. To adjourn till Monday, 3 o'clock. 

Upon a motion be[cause] the Assembly could not meet 
on Monday, in case so many must attend the service at the 
burning of the book. 

Ordered Mr. Walker, Dr. Gouge, Dr. Smith, Mr. Fox- 
craft, Mr. Corbet, to be present in London in the several 
places at the burning of the said book, instead of all those 
before appointed. 

Sess. 476. July 28, 1645. Monday morning. 

A petition to the House reported debated and ordered. 
Assembly ft. This petition be transcribed and sent up to both 

Houses of Parliament in the name of this Assembly. 1 
Houses. 

Sess. 477. July 31, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Dr. Smith, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Corbet, be 
added to the Committee for the North. 

Ordered That the ministers approved of by the said 
Committee or the Committee of the Assembly, to be sent 

1 The petition was ' in pursuance of their humble advice concerning per- 
sons not to be admitted to the sacrament.' Journals of House of Commons, 
vol. iv. p. 226. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I I 7 

down into the North shall be reported to the Assembly SKSS. 47 
before they receive any certificate from that Committee. "e/- 1 

Report from the Committee for the petition to the 
Parliament] about the hasting the business of the sacra- 
ment read. 

Debated and ordered. 

That Mr. Coleman hath not given a negative to any 
vote in this Assembly this clay, but only to that of Erastus 
his learning. 

R. not to be carried up by the whole Assembly. 

Ordered This to be carried up by the Committee that 
drew it up, and delivered by Mr. Newcomen. 

Upon a complaint about a sermon preached by a member Coleman' 
of this Assembly against the vote of the Assembly . . . 

Sess. 478. August i, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Ward, Mr. Delmy, Mr. Corbet. To pray. 

Upon debate about Mr. Coleman. . . . That the House Debate 
would enable us, or require him, to give an account of the 



notes he preached. preached 

R. That something shall be delivered to the House of 



Commons by way of message in writing concerning Mr. House of 

3 J Commons. 

Coleman s sermon. 

Ordered Mr. Reynolds and Mr. Herle to draw it up. 

Mr. Palmer made report of the Catechism. Debated. 

Another report brought in concerning Mr Coleman's 
sermon. 

R. Report shall be made. It was made by Mr. 
Reynolds, and debated. 

Ordered That Mr. Giles have a certificate. 

It was moved that Mr. Coleman might be heard to speak 
if he would voluntarily recant 

For much of what is reported, I deny .... What I have Coleman 
acknowledged it is my judgment. I am sorry I have given ex P resses 
offence, both to this Assembly and the Commissioners of promises 
the Church of Scotland. . . . And for the printing of the printhis 
sermon, I shall not do it. sermon. 



I i 8 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 479. Si-ss. 4/9. August 4, 1645. Monday morning. 

Aug. 4, 

1645. Mr. IColeman Either to release me of my promise or 
Desire^ to ta ^ e order for the occasion (?) ... I protest it to be uncon- 
withdraw s jd e red, and null, and void. 

The Assembly called to the work of the day. 



mise. 



Debate Debate upon the Catechism. 

Catechism Debate about the creed to be expressed. 

Mr. Newcomen gave an account of the delivery of the 
petition to both Houses. . . . To the House of Commons 
on Friday. . . . Told that they had read our paper, and it 
was the business they had been about all this morning, and 
they would proceed with all the speed they could. To the 
House of Lords this morning . . . Told they had caused our 
petition to be read, and would take it into consideration. 

Sess. 480. August 5, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
Ordered Mr. Whitakers and Mr. Burges to visit Mr. 
Gataker, in the name of this Assembly, this afternoon. 
Debate Debate about the Catechism concerning God. 

Catechism Ordered An addition to the Committee for Best : Mr. 
concerning Ward, Mr. Wilkinson, jun., Mr. Chambers, Mr. Whitakers, 
Mr. Carrill, Dr. Temple, Mr. Harris, Mr. Guibon, Mr. 
Lightfoot, Mr. Price, to meet this afternoon. 

Sess. 481. August 6, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Upon an order from the Broad Seal concerning approv- 
ing of Mr. Kirby for the having of the Rectory of Hope 
All Saints . . . He hath another living, and the Assembly 
is desired to signify their opinion whether he be fit for 
both. 

Ordered This return to be made, ' The Assembly can- 
not approve of any man's having two places till they be 
united by authority.' 

Upon a motion made by Mr. Vines, to consider of some- 
thing to move the Houses for the preserving of the sacra- 
ments pure, be[cause] the ordinance is drawing up only 
for seven sins, 

R > A Committee to consider what is fit further to be 
.done by this Assembly, to discharge their duties and con- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINKS. 1! 19 

sciences in the business of the sacrament for the preserving SK 

r -. ' A 

of it pure. 

Mr. Lightfoot enters his dissent. 

R. 6. Ordered that four more be added. 



Ordered Mr. Reynolds, jMr. Herle,; Mr. Whitakers, Mr. 
Seaman, Mr. Delmy, Mr. Vines, Mr Palmer, |Mr. Ny,| Dr. 
Temple, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Ward, to meet 
this afternoon. 

The Commissioners of Scotland desired to be present. 

Mr. Calamy desired leave to be absent this afternoon 
and a fortnight. 

Dr. Temple moves leave to be absent for four or five days. 

Sess. 482. August 7, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Kirby to have a certificate that the Asscml>'y 
Assembly doth not approve of pluralities, yet in case they app rove of 
be united by authority he may be admitted. p!ura!i:ie.^ 

Ordered That the Chairman of the Committee for 
plundered ministers be desired that, inasmuch as Mr. 
Michell doth not appear to be examined according to their 
order, though he was yesterday appointed by the Assembly 
to attend this morning, that he may not gather in the 
profits of this year. 

Instructions for Mr. Bewicke were read. 

Ordered The members of this Assembly that are of the 
Northern Committee shall take these into consideration, to 
meet to-morrow in the afternoon. 

Mr. Bewicke was called in and thanked for his care, and 
desired to be present with this Committee. 

Report of the Committee for a petition to the Houses 
of Parliament about the sacrament. 

Read and debated, and voted to be sent up. 

Sess. 483. August 8, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Byfield, Mr. Ford, Mr. Bridge. To pray. 

Upon a motion by Mr. Ward, 

Mr. Lee, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. 
Tuckney, Mr. Delmy, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Bathurst, Mr. Caw- 
dry, Mr. Herle, Mr. Byfield, a Committee to hear the 



I2O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 483. differences betwixt Alborough and Waxfield, 1 according to 
A j U 6 45 8 ' the order of the Committee of plundered ministers. 

ft. Jf . A Committee to carry up this petition to both 
Houses of Parliament. 

RMr. Assessor White shall present this to both 
Houses of Parliament. 

Dr. Gouge, Mr. Ley, Mr. Vines, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. 
Herle, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Rayner, 
Mr. Sed[g]wicke, Mr. Walker, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Ward, Mr. 
Carter, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Gower, Mr. Price, 
Mr. Strickland, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Bond, Mr. Perne, Mr. 
Maynard, Mr. Wilkinsons, both, Mr. Delmy, Dr. Stanton. 

R. neg. The number of 20 and no more shall not be 
put to the question. 

R. The number named shall stand. 

The Assembly adjourned till the return of those that 
went up to present the petition. They . . . 

The Assembly met again, and Mr. Assessor White in- 
formed the Assembly that they had delivered the petition, 
and received this answer, that they had read the petition, 
and had considered of the desires of it, and would take it 
into further consideration. 

Mr. Rouse informed the Assembly, ' There is a sub- 
Committee appointed, and they desire the advice of such 
members of the Assembly as you shall think fit. They 
do meet on Monday in the afternoon.' This Committee is 
to be named on Monday morning. 

Sess. 484. August n, 1645. 

An order about the Committee of the Assembly to attend 
the sub-Committee of the House of Commons was read. 

The Committee to be 12 ; 7 more to be added. 

R. Mr. Palmer, Mr. Vines, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Burges, 
Mr. Thorowgood, Mr. Herle, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Whitakers, 
Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Tuckney, Dr. Burges, Mr. Reynolds, 
Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Sed[g]wicke, Mr. Ward, Mr. Cawdry, 
Mr. Byfield, Mr. Delmy, Mr. Delaplace, Mr. Delamarch. 

Ordered The Committee are to move the sub-Com- 
1 Whattisfield or Watchfield in Suffolk. T. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 2 I 

mittee that the Commissioners of the Church of Scotland PESS. 484. 
may be by them desired to be assistant to this Committee j^r"' 
of the Assembly in this business. 

Ordered Mr. Ny, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Philips, Mr. Sterry, 
be added to this Committee. 

Ordered This Committee is to advise and debate with 
the sub-Committee of the House of Commons concerning 
a course to be settled touching suspension from the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper. 

Ordered This Committee is not to present any list Instruc- 
of scandalous sins till they have further order from the cammit- 
Assembly, nor in the debate and advice to reced[e] from tee. 
the sense of the Assembly declared in their votes, and in 
those petitions presented formerly by the Assembly to 
the Hon ble Houses, till the Assembly be acquainted there- 
with. 

Ordered Nor to conclude anything de novo till the 
Assembly be acquainted with it. 

Ordered The Committee are to apply themselves espe- 
cially to those two particulars in their advice and debate : 
(i.) The jus divimnn of a power in Church officers to keep 
scandalous persons from the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper ; (2.) The impossibility, by any enumeration of 
sins, to make a catalogue so sufficient as to preserve the 
sacraments pure. 

Ordered Mr. Reynolds. This Committee is to prepare 
a character of scandalous sins, and to report it to the 
Assembly with all convenient speed. 

Sess. 485. Augtist 12, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That no testimonials be accepted by the As- 
sembly for any minister to be examined for any sequestra- 
tion or rectory, except it be signed by the hands of those 
ministers themselves who do attest them, and the originals 
to remain in the Assembly. 

An order for Mr. Dury admitted to the Assembly. He 
appeared and took the protestation. 

An order was read from the sub-Committee of the Order from 
House of Commons as followeth : Ordered by this Com- ^ 



MINUTES OF THK SESSIONS OF 



SKSS. 485. 
A "| 4 12 ' 



Commons, 



Report 



Assembly 

in answer 

to Com- 
mittee of 

House of 

Commons. 
Report 



Transla- 
Ky r ' 
refused. 



mittee that the divines be desired to advise what notorious 
and scandalous sins besides those that are already voted 
by the Houses, and how such persons as are guilty of them 
shall be suspended from the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, and touching a course to be settled for suspension 
from the said sacrament. 

This was debated. 

Res. An enumeration of some particular sins shall be 
added by way of instance. 

Ordered The whole business recommitted. 

Scss. 486. August 13, 1645. Wednesday morning. 
The business of Alborough to be taken into debate to- 
morrow morning. 

About the Parliament. . . . 

R. . This distribution shall stand. 

Ordered That the members that shall receive any 
money shall pay 2d. in the pound to the scribe for the 
charges. 

Report made from the Committee about the answer to 
the Committee read. 

The reporter was called upon to read another paper in 

... - , . .. . _ 

answer to the second (?) part of the order of the Com- 
m j ttee- 

R. This advice shall be sent up to the Committee of 
the House of Commons. 

That the Committee that presents it desire liberty to 
ad 

Sess. 487. August 14, 1645, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Debate about the case of the inhabitants of Alborough 
and Wattilsfield, which of those places Mr. Ray shall be 
settled in. 

R. This answer shall be returned to the order of the 
Committee of plundered ministers : That this Assembly 
having heard the cause betwixt the inhabitants of Al- 
borough and Watisfield, and considered the allegations on 
both sides, do conceive that, all circumstances considered, 
(it is most fit the said Mr. Ray should continue in Watis- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. ] 2 ^ 

field l ), (there is not any sufficient reason 1 ), it is not fit that Si.ss. 487. 

Mr. Ray should remove from Watisfield to Alborough. Au -r ,' 4 ' 

. . IO 45- 

Upon complaint of disorderly meeting, discountenanc- 

ing of ministers in their public ministry, a revolting to 
Anabaptism, and yet remaining in their public ministry, 

Ordered A Committee to consider of all complaints of 
this kind, either received or that shall be brought in after- 
wards, and to make report to the Assembly what they 
think fit to be done in it. 

Ordered 12. Mr. Valentine, Dr. Smith, Mr. Bathurst. 
Mr. Simpson, Mr. Rayner, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Wilson, Mr. 
Harris, Mr. Hodges, Mr. Hardwicke, Mr. Ford, Mr. Bridge, 
to meet on Friday in the afternoon. 

The Assembly debated a further answer to the Com- Debate <>( 
mittee of the House of Commons concerning the business ^^ to 
of the sacrament. Committee 

Ordered Mr. Connant, Mr. Bathurst, Mr. Wilson, Mr. f CoT* 
Guibon, Mr. Gower, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Prophet, Dr. Stanton, mons - 
be added to the Committee for the sacrament. 

Mr. Taylor, Dr. Hoyle. 

Sess. 488. August 15, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Phillips, Mr. Pickering, Mr. Scudder. To pra y. 

An order from the Committee of Examinations to make 
a return upon the preface (?) of Bibles. 

Ordered That report already voted for printing be 
presented, and the Committee of the Assembly have 
power to present to the Assembly what they have further 
to inform concerning the corrupt printing of Bibles. 

Dr. Gotige moved about some young men fit for the Question 
ministry, but scruple ordination . . . whether they may, as whether , 
expectants, employ their talents for a time. may be 



This was debated and respited. 

A letter was read from Mr. Michaelthwaite. for a time. 

Ordered The scribe be 2 [? to write] to Mr. 

Michaelthwaite, to let him know that the summons was 
not intended to do him any prejudice. 

#.-3- 

1 Meant to be erased. 2 A blot in MS. 



124 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 4 8S. R. Mr. Seaman, Mr. Ny, Mr. Hodges, shall consider 

Aug. 15, anc j ma ke report how this 200 shall be distributed. 
1043. 

Mr. Seaman made report about money. 

attributed R -~ This distribution brought in by the Committee shall 
among stand with those alterations. 

o n f C As berS Ordered This Committee and the former Committee 
sembly. to br ; ng j n a f urt h e r report of the equality for the future. 

Those members of the Assembly that do receive any- 
thing upon ticket as members of the Assembly . . . 
Mr. Street be approved of. 

Sess. 489. August 1 8, 1645. Monday morning. 
Report of Report from Mr. Palmer of Rules about suspension from 
suspension the sacrament . . . Debated and ordered. 

from sacra- Report made by Dr. Burges of the examples and in- 
ment de- ....... r ., , , , 

bated and stances of the discipline of other churches, read. 

ordered. Ordered That this be also presented. 

Sess. 490. August 19, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Upon a debate about a testimonial, 

R. This testimony shall be allowed of. 

Debate about the Catechism. 

Sess. 491. August 20, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

OrderedMr. Foxcroft, Dr. Temple, Mr. Hill, Mr. 
Hodges, Mr. Woodcock, to visit Mr. Wilkinson. 

Ordered. The scribe to send him 10 upon account. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Neale, 

Ordered Mr. Neale bring a hand one or two of some 
ministers known to this Assembly, of his convers[at]ion 
for these two last years. 

For Mr. Beech, 

R. That Mr. Beech shall have a certificate. 

Upon a motion about the printing of the directions 
about church government, 

A Committee of 6 : Mr. Whitakers, Dr. Temple, Mr. 
Vines, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Palmer, to be a 
Committee to draw up a petition to both Houses about 
the printing of this book intituled, Directions of the Lords 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 25 

and Commons. 1 To meet this afternoon and make report SK 
on Monday morning. 

Debate about the Catechism ... A Committee of 3. 

jR. Mr. Palmer, Dr. Stanton, 2 Mr. Young, to draw up Whole 
the whole draught of the Catechism with all convenient caTechi 
speed, and make report to this Assembly. to b e pn> 

Ordercd The Committees for the Confession of Faith do 

Committee 

meet this afternoon, and make report on Monday morning. O n Con- 
fession t" 

Sess. 492. August 25, 1645. Monday morning. farther 

Ordered Dr. Winsrham have a certificate from this As- le 

o 

sembly without examination. 

Dr. Temple made report from the Committee about a 
petition to the Parliament about the directions for settling 
presbyterial government. The petition was read and de- 
bated. 

Ordered This be recommitted. 

Sir Robert Harley and Mr. Tate brought a message and 
order from the House of Commons about one to pray next 
Wednesday in reference to Scotland. 

Sess. 493. August 28, 1645. TJi.ursday morning. 

Mr. Neale brought . . . 

R. ^- ncg. That this additional testimonial shall suffice 
to giving a certificate upon from this Assembly. 

R. ncg. That Mr. Morris' certificate shall not be accepted. 

R. That Mr. Thompson shall have the certificate of this 
Assembly not appearing to be examined. 

R. To resume the debate of the business concerning 
the printing of the late directions. 

Ordered The 3 Committees do meet 2 days in every 
week Monday and Wednesday ; and Thursday in the 

1 ' Directions of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, after ad- 
vice had with the Assembly of Divines for the electing and choosing of Ruling 
Elders in all the congregations, and in the classical assemblies for the cities of 
London and Westminster, and the several counties of the.kingdom. ' It was 
ordered to be printed on igth Aug. 1645. 

2 Dr. Stanton's name is erased, but it appears later that he was retained on 
the Committee. The names of Messrs. Guibon, Reynolds, Delmy, Young, 
and Cawdry are also erased. T. 



126 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 493. fast week if there be need. A'. And the number of the 
U r l 4 5 ' Committee to be 8 at the least. 

A'. These Committees arc to meet presently. 



Sess. 494. August 29, 1645. Friday morning. 

To pray. Mr. Palmer, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Rayner. 

Order Ordered That no man be examined by the Committee 

minations" ^ t ^ le Assembly but those whose orders and testimonials 
have first been published in the Assembly. 

Ordered That Dr. Gouge be desired to acquaint the 
Chairman of the Committee of plundered ministers of the 
proceedings of the Assembly in Mr. Morris his business ; 
and Mr. Richard Byfield, Mr. Ford, Mr. Dury, took the 
covenant of the three kingdoms and subscribed their names. 

Report Report from the first Committee concerning God's decrees. 

from first Report made by the second Committee of Christ the 

and second J 

Commit- Mediator. 

cerning 1 Ordered Mr. Appollonius 1 shall be desired at some time 
articles of convenient when the Prolocutor shall be present, to come 
sion. to the Assembly to receive public thanks in the name of 

the Assembly by the Prolocutor. 

Ordered Dr. Hoyle, Dr. Smith, and Mr. Dury to give 

him notice of this, 
nebate on Debate on the report of the first Committee of God's 

report con- , 

rlprrpp 

ceming ueuiee. 

God's Debate upon the title. 

decree. 

Debate about the word ' counsel,' about those words 
' most holy wise/ and about those words ' his own.' 

Debate about that word 'time,' about the word ' should.' 

Debate about the transposing. 

Ordered -Mr. Ward, Mr. Young, to desire Sir Robert 
Harley and Mr. Tate, that a day may be appointed for a 
fast for Scotland. 

Ordered To proceed in debate where we left. 

Sess. 495. Sept. 2, 1645. Monday morning. 

Upon another testimonial brought in concerning Mr. 
Neale it was debated, 

1 As to Apollonius, see Appendix. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 127 

This certificate shall be given to the Commissioners of SKSS. 495. 
the Great Seal concerning Mr. Neale, 'That he is well }?' 2 ' 

I 04 i 

approved of for his sufficiency and ministerial abilities, but 
for his convers[at]ion, it hath been such as formerly hath 

he profcsseth a resolution 

given offence, yet at present some hope is conceived [>"''<" I 

of reformation 
of his A but this we humbly leave to the wisdom of the 

Hon ble Commissioners.' 
R. That Mr. Neale shall not have his certificate for the 

present. 

Proceed in the debate of the report of decrees. Debate < f 

Debate of Christ the Mediator. dec , ree f s ' 

and of 



Christ the 
Mediator. 



Sess. 496. -Sept. 3, 1645. Tuesday morning. 



Ordered That the Prolocutor have 10 paid unto him^io to 
upon account. j? lo * 

Ordered 'Dr. Smith and Mr. Waller do visit the Pro- tor. 
locutor in the name of the Assembly, and deliver the ten 
pounds unto him upon account. 

Report from the first Committee about adding the word Debate 
'absolutely '-debated. jS 

not being moved thereunto by any 
Absolutely without any foresight of anything without [>/<-.] 

himself as a condition moving him thereunto. 

Ordered This recommitted. 

Debate about the 2d Committee's report of Christ the Debate on 
Mediator. . . Debate about ' a ' and ' the,' ' the prophet.' . . . 

Debate about giving [from] all eternity. resumed. 

Mr. Seaman What is this to our purpose, how they in- 
terpret this Scripture ... Is it his opinion that there is no 
giving to Christ from eternity. 

Mr. Woodcock I think that those places do not enforce 
it, but they may relate to that first promise. 

Dr. Hoyle The words answer it. ... Whatsoever was 
before beginning was everlasting. 

Mr. Bridge If he be of that mind, that they were not 
given from all eternity, let him 

Mr. Woodcock If by giving you mean decreeing, I 



128 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 496. think they are decreed ; but I think giving is not meant of 
S X 45 3 ' the decree. 

Mr. Price Though we are not elected for Christ, yet in 
Christ. 

Debate of Debate about the words ' to be his seed.' 
Debate about expressing sanctification. 
Mr. Seaman The using of the word will not conduce 
anything to the times. The use of it to that end will be 
in the head of sanctification. 

Dr. Burgcs So you will have a head of vocation and 
justification, etc. 

Dr. Hoyle 2 Thess. ii. : He hath chosen you through 
sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth. 

Mr. Seaman The word sanctified is an ambiguous 
word. 

Henderson Mr. Henderson I think the sanctification in nature is 
ordeAf posterior to justification. . . . Some say sanctification is 

justifica- before faith ; I think it is always after faith and justifica- 
tion and 
sanctifica- tion. 

tion. Mr _ whitakers 



Sess. 497. Sept. 4, 1645. 

To pray. Mr. Bridge, Dr. Hoyle, Dr. Gouge. 

Debate The Assembly proceeded in the debate about Christ the 

L Mediator. Debate about the adding of those words ' in 

time.' Debate about that 'sin only excepted.' 
' Blessed ' Debate about calling the Virgin ' Blessed Virgin.' 
not to be R Blessed shall not stand. Dr. Burges enters his 

retained 

before dissent. 

4 Virgin.' 

Dr. Bur- 
gess dis- Sess. 498. Sept. 8, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

sents. 

Ordered Mr. Ward and Mr. Whitakers to visit Mr. 

Young in the name of the Assembly. 

Upon a motion about Mr. Appollonius, his entertainment 
in the Assembly. 

Ordered That he be entertained in the Assembly upon 
Wednesday by Dr. Burges, and notice be given unto him 
to come upon Wednesday morning. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I2Q 

Ordered That Mr. Delmy do give him notice of it, and SKSS. 498. 
desire him to be present about eleven of the clock on Wed- S 1 e | t . S ' 
nesday next. 

Dr. Gouge offered a report of an addition, though the Suggested 
Committee was not a full number, but 7. He read it ; ; a(lclltlo i 1 to 

' head of 

but the Assembly thought not fit to meddle with it, be- God's 
cause they were not a Committee. The addition was, c< 
without respect to anything foreseen, to be added after 
freely and unchangeably. 

The number of the quorum of the 3 Committee[s] shall 
be reduced to 7. 

R. 2I . The number of each Committee shall be lessened 

J 3 

for the quorum. 

R. . The chairman of each Committee shall name 

9 

who were present at the said Committee when he makes 
his report. 

R. * 4 . Not 7 of the quorum. 

R. J g. 6 of the quorum. Prolocutor casts it affirmative. 

Proceed in the debate of Christ the Mediator. Debate Debate of 
about ' one person.' Mr. Reynolds made report addi- Mediator 6 
tional of Christ the Mediator. resumed. 

Ordered That the Committees are to meet by 2 of the 
clock ; and in case they do not come by 3, the company 
to dissolve, and to make report of the names of those that 
were present. 

Ordered Proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 499. Sept. 9, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

R. Mr. Daniel Dike shall have his testimonial. 

Report made by the first Committee additional con- Additional 
cerning God's decree. concerning 

Dr. Stanton made report additional of Christ the Medi- God's 
ator. Mr. Prophet made report of Effectual Calling. Christ the 

Debate upon the report yesterday brought in additional Mediator. 
to Christ the Mediator. R ff e P ort , of 

enectual 

Debate about the anointing with the Holy Spirit, and calling. 

about the word 'sanctified.' 

I 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 499. 

Sept. 9, 

1645. 

Debate 
concerning 
Christ the 
Mediator 
resumed. 



Mr. Lightfoot enters his dissent to that of Christ's 
fcring grievous torments in soul.' 
Debate the report of the decree. 



suf- 



Further 

debate 

about 

God's 

decree. 



SMS. 501. Sept. II, 1645. Thursday morning: 

Ordered Mr. Ley, Dr. Stanton, be desired to move the 
Committee of Plundered Ministers that Mr. Prophet may 
have the sequestration of Abinger, in Surrey. 

Mr. Harris made report concerning Mr. Neale and Mr. 
Maris, that both those persons did concur in this : they did 
make confession of their offences past, professing sorrow 
therefore, and did promise amendment for the future. 

Mr. Neale did mingle his confessions with some tears, 
and did desire to be employed as a probationer for proof. 
They further add that for themselves they have not as yet 
received so full satisfaction in the premises as they do 
desire, but submit all to the grave and mature judgment 
of the reverend Assembly. 

Ordered This answer to be given to Mr. Neale and Mr. 
Marris. Though they have passed many trials, that they 
have not given that satisfaction that may amount unto the 
credence of a certificate. 

Report from the 2d Committee about Christ the Media- 
tor, the conclusion of that report. 

Report from the morning Committee that they think 
the former vote of the Assembly sufficient to print ? the 
conditional decree. 

Further report from the 1st Committee additional. 

Proceed in the debate about the decree. 

An order concerning Paul Best. 

Ordered The Committee formerly appointed to speak 
with him do send for him to-morrow in the afternoon. 



Sess. 502. Sept. 12, 1645. Friday morning. 
To pray. Mr. Gomer, Dr. Smith, Mr. Greene. 

Ordered Mr. John Dryland have a certificate upon his 
approbation by the ministers for ordination. 

Ordered Dr. Smith, Mr. Ward, to move the Committee 
about Mr. Prophet. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 3 1 

Mr. Prophet made report additional. Mr. Wilson made SKSS. 502. 
report concerning the Psalms. Mr. Rouse made report ^'^h/ 2 ' 
from the House of Commons, that they desire the As- 
sembly would hasten the Confession of Faith. 

This Assembly doth humbly advise and desire that Rouse'., 
those Psalms set forth by Mr. Rouse, with such alterations metncal 

version 01 

as are made by the Committee of the Assembly appointed Psalms. 
to review it, may be publicly sung in churches, as being 
useful and profitable to the Church. 

That the Psalms be read openly in this Assembly ; and 
that, upon the days appointed for the reading of them, the 
reading of them shall begin at 9 of the clock in the morn- 
ing peremptorily, by so many as shall be then present ; 
and that at the reading of them there be no debates. 
Those that desired to be satisfied in anything, they are to 
consider of it, together with the Committee that have 
already examined. 

Res. neg. That the Assembly shall not read the Psalms 
upon Monday morning, 9 of the clock. 

Ordered The Psalms shall be read over in a grand To be read 
Committee of the Assembly in the afternoons, the next committee 
convenient opportunity. in after- 

Debate of the report of the second Committee concern- 
Debate of 
ing Christ the Mediator. Christ the 

Mr. Bridge, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Dury, be added to the ^^j' 
Committee for Paul Best 

Sess. 503. Sept. 15, 1645. -Monday morning. 

A report concerning Paul Best read. 

Ordered That this be presented to the Committee of 
plundered ministers, Wednesday in the afternoon, by the 
Committee of the Assembly appointed to attend upon the 
business of Paul Best. 

Proceed in the debate ' of Christ Mediator.' Debate 

Debate about the obedience of Christ to be inserted. continued. 

Sess. 504. Sept. 16, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Proceed in debate. 

Debate about ' from the beginning of the world.' 



132 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 504. The motion about the Annotations of the Bible. Some 
things in them against the Covenant and the votes of the 
Assembly. 

Scss. 505. Sept. 17, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

To pray. Mr. Delmy, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Tuckney. 
Debate of Debate about Effectual Vocation. 

cSiig al \Ord^ Proceed in the debate. Debate about the Anno- 
tations. 

Sess. 506. Sept. 22, 1645. Monday morning. 

Mr. Crompton, Mr. Ley, Mr. Delaplace, Mr. Bathurst, 
Mr. Delamarch, Mr. Maynard. 

Petition A petition from one Mahomet, a Turk, was brought into 
Turk. a the Assembly and read. Because the Assembly cannot 
take cognizance of this business, Dr. Smith and Mr. Delmy 
are to answer according to their own discretion. 

Mr. Palmer made report about the Annotations. The 
stationers desired that some animadversions may be 
made suddenly, and they promised to sell no more till to- 
morrow. 

A motion made by Mr. Whitakers, that the brethren 
that were a Committee for a Draught of Government, 
would make a report of what they have done. 

That this Assembly made the dissenting brethren to be 
a Committee to bring in the whole frame of their judg- 
ments concerning Church government in a body, with their 
grounds and reasons, April the 4th, and that this was 

A'. They accepted by them, that the advice of the Assembly con- 
have a day 
fixed to cerning government was not sent up to both Houses till 

their g ' n July 4, that Mr. Goodwin desired to be excused from his 

report, attendance here because the Assembly had engaged them 

fortrijjht. upon that work ' which work hath been long expected 

and earnestly desired by the Assembly; therefore it is 

now ordered that the said Committee shall, by Monday 

come se'nnight, report to the Assembly what they shall 

think. 

R. N. C. This declaration shall be entered : 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 133 

'The Assembly doth declare, That in the order of the SESS. 506. 
Committee to bring in the whole frame of their judgment ' ^il'*? 2 ' 
concerning Church government in a body, with their 
grounds and reasons, was and is included the business of 
gathering of churches.' 

Sess. 507. Sept. 25, 1645. Tliursday morning. 

Mr. Ley gave an account of the antidote prepared 
against the particulars complained of in the Annotations of 
the Bible. 

Ordered That the Committee for plundered ministers 
be moved again in the behalf of Mr. Prophet for Abinger 
in Surrey. 

Ordered The Committee be also desired that Croydon, 
being so near the city, may be reserved for the accommo- 
dation of some member of the Assembly, if any may be 
had, and that Dr. Smith be propounded in case he shall 
think fit to accept of it. 

Dr. Stanton, Dr. Temple, Mr. Hodges, Mr Ley, to move 
this. 

Debate about effectual calling. Further 

Proceed in debate. debate of 

effectual 
calling. 

Sess. 508. Sept. 26, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Calamy, Mr Good. To pray. 

R. Wednesday next spent as a day of humiliation in Day of 
this place. Jj^ a ; 

Ordered 5 members of the Assembly 3 for prayer, 2 pointed. 
for exhorting. 

Time to begin at 9, to end at 4 o'clock. 

Ordered- For exhortation : Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Palmer. 
For prayer : Dr. Burges, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. Sed[g]wicke. 

Report made by the Committee of the Assembly. 

Sess. 509. Sept. 29, 1645. Monday morning. 

R. Mr. Colson shall be examined according to this 
order. 

Debate Effectual Calling. 



134 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 509. Memorandum That something be expressed in fit place 
t 29 > concerning infants' regeneration in their infancy. 

Ordered That the day of humiliation in the Assembly 
be put off for l Wednesday next because of the thanks- 
concerning giving on Thursday, and that some day next week be 
tTon n T a spent in it, to be considered of upon Monday next. 
infants. Ordered Dr. Smith, Dr. Stanton, to visit the Prolocutor. 

Day of 
Honour $ ess - 5 ia Sept. 3' l6 45' Tuesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Dearsly have a certificate upon his appro- 
bation by the ministers appointed for ordination. 

Ordered Mr. Hardwicketo pray with the Committee of 
both kingdoms in the room of Mr. Good. 
Proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 511. October 3, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Simpson, Mr. Sterry, Mr. Walker. 

To pray. Ordered That the scribes do send to Mr. Herring to 
desire him to come to the Assembly, and bring with him 
those of the people whom he shall think fit that so upon 
hearing of them . . . 

Additional Report additional to the article of Predestination. De- 



predestina- 

tion. Sess. 512. October 6, 1645. Monday morning. 

Upon an order from the Commissioners of the Great 
Seal for one Mr. Rutter, the Assembly being informed by 
Mr. Bond that he was of late a drunkard, it was ordered 
that Mr. Bond inform some of the Commissioners of this. 

Mr. Walker made report from the 2nd Committee. 

Upon debate about the fast in the Assembly, 

R. A fast shall be held some day this week by this 
Assembly in this place ... to humble ourselves for our 
failing in this Assembly, and for the further carrying on 
of our advice to the Parliament that God may guide and 
direct them in a due way. 

R. That wording of the causes shall be revoked. 

R. A fast shall be held some day this week by this 

1 Perhaps fr, i.e. from. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 135 

Assembly to humble ourselves before God, and to pray SEPS. 512. 
for direction and blessing upon the work that is committed ^' ' 
to the Assembly. 

R. That Wednesday next shall be the day of the fast. 

Ordered Mr. Ash shall supply the room of Mr Sed[g~|- 
wi[ck]. 

Ordered That the persons formerly agreed on shall 
perform the service of that day. 

Mr. Ny When this order was made, some of the 
brethren were out of town. . . . Some things in the scribes' 
books we were desired to see, therefore we desire to search 
the scribes' books, and some time to do it. 

Ordered Monday 1 next they are to make their report. 

Prolocutor There is notice by letter to Mr. Speaker Trayer for 
that our forces that are in the siege of Chester have re- Chester 
solved this day to fall upon the storming of the city. . . . 
Thus the advice of Mr. Speaker that this Assembly would 
bestow the remainder of this morning in this work to pray 
for a blessing upon this work. 

That Prolocutor and Mr. Woodcocke . . . 

Sess. 513. October 7. Tuesday morning. 

The Assembly was turned into a Grand Committee for 
the reading of the Psalms. 

Sess. 514. October 8. 

The Assembly met to humble themselves before God, Day of 
and to pray for direction in and a blessing upon the work j^!^ 
that is committed to the Assembly. prayer. 

Dr. Burges began with prayer. 

Mr. Reynolds, after a short prayer, preached upon xvi. Notes of 
Math., 24 : Then said Jesus to His disciples, If any man 
will come after me, let him deny himself. 2 We may 
observe of Christ, that when there appeared any special 
evidences of human frailty in Him to take off the offence 

1 Written above Thursday in MS. 

2 This sermon was published in 1646, and inserted among Reynolds' printed 
sermons in his collected works. In the edition of 1826 it will be found, vol. 
iv. p. 318, etc. 



136 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 514. that might be taken, He did at the same time give some 

i?45 ' singular demonstration of His divine power, so in birth, 

temptation, agony, as in the fig tree, the appearing the 

Reynolds' infirmity of a human mistake, He was pleased that with all 

sermon to man if e st His divine power. . . . When holy men have been 
continued. TT 

honoured by God, . . . lest they should be transported, He is 

pleased to humble them. It was so with Paul ii. Cor. 12. 
And so with Peter in this chapter. He made a glorious 
confession of Christ to be the Messiah, and Christ honoured 
him ; but as soon as Christ begins to acquaint His disciples 
with His suffering ; Peter, that had been honoured to be 
the first that should preach the gospel to the Jews . . . 
Peter begins to be offended, and advises Christ to take 
pity of Himself. Christ reprehends him : Thou art an 
offence unto me ... In this reprehension, I. Personal corrup- 
tion v. 23. 2. A doctrinal instruction. . . . They that would 
own Christ for their King must not expect great things. . . . 
Herein He doth assure them they shall secure their own 
lives. 25 v. and that by . . . The words are a character of 
a disciple of Christ, consisting of self-denying and suffer- 
ing, and of suffering to the uttermost, pain 1 and 
ignominy . . . Take it up ... willingly and obediently. ... I 
have singled out the article of self-denial. Consider what 
is meant by denying, and what by a man's self-denying. 
The original word is emphatical to deny thoroughly and 
totally. Let him, as it were, cast himself off. It is a 
law word a thrusting off a graceless child. ... A man's 
self. Man is taken chiefly in these 3 ways : originally as 
he comes from Adam, . . . naturally as created by God . . . 
graciously as renewed by God ... A man's sinful self, and 
so it is to deny ungodliness and sinful work ... A man's 
natural self either in regard of being or well-being. This 
last to 3 heads : I. External relations ... 2. Special gifts 
and endowments ... 3. Common ends which men naturally 
propose to themselves to pursue . . . To these may be re- 
duced ... A man's renewed self, his gracious self, as the 
lusts of our corrupt nature are the members of the old man, 
so the graces of the spirit of the new man ... 3 branches 
1 Blank in MS., 'death' in printed sermon. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 137 

of this duty of self-denial . . . I. Some things to be denied SESS. 514. 
simply and absolutely, so our sinful self, two manner of , c 6 t 45 ' 
ways ... i. Generally as it importeth the whole body of 



111 i r T /-M JMotes or 

concupiscence revenge the blood ot Jesus Christ upon our Reynolds 



yr 

in 
continued. 



own corruption. Herein required a continual actual se 
exercise of our grace, be[cause] things that are natural will 
return unto the strength again if not weakened * over, as a 
stone and water ... 2. Specially in regard of our individual 
and more personal corruptions xviii. Psalm 23 ... As the 
juice and sap of the earth is the fomcs and matter of all 
fruit, yet in one field it will take better to wheat and in 
another to barley. . . . Hence in the Scripture mention of 
national sins . . . and personal sins the pride of Pharaoh. 
. . . By this sin it is that particular persons do most of all 
dishonour God, resist the grace of God, defile their own 
consciences. This makes the greatest struggling in con- 
version, and therefore in repentance. Though it drive away 
all sins, yet this sin above others is singled out. [2] For 
our natural self, to deny that hypothetically and with con- 
dition when God calls us to it. [i] God doth never call us 
to deny ourselves whole and wholly. We are allowed to 
seek ourselves and salvation. ... 2. Neither doth He call us 
to any morose and superstitious self-denial not to enjoy the 
things that God gives . . . Superstitions like that of Baal's 
priests and that of the Flagellantes. A story of this in the 
fourth part of the Warfare 2 to show to what sordidness the 
superstitious devotion of that Church doth carry men unto. 
. . . God calls when anything that is dear and near to us 
stands in opposition to Christ . . . and in this we are always 
to deny ourselves in preparation of heart and actually when 
... As Paul, Acts xx. 24, xxi. 13. Michaiah did not regard 
his own safety, i King. xxii. 14. Nor Levi regard his father 
and mother, xxxiii. Deut. 9. Ezekiel xxiv. 16. Nor 
Matthew the gain of his custom. ... In this case we are to 
deny ourselves 2 ways : i. When anything is a snare unto 
us, either a fruit of sin, or temptation to sin ... xiii. Deut. 

1 Perhaps ' watched. ' 

2 Climacus and Lewes of Granada in the fourth part of his Christian War- 
fare. Printed Sermon. 



138 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 514. 6. ... Though idols made of silver or gold, yet if idols they 
1645.' must be thrown away . . . The brazen serpent when a snare 

unto sin ... 2 King, [xviii. 4.] Zaccheus denies all his unjust 
Notes of . _, . . 

Reynolds' gam. ... 2. To deny them as oblations when Christ calls 

sermon them to be dedicated to him when Abraham was called 

continued. 

from his own country, Daniel to be cast into the den, Moses, 
the disciples, Paul none of those do consult with flesh and 
blood. . . . All that we are and have is upon those con- 
ditions, to use them to His honour, and part with them 
when called for. ... 3. Our renewed self our virtues and 
graces in some sense to be denied comparatively with 
respect to salvation. ... In the nature of duties we are to 
prize them ; but in the notion of the covenant of life, we must 
esteem them as loss for the . . . To hang the weight of a 
soul upon anything that hath imperfection is dangerous. . . . 
Nothing we are to call our righteousness but the Lord our 
righteousness. . . . Faith justifies, as a window is said to en- 
lighten the room, because it is most apt to let in that light 
which comes from another body. . . . Application : [As] when 
Christ did preach His sermon to His disciples, viii. Mark, 
34 ... it shall be double. In the general relation as the 
people of Christ and as ministers of Christ. As people of 
Christ: I. Take heed of that sin which is most formally 
opposite to self-denial ; self-love, a comprehensive sin, a 
seminal sin, at the root of every sin. The apostle puts 
it as the commander, in describing a whole regiment of 
sins. ... 2. Great branches : self-seeking as the end, and 
self-depend[ing] as the means to that end . . . Self-seeking 
wholly taken up in serving yourselves . . . ii. Phil. 21. 
When men are like to the prophet's vine, x. Hos., this is 
the greatest self-hatred in the world. . . . Order our love in 
proportion to our life. Whence we derive our life we should 
turn all our love . . . Self-depending when we do put con- 
fidence in our own graces, or in men, strength, horses, and 
chariots . . . This is a great sin ... injurious to the attributes 
of God, His wisdom, goodness, etc. Our confidence should 
be in those those are unmov[able]. ... 2. Let us be ex- 
horted to the practice of this duty. I. Let us exalt the 
word of God and counsel of God. Let the wisdom of our 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 139 

God prevail, Pro. xxiii. 4. 2. Exalt the authority of God SKSS. 514. 
in all our wills and affections. If a man can but deny his jg', ' 
own will. ... 3. Exalt the honour of God in all our own aims 
and designs, 2 Sam. xv. 25 ... 4. Set up the love of Christ Reynolds' 
and His Church uppermost in our hearts. This will con- s emKm 

.,, . T- i continued. 

strain us and make us willing, teach us to say as Esther, Kst. iv. 16. 
cry down all private interests, and make us to say as Elisha ? ^ xh/ 
to Gehazi, or as Jeremiah to Baruch. ... 2. Encourage- 5, 6 - 
ments in the text to this duty : I. It enables us to take 
up the cross. It is both a step to it and a means too. The 
less we value ourselves, the less we shall be troubled with 
the cross. 2. It will enable us to follow Christ : what 
Christ commands us to do He doth enable us to do by 
following His example. Self-seeking ever proceeds from 
lowliness 1 of mind. . . . Amongst the creatures, those that 
live only to themselves, they are either base or wild ; but 
the noblest creatures, they have spheres of activity. . . . 
God hath planted a natural self-denial in every creature : 
moral self-denial in heathen. . . . But we are never enough 
out of ourselves till Christ have divided all our spoils. . . . 
2. To us as ministers the disciples of Christ. . . . I. That 
we would be ordered to pray for. 2. To practice this, 
i. To pray for it. Nothing more dangerous to a Church 
and State than self-seeking, one which 2 in a ... one string 
in an instrument and spoil. . . . Private interests ever be 
obstructing necessary duties. This made Pharaoh oppress 
Israel, Jeroboam set up his calves, Jews crucify Christ, 
Demetrius . . . As little ditches being joined to the side of Acts \-ix. 
a river, draw it out of its own channel. ... 2. Self-denial 
is a most admirable preparation to all public employments. 
. . . What God offered Moses in destroying Israel, and to 
make of him a great nation, Moses does not have ... So 
Joshua divides to the tribes, and had no portion till after- 
wards for himself. . . . xix. Jos. 48 ... v. Neh. 14. ... How 
low was Paul in his own eyes. . . . Before we use great 
timber in building, or bricks, we fit them for building, that 
the self-moisture may be drawn out, that it may not warp 
in the building. . . . High buildings laid in low foundations, 
1 For lowness ; see printed sermon. - Perhaps notch. 



I4O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 514. richest treasures out of the deepest mines. . . . I. Luke 48. 
i 6' 5 8 ' What graces doth that 1 honour, but self-denying graces, 
faith and repentance. ... 3. No conditions of life which are 
Reynolds' not subject to temptations of self-seeking. Some men 
sermon g am by 3 public troubles, others gain by the crimes of men. 
... If a strict reformation, less water would run into their 
mill. . . . We have our temptations too. ... If so much 
preaching and so much superintendency, we must resolve 
to live a tedious life. . . . Therefore pray that God would 
pour out a large spirit of self-denial. . . . The daughter of 
Pharaoh not fit to be Solomon's wife till she did forget her 
own kindred. ... A man that is all for himself is like a 
standing pool good for little. [Let us pray] ... for the 
King. ... It was a low expression, but a kingly resolution 
in David, 2 King. vi. 22. ... And for the Parliament that 
God would double upon them the spirit of self-denial. . . . 
To seek wealth of his people, as Mordecai x. Est. 3. ... To 
speak comfortable to the Levites. ... 2 Chron. xxix. 30 
. . . that no jealousies may break asunder the civil and 
ecclesiastical dispensation, . . . and for the armies that God 
would hold in them that noble spirit of self-denial. 3 . . . 
And for ourselves, that we may in all things of duty deny 
ourselves. The Galatians received Paul as an angel of 
God. . . . But it is our duty to prescind and abstract the 
interest of our master from our own reward. ... In our 
humble advices we have not pursued any private int[erest]. 
Yet because some are jealous ... let us be jealous with a 
jealousy of caution, that it may not be so, and pray that 
we may be furnished with such self-deny[ing] hearts. . . . 
that as we preach not ourselves so, that we do not de- 
sire or affect a domination, but desire the promoting of 
the ordinances, that we may be the servants of the Church. 
... 2. An exhortation to the prac[t]ice of this duty. . . . 
i. Concerning our general ministry. . . . Study to deny 
ourselves in those weaknesses that are most peculiar and 
special to us as ministers of the gospel. ... As affectation 
of new lights of doctrine. . . . Such men do captare tempora 

1 Perhaps Xt for Christ. * ' But ' in MS. 

* This clause is not inserted in printed sermon. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 141 

impacata. . . . Many itching and wanton wits of an Athenian SESS. 514. 
temper. . . . Tell new truths. ... I never could fancy pro- ^' ' 
jectors in any being. 1 They delude others and undo them- 
selves. But of all, a projector in learning, and especially Reynolds' 
in divinity. . . . Such were the ancient heretics . . . amuse sermon 

....... continued. 

the people with strange words and unintelligible ex- 
pressions. ... I doubt not but there will be further light to 
the predictions of the prophets ; but in truths doctrinal, 
and especially evangelical, to cry up new lights, and asto- 
nish the people with metaphysical fancies, is to introduce 
scepticism into the Church of Christ. Let our ministerial 
prudence and zeal teach us to deny all pride and wanton- 
ness of wit, . . . and content ourselves with the words of 
truth and soberness. 2. Deny ourselves in the affectation 
of new senses and meaning of Scriptures. I say in the 
affectation of them. ... I do not forbid . . . only . . . i. 
With humility . . . not magisterially. ... 2. In this business 
take heed of departing from the analogy of the faith, and 
that which is according to godliness. Judge those ex- 
pressions, that are most orthodox and tend to godliness, be 
the best. ... 2. Hard in the service of the Church, to deny 
our natural selves, willing to be spent and spend. . . . Many 
things call. . . . I. The prejudices and jealousies of men, as 
if we drew a design, and affected domination. Many bear 
an evil eye upon our outward condition. ... It becomes us 
to maintain and vindicate jura, . . . but it must be done 
with tenderness, be[cause] it will be difficult to take off the 
prejudice of seeking ourselves in it ... managing it pru- 
dently without excess. ... 2. The weaknesses of other 
men. We must deny our parts and learnings, and produce 
milk for babes. . . . The fewer sails you spread, the swifter 
your motion will be. ... 3. The frowardness and humours 
of many men calls upon us for self-denial. . . . Take 
heed of being tempted to forbear an unwelcome truth. 
Cowardice in a minister is a baser thing than in a soldier. 
... 4. The state of the Church doth mainly call upon us, 
i. To deny our private and proper interests ; let us not say 
let the difference yet continue ; let parties be balanced ; 

1 Perhaps 'thing.' 



142 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 514. [ohl that when the Church is in a flame, any should come 

O o 

1645 ' w ^h suc ^ a mm d to serve their own turns by the common 

fire, ... 2. To deny our judgments and opinions 1 rather than 

Reynolds' by them to hinder the peace of the Church. ... A divided 

sermon ministry fomented by an Episcopal interest. . . . But 

continued. J J L 

whence is it that still we must have a divided ministry ? 
. . . Will not this be an advantage for the common enemy ? 
. . . Let us on all hands endeavour, so far as the mutual 
condescensions of brethren can reach [to] take off the heat. 
No man may, under pretence of humility, prejudice a 
public right. ... If I had a single opinion, . . . and confi- 
dence enough to value it, ... 2. For the service of this 
Assembly, . . . I. That we would deny ourselves in our 
private affairs in our time. . . . The eyes of friends are 
upon us, expecting our best, 2 and of enemies deriding our 
slowness, and of the Churches. When we had knotty 
arguments, then we kept all together ; but now that it will 
be carried on with unity and consent, let us not faint in 
our minds. ... 2. In matter of property and pay I con- 
ceive it may be improper and unseasonable to insist too 
emphatically upon that point. . . . Happy if suggestions of 
this nature proceed rather from others than ourselves. . . . 
3. Reference to our speeches and debates. . . . Many have 
excellent abilities of copious speaking, but considering the 
. . . fitter to speak Sallust 3 than Cicero. ... 4. In the business 
of heats and passions, those are seldom friends to business, 
ordinarily, like an edge turned, misty, obstructive, and 
have much of darkness in them. . . . Conclude all with the 
apost[le's] exhortation : Look not on our own things, but 
the things of others. Let the same mind be in you that 
was in Christ. 

Mr. Whitakers prayed. 

Notes of Mr. Palmer, after a short prayer, preached on Zach. iii. 

sermon? 6, 7. A text suitable to the Assembly. Posture we are 
in, and the world's esteem of us in the following words . . . 

1 ' They being not in themselves matters of faith and moral duty, but 
matters merely problematical and of private persuasion, wherein godly men 
may be differently minded without breach of love or hazard of salvation.' 
Printed Sermon. 

1 Haste, Printed Sermon. s ' Aristotle ' in printed sermon. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES, 143 

After a great many years' captivity, God looks upon His SKSS. 514. 
people with mercy, and brings back His people, sets them () I c 6 t . 5 ' 
upon building of His temple. . . . The work is interrupted, 
and after some years God stirs up the spirits of His pro- palmer's 
phets. . . Zachariah, in a vision, encourageth his people serm011 

continued. 

to go on in the work. The glory of his temple inferior to 
Solomon's, as appears by the mourning (?) of those. . . . 
The priesthood was contemptible. . . . Through their frailties 
and weaknesses (?) they did deserve from God reproach 
and contempt. . . . To remedy all this, God represents in 
the I v[erse]. . . . Christ interposes and rebukes Satan, 
and acknowledgeth that His power had rescued Joshua 
and the priests as a brand plucked out of the fire. . . . Here 
comes in the free grace of Christ that pardons and takes 
away the filthy garments, and gives him glorious garments. 
Here is something to recover the honour of the priesthood, 
but that all this might not be abused, here is a solemn 
protestation. In these words we have what it is that God 
requires as a duty, and what He doth encourage them 
withal upon that condition what God stands upon. It is 
purely 1 (?) authoritative and majestical. . . . And it is a kind 
of an oath to Joshua. He would employ him and entrust 
him. . . . This very much belongs to us. ... We have seen 
though not all those things every way parallel. The word 
of God hath that that no story can reach. We have been 
recovered out of Babylon. We are a second time upon a 
Reformation. We have seen our forefathers cast out and 
made base before all the people. . . . We are men wondered 
at ... and have Satan and Satan's instruments to accuse 
us. But in Christ we trust to appear clothed with His 
robes. Therefore He protests the same thing to us that to 
Joshua and his fellows. This is my faith if God give us 
this grace to fulfil this charge. He will He 2 make good the 
same to us. ... There are some under the New Testament 
that are to judge them that are within some to be 
governments and if we be not amongst the number of 
those men it were strange. . . . For no civil governments to 
whom Christ gave spiritual gifts at this time. . . . Because 

1 Perhaps ' partly.' 2 Sic in MS. 



144 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 514. 

Oct. 8, 

1645. 



Notes of 
Palmer's 
sermon 
continued. 



of the straits of time to speak something by way of ex- 
hortation and consolation. . . . i. What God would have us 
do. Be ruled by Him in the generality of our conversa- 
tion, and particularly of our car[ria]ge. 2. Consider that 
here is something that concerns us as Christians, and that 
that is to be reduced to our office. ... In the first only re- 
member you. ... i. Negatively. Not to follow the ways 
of our own hearts or the sight of our own eyes, xi. Eccl., 
Ivii. Esa. Those whom God smites, they sometimes go on 
frowardly in the ways of their own hearts. The following 
of Christ is the way we should walk in, i. Tim. 6. A charge 
as we are ministers to take heed of the love of money. . . . 
2 Tim. ii. . . . We are to have our eye so upon the will and 
word of God as thereby to choose our way. . . . i. Take 
heed of the ways of covetousness, that we be not of the 
number of those that devour widows' houses . . . that by 
engaging ourselves in the businesses of the world we 
negl[ect] our duty . . . that we do not sell the souls of the 
people for gain. ... 2. Take heed of the ways of ambition, 
drawing disciples after us, following our own opinions and 
conceits, . . . pride : now reason to take heed of it when such 
jealousies are cast upon us. ... Take heed of that ambi- 
tion whereby we would think to rule and sway all. ... 3. 
Take heed of ways of pleasure, idleness, wantonness, and 
lasciviousness, false prophets they followed the lusts of 
uncleanness. . . . Avoid all the appearances of evil, what- 
soever might give the least shadow of any offence. ... 2. 
Positively walk in the ways of God ; give good example ; 
be as the salt to season the people of God, and not be 
unsavoury. . . . Every minister of God is a captain, and he 
must lead. . . . iii. Phil. 17, 20. ... We shall never answer 
it to God if we be not patterns. 2. Keep my charge, a 
remembrance of what we must do in our office particu- 
larly we must teach and look diligently, that everything be 
according to the will of God. . . . Keep the charge of God 
in the administration of all things according to the neces- 
sity of the souls of the people. Take heed of force and 
cruelty . . . and strengthen the diseased, heal the sick, seek 
that which is lost. Keep the charge of God in our doctrine 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 145 

. . . not to please men, i. Gal. 10, and yet becoming all SESS. 514. 

O ^f ^ 

things to all men, I Cor. 9 ... and yet with all meekness, l6 ' 5 ' 
instructing those that oppose, and restoring those that are 
fallen through infirmity. All this is specially the charge Palmer's 

which we are to keep, and all this with prayers for the sermon 

continued. 
flock. . . . There is something that we are to consider, as 

especially employed in this great service . . . with all dili- 
gence attending upon it as the greatest work, one of them, 
ever put into the hands of any . . . affording our presence 
our attention and intention. . . . Many things may per- 
suade us ... Remember how God hath cast off those that 
were before us, and so God might upbraid, as Jeroboam, 
who did worse than Solomon. ... 2. We are to consider 
how great a God it is whose charge we are to keep. ... 3. 
Consider what it is for ; what doth it tend to ? Immedi- 
ately to the saving of many thousand souls. ... If we have 
not more zeal, humility, diligence, meekness of spirit, how 
shall we be able to answer for it to God ? . . . That God 
should single us out ... let us reflect upon ourselves. . . . 
Remember how true many of those confessions, acknow- 
ledgments, have been concerning us. ... If we find that 
the work of God stops and goes not on ... if there be 
any danger or likelihood that we shall not be employed, is 
not God just in this? . . . Look forward and consider how 
God protests . . . This is the awakening of us to consider 
while yet it is time. Bethink what we must resolve. . . . 
Resolve to walk in God's ways and keep His charge. If 
we do resolve this and begin with our diligence, here we 
have a fair encouragement. . . . But otherwise, can we ex- 
pect that shall be anywhere at any ... If now we are 
afraid of men, and will comply with men and drive designs, 
there will be the same hazards ; there are temptations in 
every condition. ... If we here be unprofitable, and have a 
name of being employed in God's work and do Him no 
service. ... 2. The comfortable part of it ... Here is the 
encouragement that God gives to His servants. If we 
either consider the ability of God or His willingness, we 
may be strengthened that this in due time shall be fulfilled 
to us. ... i. How able is God to do it. ... What can 

K 



146 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 514. 

Oct. 8, 

1645. 



Notes of 
Palmer's 
sermon 
continued. 



hinder it ? All that is is in the hearts of men ; and who 
commands the hearts ? . . . Was it not strange that all 
Egypt should be content to be ruled by Joseph ? . . . that 
Joshua be the governor when Moses is dead. . . . xxix. Pro., 
Ixxv. Psal. . . . Were we as vile and poor as children, yet 
the promise is, xi. Esa. : a child shall lead them. . . . God 
hath a mighty overruling power in all the dispositions of 
all things in the world. . . . Ezra iv. 12. The suggestion 
was, the king should lose his authority, vi. Ezra . . . Ezra 
vii. A new commission a commission to judge. At first 
it was apprehended to be a great mischief to set it up, but 
now it is turned. . . . ii. Neh. ... It is God, saith David, 
that subdues the people under me. If men be never so 
full of jealousies, yet it shall go on; all shall agree on it. 
... 2. How many engagements may be apprehended that 
God doth declare that He will do this work. . . . I. This is 
the foundation we go upon. It is the w r ill of God that His 
house should be so judged and so kept. 2. As it is the 
command of God, so that by which the kingdom of Christ 
shall be set up ; and hath not God sworn to set up the 
kingdom of Christ, and engaged His zeal to do it ? 3. It 
concerns the souls of thousands thousands that yet remain 
in extreme darkness in regard of ignorance and profane- 
ness ; and can it be imagined a disgraced and discontinued 
ministry that hath not the power of Christ put into their 
hands shall do the work to gain so many souls ? ... In all 
ages of the Church, was there not either miracles or perse- 
cutions, or the power of them that are in authority to bring 
men unto Christ ? . . . 4. In regard of the love that God 
hath to the comfort of His servants ; how long have the 
servants of God groaned under the ignorance and profane- 
ness ? . . . 5. Mention made of the stopping of the mouth 
of iniquity. ... 6. That that God hath specially regard 
unto is the prayers of His people, x. Psal. 15, 16, 17. ... 
How many thousands of prayers for the settling of the 
power of the kingdom of Christ. ... 7. Manifold promises 
of great and glorious things that God will do for His 
people purge out the dross and take away the tin, and 
how shall this be done if there be not a power? ... 8. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 147 

When doth God use to do all these things ? A. When He s^s. 514 
hath prepared the hearts of His people then His work f' ' 
hastens. ... If God do but give us a spirit to be faithful to 
Him, we have cause to encourage ourselves that the thing p a imer's 

shall be done. . . . Consider with ourselves that which the sermon 

. . _ continued. 

rsalmist expresseth : cvi. rs. [v. 3-J . . . We must resolve to 
keep righteousness . . . keep close to God to fulfil the will 
of God, and maintain His truth with that humility and 
faithfulness that behoves us. ... If in times of difficulty we 
be faithful, when Christ comes to settle His power, those 
are the men whom He will employ. . . . But on the other 
side, Moses and Joshua. . . . 
Mr. Ash concluded with prayer. 

Sess 5 15. October 9. 

The collection at the fast was 2 ... 

R. The servants of the Assembly shall not have the 
money collected. 

R. The money shall be distributed to Mrs. Hale, Mr. 
Rathband, Mrs. Herle. 

A collection was made for the servants ; it was 415. 6d. 

Resolved, that a letter be sent to Mr. Herring's parish. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the report Debate ot 
concerning the Covenants]. ^^ 

An order was brought from the House of Lords about covenants. 
Mr. Barton's Psalms. 1 Order as to 

Barton s 

R. It be referred to the Committee for the Psalms to Psalms. 
consider of this order of the Lords, and to make report 
what answer shall be returned. 

R. 10 ; an addition to the Committee to meet to- 
morrow. 

R.6 added : Dr. Temple, Mr. Walker, Mr. Byfield, 
Mr. Bathurst, Mr. Wilkinson, Mr. Seaman. 

A letter from one Mr. Newman to the Assembly about 
his examining of a minister. 

Sess. 516. October 10, 1645. Friday morning. 

Ordered That the letter and testimonial of ... 
1 Journals of House of Lords, vol. vii. p. 627. 



148 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 516. Mr. Carrill, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Ford, to pray. 

,6 4 e' Proceed in the debate about the first proposition in the 
report concerning the Covenant. A proposition added by 
God's ( Mr. Reynolds. Debate about ' condescension.' 
covenants. 2 ^ proposition debated about the first covenant, and 
that of personal obedience. 

Ordered That the Assembly do not hold it fit that Mr. 
Dollinder shall have his certificate. 

Report from the Committee of Printing. 

Sess. 517. October 13, 1645. Monday morning. 

The Committee for to provide a minister for Wapping 
do meet and think of a fit minister, and make report to the 
Assembly with all convenient speed. Dr. Gouge be added 
to this Committee. 

^200 for Ordered Mr. Reynolds, Dr. Temple, Dr. Smith, Mr. 

ofTssem- ^ey, Dr. Stanton, to be a Committee to dispose of the 

bly- ,200 brought from Haberdashers Hall. 

Answers to Mr. Tuckney made report of the answer to the reasons 

Renting of Dissenting Brethren about the instance of the Church 

brethren, of EphesuS. 

Mr. John Kid was examined for his fitness for Winston 
in the Bishoprick of Durham, being to be sent thither by 
the Committee for the North. He was, upon examination, 
approved by Dr. Gouge, Dr. Smith, Mr. Wilkinson, Mr. 
Arrowsmith, and Mr. Tuckney. 

Ordered This Assembly doth approve of this answer 
to the reasons of the Dissenting Brethren against the in- 
stance of the Church of Ephesus. 

Mr. Simpson made report 1 from the Committee of the 
Dissenting Brethren concerning reasons why they did not 
think fit to bring in their model of government ; and it 
v/as as followeth. 2 . . . 

Sess. 518. October 14, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Mr. Ley published a testimonial concerning Bunning, 
whereupon it was ordered he should have a certificate. 

1 From this to the end of Session 518 the minutes are in another hand. 

2 Not in MS., but given in Hanbury's Memorials, vol. iii. pp. 2, 3, etc. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 149 

On a motion of Mr. Coleman that the report from the Si;ss. 518. 
Committee concerning printing be taken into consideration, 164 e 4 ' 
after consideration had of it, it was . . . 

R. That a former report agreed upon Apr[il] 10, to be 
made to the Committee of the House of Commons for 
printing, shall be reported mutatis mutandis to the Com- 
mittee of Examination in satisfaction to their order. 

Ord. That Mr. Ley, Mr. Ny, and as many more of that 
Committee as can conveniently, do attend the Committee 
of Examinations on Friday next to present that report. 

Ord. The Committee of the Assembly for printing do 
proceed to examine other false impressions of the Bibles 
which shall be brought unto them, and for that purpose to 
meet once a week, and to consider about the cases of Bibles. 

Dr. Temple made report concerning the ^"200 brought Report for 
into the Assembly, that 20 of it being already disposed ^ nb f U " 
of, and they hearing these shall have ^"300 more brought ^200. 
in before long, they had agreed about distributing the 
whole equally amongst such members of the Assembly as 
do attend the service it amounting to 6 a piece, with 
some remainder ; and that money already received of it to 
be distributed forthwith to 30 of the Assembly, whereupon 
it was 

Resolved That the Assembly doth approve of what the 
Committee hath done. 

The Assembly, taking into consideration the report 
brought in yesterday by the Committee of the Dissenting 
Brethren, it was 

Resolved To refer the consideration of that report of the 
Brethren brought in yesterday to a Committee to be con- 
sidered of by them, and to report their thoughts about it 
to this Assembly. 

Res. That it be referred to the Committee which 
brought in the answer to the reasons of the Dissenting 
Brethren. 

Res. To adjourn the Assembly till Friday morning. 

Ordered That the three Committees do meet immedi- 
ately after the rising of the Assembly ; and that they meet 
again to-morrow at nine of the clock. 



150 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

519. Sess. 519. October 17, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Seaman, Mr. Thorowgood, Mr. Reynolds. 
An order for Mr. Bridges. 



To pray. 

Ordered This order be communicated to the Chairman 
of the Committee of Examinations to inquire of them con- 
cerning the charge against Mr. Bridges in their Committee. 
Reports Report from the first Committee concerning Predes- 

from first t j nation . 
and second 

Commit- Report from the second Committee concerning the 

Covenants. 

Report Debate upon the report of the first Committee concern- 

concerning predestination. 

predestma- & 

tion de- Debate about those words, ' unto everlasting glory,' 
whether they be not superfluous. 

Sess. 520. Oct. 20, 1645. Monday morning. 
Dr. Temple made report concerning Mr. Bridges ; the 
Committee was not satisfied concerning him ; they had 
ordered the clerk to bring a note of what was done. 

Ordered That Mr. Bridges' examination be respited 
till the Assembly be further satisfied. 

Debate Proceed in the debate about permission of man's fall ; 

resumed. a b ou t ' the same decree.' 

Mr. Rutherford . . . 

Mr. Seaman If those words ' in the same decree ' be 
left out, will involve us in a great debate. 

Mr. Rutherford All agree in this, that God decrees the 
end and means, but whether in one or more decrees is not 
. . . Say God also hath decreed ... It is very probable but 
one decree, but whether fit to express it in a Confession of 
Faith . . . 

Mr. Seaman . . . 

Mr. Rutherford If there can be any argument to prove 
a necessity of one and the same decree, we would be glad 
to hear it. 

Mr. Whitakers If you take the same decree in reference 
to time, they are all simul and semel : in eterno there is not 
prius and posterius. 

Dr. Gouge I do not see how the leaving out of those 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 5 I 

words will cross that we aim at ; I think it will go on SKSH. 520. 
roundly without it. '164^' 

Mr. WJiitakcrs Our conceptions are very various about 
the decrees, but I know not why we should not say it. 

Mr. Seaman All the odious doctrine of Arminians is 
from their distinguishing of the decrees, but our divines 
say they are one and the same decree. 

Mr. Gillcspie When that word is left out, is it not a Giliespie 
a truth, and so every one may enjoy his own sense. everyone 

Mr. Reynolds Let not us put in disputes and scholas- m^y enjoy 
tical things into a Confession of Faith ; I think they are sense- 
different decrees in our manner of conceptions. 

Mr. Seaman You know how great a censure the Remon- 
strants lie under for making 2 decrees concerning election, 
and will it not be more concerning the end and means ? 

Mr. Calamy That it may be a truth, I think in our 
Prolocutor's book he gives a great deal of reason for it ; but 
why should we put it in a Confession of Faith ? 

Mr. Calamy I question that 'to bring this to pass ;' we 
assert massa pura in this ... I desire that nothing may be 
put in one way or other ; it makes the fall of man to be 
medium executionis decreti. 

Mr. Palmer You will be in a worse snare in leaving it out. 

Mr. Woodcocke I desire to know whether this be meant 
of the decree or the execution of it. 

Mr. Gillespie Say, 'For the same end God hath ordained 
to permit man to fall.' ... This shows that in or dine natures 
God ordaining man to glory goes before His ordaining to 
permit man to fall. 

Sess. 521. October 21, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Report made from the first Committee sitting before the Report 
Assembly. 

Resolved by them, that mention be made of man's fall. tion. 

Resolved by them, that those words 'to bring this to 
pass' shall not stand. 

Dr. Wincop to pray with the House of Lords next week. 

Debate about those words, ' to bring this to pass.' Debate 

Mr. Reynolds offered something: 'As God hath ap- resumed - 



152 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



Debate 
about re- 
demption 
of elect 
only. 



SESS. 521. pointed the elect unto glory, so hath He by the same 

5o45 1 ' eternal and most free P ur P se of His wil1 ^re-ordained all 
the means thereunto, which He in His counsel is pleased 
to appoint for the executing of that decree ; wherefore 
they who are endowed with so excellent a benefit, being 
fallen in Adam, are called in 1 according to God's purpose.' 
Mr. Chambers offered something. 

Ordered -To debate the busin[ess] about Redemption of 
the elect only by Christ to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 522. October 22, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Bridges, the report from the 
Committee of Examinations concerning him was brought 
in and read. 

Ordered Respited till Friday morning. 

Debate about Redemption of the elect only by Christ 

Mr. Calamy I am far from universal redemption in the 
Arminian sense ; but that that I hold is in the sense of 
our divines in the Synod of Dort, 2 that Christ did pay a 
price for all, absolute intention for the elect, conditional 
intention for the reprobate in case they do believe, that 
all men should be salvabiles, non obstante lapsu Adami . . . 
that Jesus Christ did not only die sufficiently for all, but 
God did intend, in giving of Christ, and Christ in giving 
Himself, did intend to put all men in a state of salvation 
in case they do believe. 

Mr. Palmer He would distinguish from the Arminians ; 
they say all equally redeemed, but not so the other, and 

Mr. Reynolds This opinion cannot be asserted by any 
that can say he is not of the Remonstrants' opinion . . . 
upon a condition that they cannot perform, and God never 
intends to give them. 

Mr. Calamy The Arminians hold that Christ did pay 
a price for this intention only, that all men should be in an 
equal state of salvation. They say Christ did not purchase 
any impetration. . . . This universality of Redemption] 
doth neither intrude upon either doctrine of special elec- 
tion or special grace. 

1 Sic in MS. 2 Ada Synodi Dordtrechtana, p. 603, Th. iii. cd. 1620. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 153 

Mr. Seaman -It is nothing whether the opinion of Re- SKSS. 522. 
monstrants or not. We must debate the truth and false- ^/t 2 ' 
hood of it. ... He doth not say a salvability quoad 

Debate 

homines, but quoad D cum ... so far reconciled Himself continued, 
to the world, that He would have mercy on whom He 
would have mercy. 

Mr. Palmer I desire to know whether he will under- 
stand it de omni homine. 

Mr. Calamy De adultis. 

Mr. WJtitakers . . . 

Mr. Young This controversy, when first started in the 
Church, they used a distinction : they said it was pro 
natura humana. ... In the application he expresseth it 
only electis. Some speak of the former branch as that . . . 

Mr. Gillespic Nothing to the thing itself; but for the 
state of the question, let more be looked upon than that 
expressed in the proposition, because there is a concatena- 
tion of the death of Christ with the decrees ; therefore we 
must see what they hold concerning that which in order 
goes before and what in order follows after. . . . Camero[n] 
saith for all upon condition of believing, but Amyrauld he 
hath drawn it further. . . . Whether he hold an absolute 
reprobation of all that shall not be saved. . . . A parte post 
what follows upon that conditional redemption. 

Mr. Calamy In the point of election, I am for special 
election ; and for reprobation, I am for massa corrupta. . . . 
Those to whom He ... by virtue of Christ's death, there 
is ea administratio of grace to the reprobate, that they do 
wilfully damn themselves. 1 I neither hold sufficient grace 
nor special grace. 

Mr. Marshall For order, you shall not need to know 
what this or that man's opinion is ; if you dispute the 
thesis, you will state it so as that it rejects all contrary 
opinions. 

Mr. Reynolds The Synod intended no more than to 
declare the sufficiency of the death of Christ ; it is pretitim 
in se, of sufficient value to all, nay, ten thousand worlds. 
There are two Adams, one a fountain of misery, and the 

1 Ada Synodi Dordtrechtana, p. 603, Th. v. ed. 1620. 



154 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 522. other of mercy. ... To be salvable is a benefit, and there- 
Jg "' fore belongs only to them that have interest in Christ. 

Mr. Seaman All in the first Adam were made liable 
Sn'tTnued. to damnation, so all liable to salvation in the second 

Adam. 
Proposi- This proposition to be debated : ' That Christ did intend 

tion to he , , .-> > i > 

debated, to redeem the elect only. 

Mr. Calamy I argue from the iii. of Joh[n] 16, in which 
words a ground of God's intention of giving Christ, God's 
love to the world, a philanthropy the world of elect and 
reprobate, and not of elect only ; it cannot be meant of 
the elect, because of that 'whosoever believeth' . . . xvi. 
Mark, 15. 'Go preach the gospel to every creature.' If 
the covenant of grace be to be preached to all, then Christ 
redeemed, in some sense, all both elect and reprobate ; 
but it is to be preached to all ; there is a warrant for it. 
. . . For the minor, if the universal redemption be the 
ground of the universal promulgation, then . . . the minor, 
else there is no verity in promulgation. All God's pro- 
mulgations are serious and true. . . . Faith doth not save 
me, but only as an instrument to apply Christ. There is 
no verity in the universal offer except founded in the . . . 

Mr. Rutherford All the argument comes to this : there 
can be no truth in this proposition except this be first 
granted, that Christ died in some sense. ... I deny this 
connection . . . be[cause] it holds as well in election, justi- 
fication, as in redemption ; if he believe, he is as well 
elected and justified as redeemed. 

Mr. Calamy We do not speak of the application, for 
then it would bring it in, but we speak of the offer. It 
cannot be offered to Judas except he be salvable. 

Mr. Rutherford There is no difference betwixt redemp- 
tion and justification in this. . . . The promise of justifica- 
tion is made no less to Judas than of redemption. . . . The 
ground of his is to make all salvable, and so justifyable. 

Mr. Seaman He makes it absurd. . . . But there is 
none. It comes only to this : look as every man was 
damnabilis ... so is every man salvabilis ; and God, if 
He please, may choose him, justify him, sanctify him. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 155 

Mr. Walker . . . 

Mr. MarsJiall The strength of his argument is either iL; 2 ' 
not taken [or] is not answered. ... It is in this that there 
can nofalsum subesse to the offer of the gospel. continued. 

Mr. Wilkinson You know they cannot be partakers of 
redemption against whom Christ takes special exception ; 
Christ prayed not for the world. 

Mr. Gillcspie In answer to the two arguments, one 
from the iii. Joh[n] 16. A. i. The brother takes for 
granted that by the world is meant the whole world. It 
is a point much controverted. Our divines do deny that 
the word world must in some places be taken in another 
sense. . . . For that of the philanthropy it makes much 
against it. ... I cannot understand how there can be 
such a universal love of God to mankind as is maintained. 
Those that will say it must needs deny the absolute repro- 
bation ; then alone 1 to those whom God hath absolutely 
reprobated both from salvation and the means of salvation. 
. . . For the next argument from xvi. Mark. . . . He con- 
ceives the ground of this universal offer is the institution 2 of 
Christ in dying. . . . For that of the truth . . . There is a 
truth in it : the connection of those two extremes must 
ever hold true faith and salvation. . But what is that to a 
reprobate ? He[re] is the mistak[e]. The voluntas decreti 
and mandati are not distinguished. ... A man is bound 
to believe that he ought to believe, and that by faith he 
shall be saved. It is his duty. The command doth not 
hold out God's intentions ; otherwise God's command to 
Abraham concerning sacrificing of his son . . . Said I can- 
not say so to a devil. . . . True ; but reason is, that it is the 
revealed will of God that devils are absolutely excluded, 
but not so any man known to me. 

Mr. Marshall This distinction, there is use of it if 
rightly understood. We say more : there is not only a 
mandatum, but a promise. 

Dr. Surges You say the novum fcedus doth intend ; 
then there be either two covenants ; one general to the elect, 
and another special to the elect. 

^Perhaps 'a love.' 2 Sic in MS., perhaps for 'intention.' 



156 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 522. Mr. Calainy The difference is not in the offer, but in 
1645. ' the application. . . . That voluntas dccreti comes only in the 
application. . . . For the word world ... I grant it signifies 



Debate 

continued, the elect sometimes, but sometimes it signifies the whole 
world, and so it must do here. . . . For this love he saith he 
under ... There is a double love : general and special. 
A general love to the reprobate, and the fruit of this, a 
general offer, and general grace, and general reformation. 

Mr. Gillespie It is acknowledged the word world may 
surfer another sense the elect, but said it must be a larger 
thing than believers. ... A. This is still taken for granted, 
which is to be proved, for I say it is very good sense. God 
so loved the elect, that whosoever believes in Him . . . The 
reconciling of a general love with absolute reprobation is 
not answered. . . . The general offers of the gospel are not 
grounded upon the secret decree. 

. Mr. Ligktfoot I understand the word world in a middle 
sense. It is only in opposition to the nation of the Jews. 
. . . For the universal offer God intends as the salvation of 
the elect, so the inexcusableness of the wicked. 

Mr. Price For the first text suppose mankind be meant, 
yet it doth not follow that Christ intended all ... For the 
latter text, it doth not follow that Christ did die inten- 
tionally for the redemption of all. . . . Prove that there is 
such a covenant with mankind. If so, why mention the 
children of the covenant ? . . . Then the signs of the 
covenant might be generally administered (?) . . . Said this 
may be a truth, though to a congregation of reprobates the 
reason of the prescious * (?) offer is be[cause] we do not 
know who is elect and reprobate. 

Mr. Vines That said of the covenant relates to the 
application. Is not the gospel a covenant, and is not that 
propounded to every creature ? . . . What is the gospel 
preached to every creature founded upon but the blood of 

Christ By ' the world' I do not understand the Gentiles, 

but if I did, it were all one. . . . As is whether the world 
here do not signify more than the elect It seems it doth, 
be[cause] the words do not else run well. This word de- 

1 Perhaps pro[mi]scuous. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 157 

notes an intention in the gift and in the love. We could SF.SS. 522. 
not live if there were not a general love of man 1 to man- j^ 2 ' 
kind. . . For that xvi. Mark. 15. ... What is the gospel 

Debate 

but a conditional proposition of a covenant ? . . . What is continued. 
this founded upon but the blood of Christ ? We must 
either deny that there are effecting, etc. 

Mr. Good . . . 

Ordered To proceed in the debate to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 523. October 23, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Mr. Marshall moved about the Ordinance come out Parlia- 
about the sacrament. ... It is so short in some things, that dinance 
according to my present light we shall not be able to pro- about 

. . . . Tr sacrament 

ceed in our ministry with a good conscience. It you do objected 
intend to petition the Honourable Houses to consider to - 
further of this business, we can never do it more season- 
ably than now. 

Mr. Lightfoot I desire that arguments may be rather 
sent than petitions. 

R. A Committee to draw a petition to both Houses of 
Parliament to desire some further relief in the business of 
the sacrament one only dissenting. 

Ordered Mr. Marshall, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Vines, Mr. 
Palmer, Mr. Young, to be a Committee to prepare a petition. 

Proceed in the debate. 

Mr. Goodwin Two arguments brought . . . Said univer- Debate on 
sal redemption must be the foundation of the preaching of [f n Te- 
the gospel to every creature. True, it must be preached to sumed - 
every creature ; but then the question is, What is the 
gospel there ? The message is reconciliation, ' God was in 
Christ,' and this contains a reconciling only of such a world 
to whom God doth not impute their trespasses. The de- 
crees of God concerning the world of His elect kept up in 
indefinite expressions, that is the world ; and hence there 
is a universal obligation of ministers to preach it to every 
creature, and upon every creature to come unto Christ. . . . 
I exemplify it by that in the [iv.] 1 1 to the Hebrews : Some 
must enter into this rest, therefore let us labour to enter 

1 Sic in MS. 



158 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 523. into this rest. And so God doth but speak as He means. 

i6 4 5 3 ' Said that whoever believes shall have eternal life. To 

me there is this distinction . . . [Said] the Scriptures mean 

continued. the rather, that if all mankind believe they shall be saved, 

for Christ did not die for propositions, but for persons. . . . 

But the sense is rather . . . 

Mr. Rutherford For the two scriptures alleged yes- 
terday desire when I give a reason of the denial of a pro- 
position. . . . For that of iii. Joh. 16, three grounds of an 
argument taken from this place : i. From the word loved ; 
a general love to elect and reprobate. 2. From the word 
world, generally taken, be[cause] distributive afterwards. 
3. Grounded upon God's intention upon condition of faith. 
. . . For the first Christ speaks of a particular special love. 
. . . This all one with those places. . . . This love is parallel 
Rom. v. 8, with that expressed in those three places. . . . The love of 
one giving his life for his friends . . . the love that moved 
Him to send His only-begotten Son. ... If the love in the 
iii. of John be the same with those, as in those places is 
meant the special particular love of God commensurable 
with election . . . not one scripture in all the New Testa- 
ment where it can be expounded for the general ... 2. 
The love in the iii. of John 16 is restricted to the Church ; 
v. Eph. 21, restricted to a Church ... so ii. Gal. 20: 
loved me ; the apost[le] who lives the life of God by faith, 
... v. Rom. 8, the sinners and ungodly are set down to be 
the justified by faith. . . . Such a love as moved the husband 
Christ to give His life for His spouse, such as moved . . . 
such as God commends, for the highest love is a restricted 
special love. ... 3. It is an actual saving love, and there- 
fore not a general love. 

Report was made from the Committee of a petition to 
the Parliament about the Sacrament. 

Mr. Goodwin I must give my No to this, be[cause] 
something of setting up presbyterial classical government 
. . . and we have before dissented against that sent up con- 
cerning the Sacrament as imperfect 

Moved to leave out ecclesiastical assemblies. 

Answered by them : it would not satisfy them. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 159 

Sess. 524. October 24, 1645. Friday morning. Oct. 24, 

1645. 
Dr. Wincop, Mr. Hill, Mr. Arrowsmith, to pray. 

Ordered Mr. Dollinder having been charged before the 
Committee, and not appearing before the Committee to 
make his defence, he is not acquitted in the judgment of 
the Assembly till he have cleared himself before the 
Assembly. 

Ordered Mr. Ley and Mr. Foxcroft shall inform the 
Committee of plundered ministers that Mr. Bridges hath 
relinquished his claim to the place of Croydon. 

Mr. Marshall gave an account to the Assembly that they 
had not yet an opportunity to deliver the petition, but 
should give them a further account concerning it. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate. Debate on 

Mr. Vines A connexive proposition if it be impossible [f OI f ^. P 
in the assumption (?) . . . He that believes not shall be sumed. 
damned. This is so positively set down as that it implies 
not only to be a sin against a law, but a sin against a 
remedy. . . . They have some fruits of the death of Christ 
and the benefits thereof. . . . Whether this tends to make a 
man salvable we cannot so well say. 

Mr. Harris That which the brother last spake, his con- 
clusion I wholly agree with. . . . Distinguish betwixt 
meritum mortis and propositum morientis. . . . I. About the 
stating of this question a noble question. Objections 
strong on both sides ; I see more than I can answer. The 
best way to answer an erroneous opinion is well to state 
the question. ... I doubt whether there be any such thing 
at all as conditional decree ... or, if there be any such 
thing, whether the condition founded upon a possibility. . . . 
Those two arguments mentioned, they are in part answered ; 
by world there is meant the world of the Gentiles, as 
appears in the whole chap[ter]. His discourse is with Nico- 
demus, a Jew. . . . That of love is the highest love and 
highest expression of love that can be. ... That that holds 
out the highest love that ever God sealed up to mankind, 
that cannot be meant of common love. . . . For that of work 1 

1 Probably Mark [xvi. 15]. 



l6o MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 524. sufficiently answered . . . Only move that the reverend 
i6 4 5 4 ' brother may produce the rest of the arguments. 
Ordered Proceed in debate. 

Scss. 525. October 27. 

An addition offered to the petition to the House of 
Commons by Mr. Reynolds. Read and debated. 

Ordered Mr. Palmer, Mr. Dury, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. 
Spurstow, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Delmy, Mr. Chambers, Mr. 
Ward, to meet this afternoon and to make report on 
Thursday morning. 

Sess. 526. October 30. Thursday. 

The Committee for the petition made report that, in 
regard of the weightiness of the business, they desire further 
time to consider of it. 
Debate The Assembly proceeded in the debate. 

An order brought from the House of Commons by Sir 
Robert Harvey and Mr. Tate for a further enumeration. 1 
enumera- Ordered That Sir Robert Harley, Mr. Tate, Mr. 
scandalous Marshall, Mr. Vines, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. 
sms. Burroughs, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Calamy, Dr. Temple, Mr. 

Ny, Mr. Young, Mr. Ward, Mr. Palmer, be a Committee 
to consider of a further enumeration according to this order, 
to meet to-morrow in the afternoon. The Commissioners 
of the Church of Scotland are desired to be present. 

Sess. 527. October 31, 1645. 
Mr. Gibson, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Gipps, [to pray]. 
Proceed in the debate about Redemption. 

Sess. 528. November 3, 1645. Monday. 

Debate on Debate about leaving out those words, ' fore-ordained to 
everlasting death.' 

Ordered Mr. Rouse be added to the Committee for the 
enumeration. 

Sess. 529. November 6, 1645. Thursday. 
The paragraph concerning Reprobation referred to the 
Committee, to make report to-morrow morning. 
1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 324. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. l6l 

Debate upon the Covenants. SF.SS. 529 

Debate about those words, 'thereunto belonging.' 1645 ' 

Debate about the three periods. 

x-> i TM / r Debate on 

Ordered The second Committee make report of the covenants 
whole business of the Covenant on Monday morning. 

Report from the third Committee of Effectual Calling. e ffectual 
Debated . . . Debate about that 'to the knowledge of callm s- 
Jesus Christ.' 

Sess. 530. November 7, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Carter, 1 (Mr. Case), Mr. Whitakers, Dr. Stanton. To pray. 

Report made of the enumeration of sins to be presented 
to the Parliament. 

Ordered Mr. Braine's reasons be referred to Mr. Ley's 
Committee. 

Debate upon the enumeration ... If any can add any- 
thing in the enumeration, it be considered on Monday 
morning. 

Report made by Mr. Reynolds about Reprobation. Reynolds' 

report 
r> , T , .- , . r . concerning 

Sess. 531. November 10, 1645. Monday morning. reproba- 

TT ,- tion. 

Upon a motion, 

R. Enter upon debate of the neglect of family duties 
in reference to the catalogue of scandalous sins. 
Debate upon it. 

R. ^| neg. This shall be put into the catalogue of scan- 
dalous sins, 'Those who after admonition do ordinarily 
(and usually) neglect daily prayer with their families.' 

R. This catalogue shall be sent up by the Committee 
that drew it up to-morrow morning. 

Ordered Mr. Calamy, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Case, Mr. 
Newcomen, to visit Prolocutor and Assessor White. 

Sess. 532. November n, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
Mr. Marshall made report that they were advised not to 
bring in the catalogue this morning, because the House sit 
in a grand Committee about propositions, and to-morrow 
is the day for religion. 

1 Mr. Carter's name is written above that of Mr. Case. 
L 



1 62 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 532. Ordered That it be carried up to-morrow morning. 

Debate the report of Reprobation. . . . Debate about that 

' sovereign power.' Report from the third Committee read, 
reproba Upon a complaint of Dr. Hammond's book[s] of Cate- 
bated e " chism and Conscience, that Mr. Cheynell and Mr. Tuckney 

do peruse them. 

Sess. 533. November 12. Wednesday morning^ 

Certificate] for Mr. Flower. 

Report Mr. Marshall acquainted the Assembly that the Com- 

from Com- m j ttee h ac } delivered to the House of Commons the cata- 

mittee on 

catalogue logue of some other scandal[ous] offenders, to be added to 
dalouT those already voted as fit to be kept from the Lord's 
offenders. Supper, and that the House had ordered to take it into 

debate. 2 

Report Mr. Tailor acquainted the Assembly that the Committee 

from Com- f or fa e p sa i ms na d read over the Psalms before so many 

mittee on * 

Psalms, of the Assembly as pleased to be present, and had corrected 
those faults observed. 

On a motion of Dr. Burges, the Committee was called 
upon to bring in somewhat to be returned to the order of 
the Lords recommending Mr. Barton's Psalms to be con- 
sidered by the Assembly. 

Dr. Gouge acquainted the Assembly that a late paper 
given in to the Assembly by Mr. Simpson from the Com- 
mittee of the Dissenting Brethren, showing that they thought 
not good to bring in a model of their judgments, was 
printed. It was thereupon 

Ordered That the Committee appointed to draw up the 
answer to that paper do hasten it, and bring it into the 
Assembly by Friday morning. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the report of 
the third Committee brought in yesterday. 

Dr. Stanton [made] report from second Committee. 

Sess. 534. November 13, 1645. Thursday morning. 
Debate Proceed in debate about elect of infants. 

about elect 

of infants. l The minutes of this session are in another hand. T. 

2 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 339. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 163 

Sess. 535. November 14, 1645. Friday morning. SESS. 555. 

Mr. Case, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Pickering. 1645. ' 

R. neg. That upon the reading of this paper the men To ~^~ 
mentioned in it shall be examined. 

Mr. Strickland and Mr. Whitakers to visit Mr. Assessor 
White. 

Mr. Reynolds made a report of an answer to the 
Lords about Mr. Barton's Psalms. It was read and de- 
bated. , . This answer to the House of Commons. 

Ordered That whereas the Hon ble House of Commons Report on 
hath, by an order bearing date the 2Oth of November 1643, ve^sioVot 
recommended the Psalms set out by Mr. Rouse to the Psalms, 
consideration of the Assembly of Divines, the Assembly 
hath caused them to be carefully perused, and as they 
are now altered and amended, do approve of them, and 
humbly conceive that it may be useful and profitable to 
the Church that they be permitted to be publicly sung. 1 

Ordered The Committee that perused the Psalms shall 
carry this up to the Hon ble House of Commons. 

Dr. Temple, Dr. Smith, Dr. Wincop, to carry up the 
answer to the House of Lords. 

Debate of the additional report concerning Christ the Debate 
Mediator. Debate of the additional report concerning cTrist^hlf 
the Covenant. Mediator 



Sess. 536. November 17, 1645. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Braine have a certificate from this 
Assembly upon his former examination. 

Ordered The rest of the members of Assembly that 
attend, that have not received any of the last distribution, 
shall receive 6 a-piece, and then the rest of the 1000 
to be disposed of by Committee formerly appointed, and 
they to make report to the Assembly. 

An order from the L[ords] and Comm[ons] for the 
Committee of Accommodation. 2 

1 The House in consequence resolved ' that this Book of Psalms set forth by 
Mr. Rouse, and perused by the Assembly of Divines, be forthwith printed.' 
Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 342. 

2 ' To take into consideration the differences in opinion of the members of 
the Assembly in point of Church government, and to endeavour an union if it 



and the 
covenant. 



164 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 536. R. Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Simpson, Mr. 



N i645 7 ' Burroughs, Mr. Dury, [Dr. Gouge, Mr. Case, Mn_Ash, 
added to the Committee appointed to treat with the Com- 
missioners of the Church of Scotland and Committees of 
both Houses. 

Reports Report additional concerning the Covenant about the 

concerning f u i ness o f t h e administration under the Old Testament 
covenant, 

etc. debated. Report concerning Fall of man, Sin, and the 

Punishment thereof. Report from the first Committee 
concerning Creation. 

Sess. S3;. 1 

Dr. Gouge published order for Nathan Cotton, and 
Report reasons for his removal. Dr. Gouge [made] report from First 
creTtk^" 2 Committee of Creation. Mr. Whitakers from the Second 
etc. Committee, of the Fall of man, of Sin, and the Punish- 

ment thereof. The Third Committee made no report. 

Mr. Whitakers moved, that the Second Committee having 
finished all the heads of the Confession, there might be more 
heads distributed, and accordingly there were referred : 

To the First Committee, Perseverance, Christian Liberty, 
the Church, the Communion of Saints ; 

To the Second Committee, Officers and Censures of the 
Church, Councils or Synods, Sacraments, Baptism, and 
the Lord's Supper ; 

To the Third Committee, the Law, Religion, Worship. 
Debate of The Assembly proceeded upon the debate of the report 
report con- o f the First Committee about Creation. 

cernmg 
creation. 

Sess. 538. November 19, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

f To debate the regulating of the Assembly. 
R- -j To go on first to the business appointed for 

C the day. 
Further Debate of Creation of Man. 

creation. ^ e P oss ible, and in case that cannot be done, to endeavour the finding out some 
way how tender consciences, who cannot in all things submit to the common 
rule which shall be established, may be borne with according to the Word, and 
as may stand with the public peace,' etc. Journals of House of Commons, 
vol. iv. p. 342. 

1 The minutes of this session are in another hand. T. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 165 

R. The Committee of the Assembly meet in the after- SESS. 538. 
noon to hear the answer to the Remonstrance. ^ leis. 9 ' 

Sess. 539. November 20, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Certificate for Mr. Shipden. Order for Mr. Jno. Massey. 

Mr. Thoroughgood, Dr. Smith, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Gibson, 
Mr. Guibon, Mr. Bathurst, Mr. Wilson, added to the Com- 
mittee for Printing. 

Mr. Prophet brought in a report from the Third Com- 
mittee about Adoption, and another report from the same 
Committee about Sanctification. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the report of Report of 
Creation, and finished. finished. 

The Assembly then proceeded to debate the report of Report of 
the Fall of man, of Sin, and the Punishment thereof. etc.de- an ' 

bated. 

Sess. 540. November 21, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Salway for Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Young, Mr. Connant. To pray. 

Debate of Fall of man, sin, and the punishment thereof. Debate 

Mr. Reynolds made an addition concerning death. 

The last clause considered in the head of the Last Judg- 
ment. 

A letter from the colony of Guernsey read. 

Ordered This letter deferred till Monday. 

Mr. Reynolds' paper was as followeth ; ' Death did not Reynolds 
flow out of the condition of the created nature of man, as concer 
the proper cause thereof, but was brought into the world death. 
only by sin. . . . Eternal death is not the extinguishing, 
abolishing, or annihilating of reprobate men and angels, 
but their being everlastingly separated from the glory of 
God, and undergoing of those hellish torments which the 
wrath of God shall inflict upon them.' 

Ordered An order concerning Mr. Neale ; a certificate 
returned that the Assembly is not satisfied concerning his 
conversation, and they are informed the doctor hath been 
articled against for keeping him a drunken curate. 

Sess. 541. November 2^ 1645. Monday morning. 
Report made from the Committee for Printing. 



1 66 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 541. Ordered Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Prophet, added to the 
* 4 ' Committee for Printing. 



Ordered That Mr. Westwood bring a testimonial of his 
conversation. 

Ordered -Mr. Delmy, Mr. Dury, Mr. Delaplace, Mr. 
Uelamarch, Dr. Smith, Mr. Young, Mr. Ward, a Com- 
mittee to consider of the petition and letter from Guernsey, 
and make report to the Assembly. 
Report Debate about Sanctification. 

concerning 

Sess. 542. November 27, 1645. Thursday morning. 
bated. Report made from the First Committee about Pro- 

vidence. 

Ordered Dr. Smith, Mr. Bathurst, Mr. Gibson, Mr. 
Hardwicke, to carry the Report concerning printing to the 
Committee for Examinations. 

Mr. Hathway have his certificate upon his approbation 
and ordination. 

Ordered The 3 Committees meet in the afternoon to 
make report to-morrow morning of some perfect report 

Report made by Mr. Newcomen of the answer to the 
paper of the Dissenting Brethren. 

R. This shall be the answer to the paper of the Dis- 
senting Brethren. 

The Committee for the answer of the reasons of the Dis- 
senting Brethren do bring in their answer with all speed. 

Sess. 543. November 28, 1645. 

Mr. Marshall excused from praying. 

Mr. Hickes, Mr. Cheynell, Mr. Chambers, to pray. 
Additional Report made from the First Committee additional to 
provi- n the doctrine of Providence. Debated. 
dence. Debate about ' great.' Debate about ' devils.' 

Debate 

upon it. T-V T 

O&M. 544. December i, 1645. Monday mormng. 

Mr. Westwood have a certificate. 
Lord's Report from the Second Committee of the Lord's Supper. 

Supper 

brought in. Sess. 545. December 2, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
j\5ifi f Re P rt fr m Mr. Cheynell of Justification. 

tion. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 167 

Mr. Gille\s\pie informed that the Assembly of Scotland SESS. 545. 
sent a letter to this Assembly . . . and a list of the names D , e ' , 2 ' 
of those ministers that have been excommunicated and are 
received in England. 

Report from the First Committee of Providence con- Debate 
cerning God's induration. Debate upon it by a resolve denoTre- 
upon the q[uestion]. Debate about that of hardening. sumed. 

R. Second Committee bring in ' of the Sacraments in 
general ' before the debate of the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper. 

Ordered Mr. Valentine inquire concerning Mr. Close. 

Sess. 546. December^, 1645. Wednesday morning. 
Ordered Mr. Viner bring a testimonial from the neigh- 

bour ministers. 

Debate upon the report of Justification. Debate of 

Dr. Gouge, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Ley, to visit the Prolocutor J t ^ lfica " 

and carry him not[ice ?]. 

Sess. 547. December^, 1645. TJiursday morning. 
Ordered That Mr. Viner have a certificate upon his 
former examination. 

Dr. Gouge made report from the Committee additional Additional 



about Providence, concerning God's induration and ex- ^. 

CCCation. dence. 

Ordered That Mr. Gray shall have his certificate. 

Upon a motion made by Mr. Dury, according to the 
desire of Mr. Rivett, that the Assembly would purge him 
from a charge of complaining against Amyraldus to this 
Assembly, 

Ordered The Prolocutor and scribes do sign a certifi- 
cate that neither in his name nor in any other man's name 
any such complaint hath been brought into this Assembly. 

Proceed in debate of Providence. Debate on 

Mr. Marshall informed the Assembly he had a letter 
from York about a case of observing of Christmas day. He 
craves the advice of the Assembly in it. c , ase . f 

observing 

Sess. 548. December 5, 1645. Friday morning. 



, as 



Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Bond. To pray. 



I 68 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 548. That Mr. Neale do bring a testimonial from the mini- 

sters tna t do Pleach the lecture at ... 

Ordered That Mr. Neale shall not have a certificate 

from this Assembly till he bring a further testimonial 

from godly ministers to be approved of by this Assembly. 
Mr. Dury read a paper to be subscribed in the name of 

the Assembly to Mr. Andrew Rivett. 

Ordered That this be sent under the hand 

Order to An order from Lords and Commons about the late corn- 
hasten the i n g O f the members of the Assembly and the hasting. 1 . . . 
sion. Ordered That the scribes do call the names of all the 

members of the Assembly every morning that the Assembly 

sit at 9 of the clock. 

Report of Report from Dr. Stanton of the Sacraments in general, 
the sacra- Ordered To debate Justification. 

ments in 
general. 

Sess. 549. December 8, 1645. Monday morning. 

Debate of Debate of Justification. 

justifica- Ordered -Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Newcomen, 

Committee Mr. Whitakers, a Committee to review the Confession of 

to review p^ as j t j s finished in the Assembly. 

Confession 

as it is 

passed. Sess. 550. December 9. Tuesday morning. 

Further Debate of Justification, and the continuance of Justifica- 
debate of ti Proceed in the debate. 

justifica- 
tion. 

Sess. 551. December 10. Wednesday morning. 

R. There shall be a Committee to examine ministers 
between 8 and 9 in morning before the sitting of the As- 
sembly. 

Report made additional to the answer to the Remon- 
strance of the Dissenting Brethren, of some of their papers 
inserted, and the additions thereupon. 

R. N. C. This now read is also added as the residue of 
the Answer to the Remonstrance of the Dissenting Brethren. 
Debate The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Justification 
resumed. U p On t h OS e words, ' continue to justify.' 

Mr. Cheynell have leave to go into the country. 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 365. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES, 1 69 

Sess. 552. December u, 1645. Thursday morning. Sr.ss. 552. 

Report of a petition to both Houses for publishing their 1645. ' 
Answer in print. 1 

R. N. C. Those petitions shall be sent to the Hon ble 
Houses of Parliament. 

Ordered -Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Feme, Mr. Case, Mr. Cole- 
man, Dr. Smith, to the House of Lords and Commons. 1 

R. That Mr. Britten have his certificate upon his 
former examination. 

Proceed upon the debate. . . Recommitted. Debate oi 

. r 

Report of Sacraments in general debated. Debate about j^ 1 a ^" of 
the word ' mystery.' 



sacra- 
ments. 



Sess. 553. December 12, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Foxcroft, Mr. Corbet of N[orwich], Mr. Byfield. To pray. 

Dr. Smith informed that they attended both Houses 
with the petitions. The House of Peers gave us this 
answer, that our request was granted. 1 

The House of Commons had referred the business to a 
Committee, and they required that some of us should 
attend. 2 

Ordered Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Calamy, 
Mr. Ward, Mr. Byfield, to be joined with the Committee 
that carried it, to attend that Committee. 

Debate of Sacraments in general. 

Mr. Ny moved about the Bibles. There is a kind of 
necessity that something should be done. The stationers 
prosecute the printing of an ordinance. If it pass that 
any party have power solely to print those books, they 
will put what rates they please . . . Let the chairman 
give a report what answer the stationers did give of the 
rates. 

Mr. Ley made report from the Committee for Printing 
of reasons of their inability for present to set down the 
prices 3 of the Bibles. 

R. The Committee for Printing do meet on Tuesday in 
the afternoon to consider of the prices 3 of Bibles. 

1 See Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. pp. 36, 37. 

2 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. pp. 372, 373. 3 In MS., prizes. 



I 70 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 553. R. They are also to draw up and prepare matter for a 
D ^5 4 j 2 ' petition to the Parliament about the price x of Bibles. 

R. neg. Shall not be added to the last vote. 

22 

Ordered That Mr. Ley give notice to the stationers of 
this vote. 

The clause of the report of Sacraments recommitted to 
be brought in on Monday morning. 

Ordered Dr. Smith, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Delaplace, to visit 
the Prolocutor. 

Sess. 554. December 15, 1645. Monday morning. 
Report of Dr. Gouge made report about Free-will. 

free-will -, A > r i i 

and of Mr. Arrowsmith made report of that committed con- 

cerning the Sacraments. It was read, 
ments. 

Debate upon the additional report of the Sacraments. 
Debate about distinction by the Sacraments. 

Sess. 555. December 16, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
Debate about moving Mr. Millington to hasten the busi- 
ness of Paul Best. 

Com- R. That the Committee of Plundered Ministers be 

against acquainted with the informations given by some members 
Paul of this Assembly concerning Paul Best, his venting by 
writing and otherwise, and spreading of his blasphemous 
heresies since the time of his restraint (?) ; and to desire 
that some speedy course may be taken for the preventing 
of it. ... This done by the Committee of Mr. Paul Best. 
Debate of Proceed in the debate of Sacraments in general, 
merits and Debate of the additional of Justification. 

of justifica- 

tion - Sess. 556. December 17, 1645. 

Report from the Committee for Printing. 

R. Mr. Viner have a certificate upon his former exami- 
nation. 

Ordered The Committee for Printing to consider fur- 
ther of what is fit to be added concerning the printing and 
prices 1 of Bibles. 

Debate of Debate of the report of Free-will, 
free-will. 

1 In MS., prize, and prizes. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 7 I 

Sess. 557. December 19, 1645. Friday. SESS. 557. 

Dec. 19, 

Mr. Dury, Mr. Mainard, Mr. Burges. 1645. 

Ordered Mr. Craddocke have a certificate upon his To y 
former examination. 

Dr. Smith made report from . . . 

R. The whole Answer shall be delivered in to the Com- Assem- 
mittee [of the] House of Commons in the afternoon, sw y j t a "~ 

Ordered and that Committee be desired to communi- dissenting 
cate [it] to the Hon ble House of Commons. 

R. A copy of the same Answer sent to the House of 
Lords l by the same Committee, with this reason, be[cause] 
it is presented to the House of Commons. 

Report from the First Committee of Perseverance. 

Mr. Keeling's certificate, 

Mr. Ley, Mr. Walker, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Ford, Mr. TO ex- 
Wilkinson, jun. amine - 

Sess. 558. December 22, 1645. Monday morning. 

Dr. Smith made report from the Committee : they 
desire a brief of the matter of scandal to the Assembly. 

Ordered The Committee draw up an extract, and pre- 
sent it to the Committee of the House of Commons on 
Wednesday next 

Mr. Marshall made report from the Committee of the 
North. Debate about sending some ministers not yet 
ordained. 

That this answer shall be returned to the Committee of 
the North that are of the House of Commons, by the 
Committee of this Assembly for the North, 

Ordered That this Assembly doth not find any such 
expedient for this evil in the North as in the hastening of 
the settling of the government of the Church, and that 
they will be willing to their utmost to inquire out ministers 
for the North, some being mentioned to them. 

Ordered To visit Dr. Gouge, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. New- 
comen. 

Compelled to adjourn for want of an Assembly. 

1 Journals, rol. viii. p. 53. For answer see Hanbury, vol. iii. p. 6, etc. 



172 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 559. Sess. 559. December 23, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
i645. J> R- Mr. White be respited for his certificate till Thurs- 
day fortnight. 

Ordered Mr. Gibbart (?) bring in a testimonial of his 
conversation for the last two years. 

Ordered Mr. Ley and Mr. Whitakers to visit Mr. Ro- 
brough. 

Ordered Mr. Coleman and Mr. Strickland to visit Mr. 
Harris. 

Ordered Dr. Temple to visit Mr. Wilkinson. 
Debate of Debate of the Covenant. 

nantre- e Report made by Mr. Ward, from the Committee for St. 
sumed. Peter's Port, in Guernsey island. 

Sess. 560. December 24, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Langley's certificate be respited. 

Ordered Mr. Smart have a certificate from the As- 
sembly. 

Ordered The scribe is to write a letter to them of 
Guernsey. 
Report of Debate the report of the Sacraments. 

Ordered The examination of ministers be upon Tues- 
debated. days and Thursdays, in the afternoons 2 o'clock ; and 
that the members of the Assembly attend it in their turns, 
by 5 each [?] days, to be nominated in the Assembly by 
the scribe in order, as their names are in the scribe's book, 
each of them for a week. 

The nomination to be upon Fridays. Monday and 
Thursday in the first week. 

Ordered Mr. Palmer, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Rayner, Dr. 
Hoyle, Mr. Ley, Mr. Cotton, to attend examination this 
week. 

Sess. 561. December 25, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Langley and Mr. Moore's certificate be 
respited. 

Dr. Gouge moved about Mr. Tombes, his book, 1 and the 
Committee licenser. A Committee to consider of something to be 

to consider 

1 An Apology, etc., with appendix concerning infant-baptism. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 173 

presented to the House of Commons about the late licens- SKS'S. 561 
ing of a book of Mr. Tombes by Mr. Batchelour, now . . . 1) j6 4 ? 5 ' 
and they are to consider of something to be presented to 
the Assembly concerning the blasphemies and heresies, mi 
and other dangerous opinions printed and published and heresies. 
spread abroad, and many of them licensed, together with 
dangerous and schismatical practices. 

R. 4. Mr. Vines, Mr. Ward, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Case, Mr. 
Ley, Mr. Gower. This Committee to meet to-morrow in 
the afternoon, or any three. 

Debate of the Sacrament. 

Sess. 562. December 26, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Vines, Dr. Temple, Mr. Ash, to pray. 
Dr. Gouge, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Bathurst, 
Mr. Ny, to attend the Committee of Examination. 

Proceed in debate of Lord's Supper. Debate of 

Lord's 

Sess. 563. December 29, 1645. Monday morning. 

Debate of Perseverance. Debate of 

Mr. Calamy made report of Baptism. ance^ 

R. Mr. Moore have a certificate. Report of 

The Committees do meet in the afternoons according to ba P tlsm - 
order, and not at dinner-time. 

Sess. 564. January I, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Dr. Surges moved, that in regard of his present weak- 
ness, fearing a fever, that one might be chosen to be an 
assessor in the room of himself or Mr. White during their 
infirmity, that the business of the Assembly might not be 
hindered. 

R. Mr. Palmer be assessor pro tempore, in the absence Mr. 
of Mr. White. 

Mr. Palmer took his place accordingly. pro tem~ 

Dr. Wincop made report from the Third Committee V*' 

u L 4.1. T r r j Report of 

about the Law ot God. the law 

Debate upon the Sacrament of Baptism. 

Ordered MX. Case, Mr. Newcomen, to visit the Pro- 
locutor. 



I 74 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 564. Lord Balmerino came into the Assembly as one of the 
1645.' Commissioners appointed to sit in the Assembly. 1 

Earl of Lauderdale delivered a letter from the Com- 
merinoa missioners of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Commis- Scotland. It was twice read. 

sioner to 

Assembly. Prolocutor by order of the Assembly spoke to welcome 
Lord the Lord Balmerino. 

dale de- Dr. Burges We know your Lordship's worth to be 
hvers letter sucn . . It is our desires to acknowledge the great assist- 

from Scot- s 

land. ance from that kingdom which you come to represent. . . . 
I hope it is the desire of us all to promote all ways and 
means for the performing of that happiness in such a union. 
. . . There be many difficulties in this great work, and your 
Lordship is not insensible of it ; and therefore we have 
the more need of such workmen as your Lordship. . . . 
We shall humbly pray that your Lordship and the rest 
may be so useful to this kingdom . . . 

Letter A Committee to bring in a report upon Monday morn- 

Commit- m > to consider what is fit to be done with this letter. 
tee - Ordered Dr. Smith, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. 

Whitakers, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Ward, the Committee. 
Letter A letter from the ministers of London was brought by 

sters ^f in '" some of themselves. Presented and read in the As- 
London. sembly. They that presented it withdrew, and it was de- 
bated. They were called in and received thanks, by order 
of the Assembly. 

Referred to This letter be referred to the sub-Committee of this 
mittee m " Assembly that are to join with the Committee of Lords 
and Commons and Commissioners of the Church of Scot- 
land, and they are to ... 

Sess. 565. January 2, 1645. Friday morning. 

Mr. Palmer supplied the place of the Prolocutor. 
Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Carter, Mr. Hodges, to pray. 
To ex- Dr. Smith, Mr. Greene, Mr. Gower, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. 

amme. ~ , 

Coleman. 

Ordered Mr. Horley be spoken with, and give an 

1 He was only authorised by the English Parliament to do so on 
January. See Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 421. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 175 

account of the reasons of his removing himself, and how SESS. 565. 
the place he leaves may be supplied before the next J^'A?' 
profits of the said living come in. 

A petition from Paul Best was read. 

Debate of Baptism. Debate about dedication to God. Debate on 

baptism. 

Sess. 566. January 5, 1645. Monday morning: 

Ordered Mr. Vines and Mr. Whitakers to give thanks 
to Mr. Reynolds in the name of the Assembly for his 
sermon. 

Report from the Committee for the letter from the 
Church of Scotland. 

Ordered That a letter be drawn to the Commissioners Letter 
of the Church of Scotland, according to the particulars in lanTto be 
this report by the same Committee, the report to be answered. 
made upon Friday morning next. 

Debate upon Baptism ; ' the grace of God bestowed Debate 

, r , resumed. 

sometimes before. 

Mr. Whitakers. That it doth confer grace I do not Whitakers 
find, but our divines do hold it. ... When they oppose fGod in 
the Papists, they say it is more than a sign and seal. . . . ba P tlsm - 
Chamier saith the grace that is signified is exhibited, so it 
is in the French Confession ; it doth efficaciter donare. . . . 
I conceive that it doth not confer it ex opere operato. That 
union is not so universal, ad ... Arguments : I. That 
which the Scripture ascribes to baptism we are to ascribe. 
Baptism is an ordinance to effect those ends. ... an ordi- 
nance of engrafting into Christ, and of our spiritual rege- 
neration and new birth. . . . Baptized into the remission of 
sins. . . . Baptism saves, I. Accompanied with the sign 
and thing signified, it is a saving ordinance. . . . For 
without grace none of those things can be. 2. A com- 
paratis, if the word of God do instrumentally confer grace. 
... 3. From the Eucharist, if that be a sacrament of our 
spiritual growth, be[cause] an ordinance to confer that 
growth . . . with what proportion of reason I can say 
that of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper a means of 
conferring growth where is grace already, in the same 
proportion of reason it will hold about Baptism. . . . Said 



176 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 566. circumcision a sign of that which he had, being uncircum- 

^i645 5 ' c i se d. . . . A. Those were extraordinary cases. . . . Those 

things that work only bv signification, they work by the 

T^ V\f * 

continued, intervention of reason. . . . From the union of the sign and 
thing signified which is in the analogy, . . . and in con- 
juncta exJiibitionc as Ursin[us]. . . . when we lawfully re- 
ceive it, God doth promise to bestow the inward . . . That 
which a minister is bound to pray for, that he is bound to 
believe. 

Palmer on Mr. Palmer I think we have not said enough con- 
ecT SUl> cerning the grace of baptism ; but all that he hath said 
doth not warrant the proposition before you. ... In his 
sense the proposition is not proper. . . . There is something 
more than a bare sign, especially sometimes he under- 
stands thereby the first grace, and that his arguments 
have not proved . . . What the Scripture speaks of efficacy 
of baptism, it speaks of those that are grown up. We 
must suppose the person to be baptized to be a believer. 
. . . For that of the word there is a great difference, the 
word either external or internal as a necessary means. . . . 
For the parallel between two Sacraments. ... I deny the 
consequence the parallel a thing may be instrumental 
to convey when there is a possibility of receiving of it ; 
but he that is without the just 1 grace hath nothing to make 
him in a capacity of receiving ; he is dead. . . . By the 
same argument it may be supposed that one sacrament 
may as well convey grace of conversion as the other. . . . 
For the union between sign and thing signified . . . true, 
they are not naked signs ; there is no nakedness in a seal. 
... A further union in the sacrament ; it is such a union 
as that whatsoever is promised by the word, that is granted 
unto him by the participation of the sign. 

Mr. Whitakers In the first argument he did not answer 
the Scriptures. . . . The Scripture speaks more about con- 
ferring than it doth either of signing and sealing. . . . 

Sess. 567. January 6, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
R. Mr. Jagard's reasons of removal are approved. 

1 Perhaps 'first,' as line 1 6. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 177 

Ordered That all the members of this Assembly that SKSS. 567. 
are in or near the town be desired to be present at the j^ 1 ' - ' 
Fast, on the I4th of January, and that notice be given to 
those members of the Assembly that do not appear in the 
interim. 

R. Mr. Horrocks have his certificate. The Assembly 
was satisfied with the passing of it without giving any 
reasons of his removal, be[cause] he was never settled in 
that place for which he was formerly examined, the place 
being otherwise disposed of. 

Proceed in the debate about grace in Baptism. Debate on 

R. Mr. Farrar be examined according to those rules ^mS 
for examination. 

Sess. 568. January 7, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Horley have his certificate. 

Report was made concerning Mr. Farrar, that he was 
found very insufficient in the very grounds and funda- 
mentals of religion. 

The Committee is to certifyed. 1 

Debate of the Law of God. Debate on 

Mr. Lightfoot enters his dissent to that about the leav- ^ d law ol 
ing out of creation. 

Debate about that of 'the law for the the 2 substance of it.' 

Sess. 569. January 8, 1645. Tlmrsday morning. 

R. Mr. Smith shall have a certificate without coming 
up to be examined. 

Ordered Mr. Pinckney have his certificate upon former 
examination. 

Ordered Mr. White's business be respited for a month. 

Ordered Mrs. Carter, a widow of a member of this 
Assembly, be taken into consideration when the next 
money for the Assembly comes in. 

Report of that clause of Baptism committed. 

Report of a Lawful Oath by Mr. Prophet. 

Resolved To reserve the debate of the report about 
Baptism. 

1 Sic in MS. ; perhaps for ' certify it.' 2 Sic in MS. 

M 



178 MINUTES OK THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 570. Sess. 570. January 9, 1645. Friday morning. 

^1645' Ordered Mr. Ward do bring a testimonial of his con- 
versation, and the reason of his remove under his own hand. 
Mr. Perne, Mr. Prophet, Mr. Ford, to pray. 
Mr. Hickes, Mr. Clayton, Mr. Gipps, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. 
Calamy, for the Committee of examination of ministers. 
Debate of Debate of grace of God in Baptism. The proposition 
God e in f recommitted to be reported on Friday next, 
baptism, Debate of the Law of God. 

law. Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Sed[g]wicke, visit Mr. Marshall. 

Mr. Ward, Dr. Smith, visit the Prolocutor. 

Sess. 571. January 12, 1645. Monday morning. 

Debate of Debate of the Law . . . about the Law ceremonial, and 
resumed about the meaning of the description of ceremonial and 
judicial. A Committee to consider of those propositions. 

An order for Mr. Strong to be a member of the 
Assembly. 1 

Proceed in a debate. 

Sess. 572. January 13, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Mr. Strong appeared in the room of Mr. Peake and took 
the protestation. 

Debate of Debate of the Law binding in respect of the matter (?). 
IndoT Debate of Oaths. 

oaths. 

Sess. 573. January 15, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. East be returned to the Committee as 
insufficient. 

Mr. Strickland informed the Assembly of a desire from 
the Committee for Cumberland that some ministers may be 
sent to them some that are not in orders which he doth 
the rather desire because so great a charge is laid upon 
that Committee of the Assembly by by 2 some of the 
Assembly, instancing in Mr. Burroughs. 

The Assembly cannot swerve from the rules given unto 
them. 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. pp. 392, 395. 
* Sic in MS. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES- 179 

Mr. Tuckney made report of a letter to the Commis- SKSS. 57.5. 
/sioners of General Assembly. A part of the letter not jsie 5 ' 
taken notice of in the materials, which which 1 is now added. 

It was read and debated. 

R. This letter shall be transcribed and sent to the 
Reverend Commissioners of the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland. 

Proceed in debate ' of Oaths.' Debate <>t 

R. That Mr. Marshall and Mr. Whitakers have thanks resumed. 
from this Assembly by Mr. Newcomen and Mr. Tuckney 
for the great pains they took yesterday in their sermons 
they preached before this Assembly. 

R. The three Committees do meet this afternoon. 

Sess. 574. January 16, 1645. Friday morning: 

Dr. Wincop, Mr. Price, Mr. Ward, Mr. Walker, Mr. 
Seaman, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Carter, Mr. Gibson, to attend the 
Committee of Examination, 

Mr. Strong took the Covenant and subscribed. 

Report of that Committee about Baptism. Report of Further 
that Committee about Oaths. concerning 

Debate of Baptism. baptism 

An order for Mr. Millar from the Broad Seal. 

Upon information of Mr. Pickering, 

Ordered The Chairman shall certify the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Broad Seal of the information given of his 
scandalous walking, and the insufficiency of his testimonials. 

Sess. 575. January 19, 1645. Monday morning. 

That when anything spoken in this Assembly by way 
of testimony against any minister to be examined, 2 

Ordered That when any information is given in this 
Assembly by any member of it against any minister to 
be examined, the name of the member shall not be made 
known to the party complained of or any other by any 
member of the Assembly. 

Ordered That Mr. Ley be desired to repair to the 
Chairman of the Committee of Plundered Ministers to in- 

1 Sic in MS. * This ought to have been erased in MS. 



l8o MIXUTKS OF THE SESSIONS OK 

SESS. 575. quire whether Mr. Lilly be passed that Committee, and to 
^i645 9> m f rm mm f the exceptions taken against him in this 
Assembly, and that he never had the approbation of the 
Assembly. 

Debate of the report of Oaths. 

Ordered Report of that Committee concerning Baptism 
(be taken 1 ) be made on Wednesday morning. 
Debate of Debate upon that ' what he believeth so to be.' 

Mr. Gillespie In some cases it is his duty to take it, 
though he do not believe the thing to be just. . . . Her 
Proceed in debate. 

Sess. 576. January 20, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

The Committee for Printing do meet to-morrow at i 
o'clock, and make report on Monday morning next. 
Report Mr. Coleman made report from the Committee of the 

mUtee of"" North : ' That Sir Henry Vane desired it may be reported 
North. what progress hath been made in settling the presbyterial 
government according to the Speaker's letter. . . . Also a 
reverend minister, Mr. Burnham, seated in Morpeth, the 
minister of the place is dead, and so his sequestration is 
void, he is now by the Committee removed to Durham. 
They desire he may be approved by the Assembly ; also 
they want ministers in Cumberland and Westmoreland. . . . 
Two ministers appeared before the Committee yesterday, 
only they are not in orders. They do not scruple orders, 
but would accept it if any to ordain them. The Committee 
would not send them down without orders, but desire to 
take this hint to send a message to the House of Commons 
that they would set up a way of ordination.' 

Ordered That Mr. Burnham be approved of by the 
Assembly for the third minister for Durham. 2 
Debate about moving for ordination. 
Ordered The Committee for the North of this Assembly 
do meet speedily themselves, and [consider] what may be 
fit to be done in this business about ordination, and make 
report to this Assembly on Monday morning. 
Debate about Oaths. 

1 Not erased in MS. * Or Duresme. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 8 I 

Scss. 577. January 21, 1645. Wednesday morning. SKSS. 577 

1. 21, 



'45- 



ate? 



Report from the second Committee about Baptism, 
Report from the third Committee of additional to Oaths. 
Resolved To debate the report of Oaths. abo 

1 ifn > 

Debate of additional of Oaths. an d 

Debate of the clause concerning Baptism. Dei 

upo 

Sess. 578. January 22, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Austin have a certificate upon his 
former examination. 

Report from the Committee for Printing. A letter 
from the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge. 

Ordered To go on with the report of Printing. 

Debated and votes upon it. 

Ordered To consider the letter from Cambridge to- 
morrow morning. 

Mr. Gillcspie moved to alter the title of St. Matthew, Giilespu.- 
etc., in the printing of the Bible, and some places in the j^veout 

New Testament, that prelatical men make use of, etc., as St. before 

Matthew, 

etc., in the 

Scss. 579. January 23, 1645. Friday morning. printing of 

Upon debate about Mr. Whitting, 
R. I? neg. That there shall be a general rule in this 

19 a 

case, ' That in case any man be recommended to this 
Assembly for approbation from the Committee for Plun- 
dered Ministers, who hath been formerly ejected by 
them or any other Committee, he shall not have an 
approbation from this Assembly till that Committee of 

that hath ejected him 

(Plundered Ministers) have certified his discharge from 
the accusation, and that they are satisfied concerning him.' 

R. That Mr. Whitting be not approved by this As- 
sembly till he bring a certificate fro[m] the Committee of 
Plundered Ministers that they are satisfied concerning him. 

Ordered The meeting of the stationers' business be 
respited till Thursday next, afternoon. 

R. neg. That Mr. Hardwicke attend the House of 
Commons. 



I 82 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 579. ft. This last vote shall be revoked. 
J i6 45 23 ' Mr - Wilkinson, jun., Mr. Hardwicke, Mr. Strong, Mr. 
Whitaker, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Corbet of 
M[erton College], Mr. Langley, Mr. Tisdale. 

Debate of 

Committee Ordered Mr. Palmer, Mr. Vines, Mr. Seaman, Mr. 
oftenT- lder Arrowsmith, Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Newcomen, 
porary ex- to be a Committee to consider of an expedient for present 

pedient for . , , TT ,. 

way of way of ordination, to be presented to both Houses of 
ordination. p ar ii amen t to report on Monday next. 

Sess. 580. January 26, 1645. Monday morning. 

Mr. Simpson was published to pray with the Lords the 
week following. 

Ordered Dr. Smith, Mr. Salway, give thanks to Mr. 
Rouse for his care in the business of the Psalms, and his 
respect to this Assembly. They are also to visit the Pro- 
locutor in the name of the Assembly. 

Further Debate of the proposition- concerning Baptism. Mr. 
concerning Henderson offered a proposition. 

baptism. 

Sess. 581. January 29, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Palmer and Mr. Whitakers to visit Mr. 
White. 

Ordered That Mr. Gilbert have a certificate upon his 
former examination. 

An order published for Mr. Talbot. 

Reports Mr. Coleman made report of Christian Liberty. Mr. 
I^ury made report from the Second Committee of Church 
O fficers ami Censures, 
officers and Ordered Mr. Wheatly have a certificate from the As- 
res - sembly upon his former ordination. 

Ordered The Committee for the letter to Cambridge 
to make report on Monday morning next. 
Debate of Debate of Christian Liberty. 

liberty* 11 Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Dury, Mr. Delmy, Dr. Temple, Dr. 
Gouge, added to the Committee for report about the Law ; 
to report to-morrow morning. 

Friday morning. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 183 

St'ss. 582. February 2, 1645. Monday morning. 

An order for examining the sufficiency of Mr. Mitchell. 

Ordered That Mr. Ley make certificate to the Com- 
mittee of Plundered Ministers of the great insufficiency of 
Mr. Mitchell for the place mentioned, or any other mini- 
sterial charge. 

A petition was brought from Mr. Adams, 

Ordered The Assembly cannot approve of Mr. Adams, 
except he do appear to be examined, and that he give 
good testimony of his conversation from known and ap- 
proved ministers near to the place of his last abode before 
he be approved by this Assembly. 

Report from the Committee of Printing read. 

Report made of the propositions for Ceremonial and Ju- Report 
dicial Laws committed formerly. Debate upon that report, ceremonial 

Sir Robert Harlcy brought a message from the Grand aml J udi - 
Committee to represent some doubts of theirs that there a n<i debate 
is not so clear an expression of some things in the enume- u P n lt- 
ration of scandals as, '3. Any who shall purposely buy, 
sell, give, or keep any images or pictures of the Trinity, or 
any person thereof undefaced.' Our exceptions are, you t ] ie p ape r 

leave this loose, and it reacheth to all public and private " n , scan : 
...... ,111 i daloussms. 

libraries that have books that have those pictures in them ; 

they desire clearly to express that there may be a salvo 
for this. And there are many seals by which men 
hold their estates that have those pictures in them, and so 
keeping those things, I may be subject in the letter of the 
law to scandal, and so kept from the sacrament. 

Debate upon it. 

Mr. Marshall moved to add, ' purposely keep for the 
picture's sake or for devotion's sake.' 

A Committee to consider of this. 

Ordered Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Burges, Mr. 
Rayner, Mr. Case, Mr. Byfield, to meet this afternoon, and 
to make report to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 583. February-^, i64[5J. Tuesday. 

Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Tisdale, Mr. Clayton. To pray. 

R. The names of those that are to pray with the 



184 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 583. Lords, Commons, and Committee of both kingdoms, be 
i(jl. returned to both Houses weekly. 

An order for approving three ministers for Winchester. 

Ordered Dr. Dury be approved for the place men- 
tioned. 

R. That this Assembly cannot give advice for the 
removal of Mr. Ellis from the place where he is to Win- 
chester. 

Report made by Mr. Whitakers of an addition to the 
former vote about images, 

' Any who shall buy, sell, give, or keep any images or 
pictures of the Trinity, or any Person thereof purposely 
in reference unto, and in esteem of the said pictures 
undefaced.' 

Debate upon it. 

Sess. 584. February 6, 1645. Friday morning. 

Another order was brought about Mr. Whitting. 
Report of Report of the Committee for Printing. Debate about 
Committee it d about bringing in the men. 

for printing 

Bibles, and R. That Mr. Ny and Mr. Coleman do produce those 
persons upon Wednesday next, who will do 1 the Bibles 
according to the prices 2 above mentioned upon Wednesday 
next, in the afternoon, before the Committee for Printing. 

Sess. 585. February 9, 1645. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Ward be approved upon his former certi- 
ficate. 

Dr. Gouge moved about Mr. Batchelor, his licensing of 
books, having licensed Dr. Crompton's book. 

Ordered Dr. Gouge, Dr Smith, Mr. Newcomen, be 
added to the Committee the 25th of December, to consider 
of heresies and blasphemies published and licensed, to 
meet to-morrow in the afternoon, and make report on 
Wednesday morning. 

Ordered The Committee for ordination do meet and 
make report on Thursday morning. 

1 'Print' written above 'do' in MS. 2 'Prizes' in MS. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 185 

Ordered That Mr. Cooke be approved without ex- SKSS. 585. 
amination. Kc J- 9 ' 

I() 4> 

Debate about the Ceremonial and Judicial Laws' abro- 

Debate on 
gation. abrogation 

A letter from the Committee of Cumberland about ofcere " 

i-> e-^t r monial and 

Robinson and Chambers. Referred to the Committee of judicial 
the North. 

Ordered Debate of Christian Liberty. 

Sess. 586. February 10, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Tutty be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered The Committee for the North a[nd] the 
heads of Colleges in Cambridge that are of this Assembly 
do meet this afternoon, and prepare a petition to be pre- 
sented to both Houses of Parliament for the settling of a 
way of ordination in the several presbyteries. 

Debate of Christian Liberty. Debate on 

Sir Henry Mildmay desired the Assembly to consider of 
the business of Mr. Ellis, he being appointed by the Com- 
mittee of the county to represent it to the Assembly. 

That the business concerning Mr. Ellis be taken into 
further consideration to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 587. February n, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

The order of the Committee of Hampshire was read 
again, and debate about Mr. Ellis' admission to Winchester. 

That upon the desire of the Hon ble Committee that 
moved in behalf of Mr. Ellis, that Mr. Ellis may appear 
before the Assembly to be examined, and that he do bring 
with him a testimonial of his conversation frcm known and 
approved ministers amongst whom he hath last lived. 

Ordered That the Committee that wrote for Mr. Ellis 
be certified by some members of the Assembly, that in 
case they do insist upon the approbation of this Assembly 
for his being at Winchester, that the Assembly cannot 
determine for him till they have spoken with him and 
received further satisfaction concerning him, and till he 
have performed the order of the Assembly in bringing 
sufficient testimonials from known and approved ministers 



I 86 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 587. where he last resided and now is, and have satisfied the 
^645!' Assembly in the reasons of his removal from a pastoral 
charge to a sequestration, and, if they think fit he should 
come up, that this day three weeks be the day of his 
appearing at the Assembly. Mr. Guibon, Mr. Ward, do 
give notice of this to Sir Henry Mildmay. 

Further Debate of Christian Liberty. 
debate of 

Sberty!" 1 Sess - 5 88 - February 12, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Ward be approved on his former certificate. 
Dr. Gouge made report that the men could not meet 
about the prices of Bibles. 

Ordered That in case Mr. Ny and Mr. Coleman do not 
bring forth their men upon Monday next in the afternoon, 
the Assembly will take the offer of the Stationers into 
further consideration. 

Upon debate 
Petition to That a petition be drawn up to both Houses of Parlia- 



Parliament ment to ^jg purpose 'whereas it hath pleased the Hon ble 

concerning 

ordination. Houses of Parliament to pass an ordinance for Ordination 
of Ministers in the several classical presbyteries, there is an 
extraordinary necessity that this should forthwith be put 
into execution, therefore the presbyteries may be com- 
manded to be settled as to that purpose and to act as to 
that part, and that where there cannot at the present be 
any presbyteries settled, the next presbytery adjoining 
may have power to ordain for those that want, and humbly 
to desire that the rest of the government with all con- 
venient speed may be settled.' 

Ordered Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Mr. 
Arrowsmith, to draw up this petition presently. 

A testimonial was brought for Mr. Millar. 

R. The Assembly is not satisfied with this testimonial 
concerning Mr. Millar. 
Further Debate of Christian Liberty. 
Christian Mr. Reynolds made report of a petition to both Houses. 1 

liberty. 

1 This petition is given in the Journals of the House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 
1 66 ; the substance of the speech made by Dr. Smith in presenting it is given 
in the Journals of the House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 443. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 87 

Sess. 589. February 13, 1645.- Friday morning. 
Mr. Scudder, Mr. Cheynell, Mr. Guibon, [to pray], 
Dr. Smith informed the Assembly the House of Com- 

mons were not then at leisure, but would . . . 

Lords give thanks for their care, and they will presently Petition 

take the business into consideration, and they had appointed Panted 

a speedy day for it. 

Ordered Mr. Carrill have the certificate of the Assembly 

upon his former approbation. 

Mr. Burges, Mr. Vines, Dr. Temple, Mr. Ash, Mr. Cheynell. Toexa- 
Dr. Burges moved concerning that speech in the As- r 

sembly, that the ' covenant was made use of as a staff to 

beat all sorts of men.' 

R. - ' The speech spoken yesterday in this Assembly Coleman's 
by Mr. Coleman, a member of it, viz. : that the covenant to covenant 
is made use of to beat all with, or words to that effect, is dious SCan ~ 
scandalous/ 

R. \ Added, ' both to the Parliament and Assembly.' 
Mr. Newcomen's words if this brother had not added 

obstinacy to deny his folly yesterday. 

That the occasion of his words was as a reason against 

the putting in of those words into the petition according 

to our solemn covenant 

Sess. 590. February 16, 1645. Monday morning. 

Mr. Pickering to pray in the House of Lords the week 
following. 

Dr. Smith made report from the House of Commons. Petition 
They had delivered the petition, and they would take it to 



into consideration on Wednesday next the day appointed mons - 
for religion. 

Debate about Christian Liberty. 

R. The former vote for not recommitting revoked. 

R. That this whole head of Christian Liberty shall be Head of 

. Christian 

recommitted. liberty 

R. This shall be recommitted to a select Committee, recommit- 

ted. 
Ordered Mr. Seaman, Mr. Newcomen, Dr. Temple, 

Mr. Dury, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Ward, Mr. 



I 88 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 590. Cawdry, Mr. Cheynell, Mr. Delmy, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Sedg- 
F i64- l6> wicke Mr - Conant, Mr. Wilkinson, jun., to meet to-morrow 

in the afternoon. 
Debate Debate of the Church about those words, ' [a]nd, are, 

concern!] 

the 

Church. 



concernm s . .. , 

the or shall be. 



Sess. 591. February 17, 1645. Tuesday morning. 
Mr. Ley made report from the Committee for Printing, 
of one Mr. Bently that undertakes 
R. j" This question shall be put. 

R. ^ The prices 1 offered by the Stationers, and the price 1 
offered by Mr. Bently, shall be both expressed in our peti- 
tion to the Parliament. 

That some reasons for the trusting of the Stationers of 
London, or the two Universities, with the printing of the 
Bibles at their rates be also expressed in the same petition. 

These two questions put successively. 

The Parliament shall be moved. 

R. y neg. The Company of the Stationers of London, 
and the two Universities, shall be trusted at the rates 
offered by the Stationers of London. 

That for this purpose reasons shall be given in the 
petition. 

Mr. Hodges enters his dissent Mr. Newcomen enters his 
dissent Dr. Burges, the Prolocutor, enters his dissent Mr. 
Gouge enters his dissent. Dr. Temple enters his dissent 
Dr. Smith enters his dissent Dr. Hoyle enters his dissent 

Mr. Ley also. 

A letter from the ministers of York, enclosed in a letter 
to the Lord Fairfaxe ; it was read. 

That this be communicated to the Committee of the 
North, with desire that they would take some course for 
the acquainting of the House with it, if they in their 
wisdom shall think fit 

Report of the Committee of the Communion of Sacra- 
ments. 2 

1 'Prizes' and 'prize,' as elsewhere, in MS. 

2 Apparently 'sacr ts' in MS., but probably for 'saints.' See Sess. 597. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIYLXF.S. I 89 

Sess. 592. February 20, 1645. Friday morning. ^KSS. 592 

Feb. 20, 

Mr. Pickering, Mr. Rayncr, Dr. Hoyle. 

Ordered Mr. Tristam Hinsham (?) have his certificate TO p^iy. 
without coming up. 

Mr. Delamarch, Mr. Newcomcn, Mr. Carter of D[udley], 
Mr. Hodges, Mr. Perne, to examine in the Committee of 
Examinations. 

Sir Henry Mildmay informed the Assembly that Mr. 
Ellis was without, to be examined by the Assembly. 

The former order concerning the day of Mr. Ellis, his 
appearance in this Assembly, shall be revoked. 

This last Q[uestion] shall be put. 

R. The business concerning Mr. Ellis shall be now 
taken into consideration, notwithstanding the former order 
of the Assembly for the day of his appearance. 

Ordered Dr. Gouge, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Hodges, Mr. 
Ny, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Seaman, to go out to examine Mr. 
Ellis. 

Dr. Gouge made report from Mr. Ellis, 'brought in 
reasons of his removal, and he hath given us satisfaction, 
and is to bring in "... 

R. The Assembly is satisfied in the reasons brought in 
for Mr. Ellis, his remove. 

This Assembly hath received satisfaction concerning 
Mr. Ellis for the present, and that in case there be no 
further information concerning him by the day appointed 
in the former order of the Assembly, then this approba- 
tion shall be certified to the Hon ble Committee of Plun- 
dered Ministers. 

Mr. Ellis bring in under his hand, . . . that in case any 
have anything to say . . . 

Sess. 593. February 23, 1645. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Watts his certificate be respited till 
Thursday morning, if nothing be objected then . . . 

Ordered That Mr. Holland be examined. 

That the Committee for Printing shall take into con- 
sideration any such propositions that 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 593. A letter was brought from the ministers of Essex and 
i6 4 ? 3 ' read, and the originals brought in. 

Sir Henry Mildmay moved again in behalf of Mr. Ellis. 
Ellis A paper was brought in from Mr. Ellis, was brought in 1 

approved. and read in the Assembly, and 

R. That Mr. Humphrey Ellis be approved by this 
Assembly to preach and officiate in the Cathedral Church 
of Winchester. 

R. That the minister that brought this letter shall be 
called in [and] have thanks both for himself and the rest, 
from whence he comes, according to the effect of the 
ministers of London['s] letter. 

They were called in. Prolocutor spake unto them ac- 
cording to the former vote. 

The Committee for Christian Liberty to meet on Thurs- 
day. 

Further Ordered To the First Committee, in chief heads, 
Session Christian Sabbath, the Civil Magistrate, iMarriage and 

distributed Divorce. 

threeCom- To the Second Committee, Certainty of Salvation, Lies 
mittees. an( j Equivocation, the State of the Soul after death. 

To the Third Committee, the Resurrection, the Last 
Judgment, Life Eternal. 

Debate Debate of the report of the Church. 

ofthe P r Lord Lauderdale acquainted them with a letter from 
Church, the Parliament of Scotland. It was read twice. 

' Marstiall desired the Prolocutor to signify that we 



liament of are sensible of the great respect this Parliament of Scot- 
Scotland. th}s Assembly 



Ordered That it be performed accordingly. 

Acknow- The Prolocutor accordingly : My Lord, though I can- 

Prolcv by not b ut acc o unt it matter of great joy to have the honour 

cutor. to be so often the mouth of this Assembly in things so 

acceptable to the Assembly, but 2 I count it a great alloy- 

that I am to do it, and cannot do it with that thankfulness 

as it requires. ... It is a great happiness that that ancient 

kingdom should now at length bring forth so much fruit 

in old age, and that it should bring forth so much fruit to 

1 Sic in MS. ! Perhaps 'yet.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. I 9 i 

this kingdom with so much affection, constancy, expense SKSX 593. 
of treasure and blood, and that not in any particular cause ' j^? 3 ' 
or quarrel from self [ish] ends, but as proceeding from a 
public spirit, aiming at the glory of God. . . . The great 
affections expressed to the Hon ble Houses of Parliament 
matter of great rejoicing, and the affections now declared 
in the ack[nowledg]ing of our poor endeavours . . . our 
own modesty or deserts could hardly have expected or 
reached unto. . . . That they have declared their zeal for 
God and our Church, we want words [to] say what 
becomes us. ... I doubt not but this expression, together 
with all others, shall have this effect upon our hearts and 
spirits, that in all our addresses at the throne of grace . . . 
in all ready and cheerful performance of our vow and 
covenant, ... as becomes the servants of Jesus. 

Sess. 594. February 26, 1645. Thursday morning. 
Debate of the visibility of the Church. . . . To the Debate of 

Mr. Ny, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Carter, enters his dissent assure!/ 
an article of faith. N y and 

An order from the Lords for printing the Answer of the others dis- 

i i r T^- T-> -11 sent ' roin 

Assembly [to the Dissenting Brethren]. 1 this being 

made an 

Sess. ^.-February 27, 1645. e ' 



Mr. Greenhill, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Spurstow. To pray. 

Ordered That Mr. Watts be examined. 

Debate of the Church. Further 

Ordered Mr. Ley certify the insufficiency of Mr. Adams. JjJjSJ, ec |jJj 

church. 

Sess. 596. March 2, 1645. Monday morning. 
Debate of the Church. Debate 

Dr. Surges moved, in consideration of the pains taken 

by a learned member of the House of Commons, 

Ordered Dn Burges, Dr. Smith, Dr. Temple, Mr. Ley, Thanks to 

Mr. Burges, Mr. Mainard, Mr. Wilkinson, to give thanks Mn Leigh ' 



to Mr. Ley for his worthy pains in his book Critica Sacra, 
and his respect to this Assembly in his dedication. 
Proceed in debate of the Church. 

1 Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. p, 185. 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 597. 

March 3, 

1645- 



Debate of 
the com- 
munion of 
saints. 

Letter from 
Scotland. 



Srss. 597. Marcli 3, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

The Assembly entered on the debate of Communion of 
Saints. 

A letter from the Commissioners of the General As- 
sembly of Scotland read. Prolocutor by order of the 
Assembly gave thanks to the Lord Warriston. 

Lord Warriston . . . 

Ordered The Committee that drew up letters to the 
Commissioners of the Church of Scotland do prepare a 
letter in answer to the letter now received. 

Proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 598. March 4, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Upon a motion that Mr. Rastall, having been ordained 
by the Bp. of Lincoln, since the ordinance passed, 

R. That Mr. Rastall shall have his certificate. 

Debate of Communion of Saints. 

Ordered That Mr. Gore have a certificate by the scribe 
of the Assembly without examination, and that this be no 
precedent for the future. 

Ordered The Committee for Liberty meet in afternoon. 

Ordered The First Committee to meet in afternoon 
about the Church. 

Sess. 599. March 5, 1645. Thursday. 

A petition was offered from Mrs. Barker about the print- 
ing of the Bibles, because it was proper for the Assembly. 

Report from Dr Gouge about the Church recommitted. 

Mr. Prophet made report of Religion and Worship. 

Debate of the additional proposition in Communion of 
Saints against restraining the duties only to members of the 
upon them. p ar ti c ular congregation. Resolved to be waived. 

Debate of the report of the Church. 

A petition from the merchant booksellers about the 
printing of the Septuagint. 

Ordered The former Committee do recommend this to 
both Houses of Parliament. 1 

1 This matter was first brought under the notice of the House of Commons 
by the Assembly on 3d January 1644-5, when a Committee, with JohnSelden 



Further 
debate of 
commu- 
nion of 
saints. 



Various 
reports on 
heads of 
Confes- 
sion, and 
debates 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 193 

Sess. 600. 1645. Friday. SKSS. 600. 

1645. 
Mr. Bridge, Mr. Case, Dr. Gouge, to pray. 

R, That Mr. Smith be examined. 

Debate about the Church instituting of ecclesiastical Debate 
government, g^ 

'That J[esus] C[hrist] as K[ing] and H[ead] of His andinstitu- 
Church hath appointed an ecclesiastical government in ecciesias- 
His Church in the hand of Church Officers distinct from tlcal S~ 

vernment. 

the civil government. 

Sess. 60 1. March 9, 1645. Monday morning. 

Mr. Reynolds moved in behalf of Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Tuckney, 
enter their dissent to the approbation of Mr. Wood. 

Ordered That Mr. Ley do move the chairman of the 
Committee of Plundered Ministers that Mr. Wood's certifi- 
cate from this Assembly may be respited for a day or two 
till the Assembly do give a further account concerning it. 

Debate of the proposition. Debate of 

Mr. Coleman moved to pass the proposition brought in j^oTthat 
by the Committee, which would pass without any question. Jesus 

m/r /" i -r r T r- -i Christ as 

Mr. Coleman Before 1 can enter [injto any argument King and 
[I wish to know] if I dispute against this proposition Head > etc - 
whether I might without breach of covenant and charge of 
perjury make such a dispute. 

It was debated. . . . To the argument, 

Mr. Coleman The Church of the New Testament doth 

as Convener, was appointed ' to consider of the best course for the speedy 
printing of the ancient copy of the Septuagint in His Majesty's Library,' and 
then in the custody of Mr. Patrick Young. This 'ancient copy' was the 
famous Alexandrian Codex presented to Charles I. by the Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. Patrick Young, or Junius, the Keeper of the King's Library 
(who sought the aid of the Assembly and Parliament to enable him to give 
the text of this MS. to the world), was a Scotchman, and an M.A. of the 
University of St. Andrews, who had been incorporated into the University of 
Oxford, and was regarded by Wood as the most learned Grecian of his time. 
In July 1645 a pension of .400 per annum was voted to him by the House 
of Commons, and in January 1647-8 this was commuted for a single payment 
of 2000. He only lived to edit the Epistles of Clement, and specimens of 
the text of the Old Testament. His Annotationes on the Pentateuch up to 
Numbers xv. were printed in vol. vi. of Walton's Polyglott. 

N 



194 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 601. not hold out any such distinction betwixt civil and ecclesi- 
M i64S 9 ' astical Called to prove the matter. 

C. If [so] then either in the xviii. of Math, or v. Cor. or 
continued, some other Scripture . . . Neither of those Scriptures hold 
out two distinct governments. 

Mr. Ny It will not follow they must be held out both 
in one place ; there is the fallacy. 

Mr. C. Called to prove the major that it must hold 
them out in the ... If you mean that where the magistrate 
is heathen, then the Church government must be distinct, 
Yields the I yield the proposition. . . . There is a necessity on prin- 
tiorfwhere ciples of nature and Christian prudence that the Church 
the magis- have a distinct government. ... If you take government, as 
heathen, you do, distinct from the doctrinal part, then I deny it to be 
distinct from the civil magistrate. . . . Instance in the xviii. 
of Matthew, there is not a distinct government by appoint- 
[ment]. . . . There is no government there, for no party 
named in whom the government is, and no act of govern- 
ment by that person, nor anything else. . . . Both are denied 
be[cause] not a sufficient enumeration. The minor if 1 a 
person then either a private person, or the two or three, or 
the church to whom he doth appeal, but neither of those 
are not 2 the subject of government ... if in this Scripture 
there be no act of government at all ... There is no act of 
government be[cause] no act at all appointed to be done 
by this church. ... If the nomination of the church makes 
him the subjectum capax, then the party offended is the 
subjectum capax. . . . Consequence is denied. ... If nothing 
be said of one that is not said of the other, then there is no 
more regimen to one than another. . . . The minor is denied 
... If the party's being acquainted with that is the only 
thing, [it] is said of the one and the other, but . . . The minor 
is denied. . . . 

Mr. Gillespie Three things said of the Church that is 
not said of the party. 

Mr. C. True, there is a difference in order . . . Let 
him be to thee as a heathen or publican, I deny that 
. . . whereas we speak concerning this no act ... it is 
1 Perhaps 'is.' 2 Sic in MS. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 195 

supposed in relation to government . . . There is nothing SESS. 601. 
said that the Church did not any one act. If there be no ' ^l y ' 
one act at all that the Church did or might do by virtue 
of the precept in this place, then there is nothing said con- 
cerning the Church that is not said . . . The minor is denied, 
to that of might do. ... If there be something that the 
Church might do by virtue of this place, then some com- 
mand from Christ to do it ; but Christ hath not com- 
manded anything in this place to be done. 

Mr. Seaman Two things set down in the text do 
suppose necessarily a third thing that must intervene. 

Mr. C. If Christ have given any precept, then the 
Church hath power to exercise any jurisdictive act upon 
his contumacy. . . . The consequence is denied be[cause] 
the Church hath a power before it come to contumacy, for 
this contumacy cannot be judged till some other act do 
pass upon it. ... If the Church hath here any authoritative 
act, then the hearing the Church is an authoritative act. 
... If those words, Let him be to thee a heathen and a 
publican, be not a Church act, then it is not a Church Admits 
censure . . . Both propositions denied. ... It is confessed Church 
that here is no Church censure, but suppose Church cen- supposed 

7 though not 

Sure, 272 hOC acquiesCO. expressed. 

Ld. of Warwick desired ministers to be supplied for the 
summer fleet. 

That the members of the Assembly think of some of 
their acquaintance and propound them to the Assembly, 
that there may be a return to the noble Lord. 

Ordered To proceed in this debate on Friday. 

Report of the Sabbath. 

Debate of Religion and Worship. Debate of 

religion 
and 

Sess. 602. March 10, 1645. Tuesday morning. worship. 

Ordered That Mr. Sarson have a certificate without 
coming up to be examined, in regard much of his time for 
absence from the College is almost expired. 

Ordered That Mr. Watkins have his certificate. 

Debate of Religion and Worship. Debate 

resumed. 



196 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 602. Mr. Seaman made report of Christian Liberty and 

March 10, T , c ^ 

l6 .. Liberty of Conscience. 

Ordered Mr. Smith have his certificate. 

Scss. 603. March 13, 1645. Friday morning. 

Ordered That no testimonial be received in this As- 
sembly without a date. 

Ordered That Mr. Atwood Rotheram shall have his 
certificate. 

Debate Mr. Coleman How unwilling I was and am to this 

jsumedon O pp os jtj on> this whole Assembly will bear me out, and . . . 
tion, 'That I foresee the consequent will not be so good * as was desired. 
Christ as I was f tne Committee, and brought in a proposition 
King and that \ suppose will pass nemine contradicente. I move 

Head of . , . 

His again that that may be put to the Q. I suppose this will 

Church,' not be thought fit to be in the Confession of Faith. . 

etc. _ 

(Sic.} I desire to premise this word ; I entreat that we may not 
have any ill terms. . . . Only recapitulate one word given by 
Repeats way of answer. If they will confirm 2 now, the argument is 
sion* : ' at a * * an en d> v ' lz - tne jurisdictive power is not expressed in 
this text, but supposed. . . . Concerning the word power, I 
hesitate, but will not litigate ; but if you mean only a de- 
clarative power. . . . 

Mr. Marshall I hope the Assembly doth very well 
remember what the argument and words were. 

Mr. Rayner You might draw this to a short conclusion 
concerning this text ; this brother doth deny only a 
jurisdictive power. . . . Called to order. . . . 

I oppose the answer as not sufficient. . . . 

Desired to go on in a continued discourse. 

Mr. Coleman I have contracted my thoughts to four 
things, whether this place holds out an ecclesiastical juris- 
dictive power in the Church to proceed to censure ; for the 
negative those four things. As I rise in number, so in 
strength. . . . i. Here is no expression of it. ... Where there 
is power given, there it is expressed clearly. For the Old 
Test. I think that Scripture ' if he will not hear the priest 
or judge:' there is the particular censure. In the New 

1 In MS. god. 2 Or conform. s Sic in MS. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 197 

Test, 2 Thess. iii. [14], 'if a[ny man],' etc. ... 2. This SESS. 603. 
is Era[s]tus, let him be to thee, (z.) 1 the same thee meant March J 3, 

, in former verses. Nothing follows upon the contumacy 

of the party but to leave the party offended to take 
what course he pleaseth. ... 3. ' As a heathen and publi- 
can,' this can be no Church censure, or consequent of a 
Church censure, for then it must be an exclusion 
from Church ordinances. I. Concerning the publican ; 
if publicans were not excluded from any Church ordi- 
nances then, . . . for I can for this give such a demon- 
stration as I challenge any man living to give an answer. 
It is this : he was an Israelite. It's answered that there 
were publicans that were not Israelites. ... 2. For the 
heathen ; said publican from civil, heathen from spiritual, 
but I say both of them must be of one. . . . The ordinances 
and duties of Israel were of two sorts : either ceremonial 
or moral. C. 2 (z'.) 3 offerings, M. 2 (z.) 3 prayer and praises of 
God. Concerning the first, to some of those the heathen 
were admitted as to the free-will offerings ; but for the moral 
duties, it was not their vice, but their birth, that excluded 
from them. For the moral duties, to all those duties the 
heathen were admitted, as I King. viii. 41 ; so that a 
heathen had liberty to come to perform any moral duties 
of piety, and had a place appointed them in the Temple 
for those ordinances. . . . Add parallel places in the New 
Testament, as xii. John certain Greeks came up to worship 
. . . xiii. Act. 42, Scaliger Gentiles adorabant imtnolabant . . . 
4. To interpret this scripture ' be a heathen and a publican ;' 
this makes this to be contrary to another scripture. Com- 
pare it with 2 Thess. iii. 14. Hearing in both, the same 
punishment, in both, the same consequent is contrary one 
to another ; ' count him not as an enemy, but admonish 
him as a brother ' . . . I appeal to that book of Church 
government by Divine Right, 4 230 page, 2 50 p. ... If he that 

1 For i.e. - C[eremonial], M[oral]. * For i.e. 

* The Divine Right of Church Government and Excommunication by Samuel 
Rutherford. It bears the date of 1646, but the Scotch commissioners in Eng- 
land appear to have followed the Scotch practice, and dated the commence- 
ment of the year from 1st January, while the English still deferred it to 2$th 
March. 



198 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 603. is excommunicated must be accounted a publican and a 
Ma j r g * 3 ' heathen, that is an enemy, but if this place of Thess. say . . . 
That which makes a man an enemy is not excommunica- 
continued. tion, but to be a publican and sinner is to be an enemy. 

Mr. RutJierford I conceive I have this argument very 
Pp. 230, often in that book. . . . He who refuseth to hear the Church 
and before was esteemed a brother, but now upon his 
refusal is to be esteemed as a heathen and publican, is ex- 
communicated. The major proposition I prove out of the 
definition of all our divines, the minor out of the text. . . . 
For the two places . . . Calvin and Beza, Baines and Pis- 
cator, expound that place of excommunication, but this 
Assembly hath voted that place of suspension from the 
See also sacrament of the Lord's Supper. . . . There is no contradic- 
DueRigkt t j on between those two. ... to be as a publican and ad- 

Oj ^fcS" A 

byteries, p. monished as a brother. . . . These two differences . . . I. 
The party thus cast out is under the medicine of the 
Church, and therefore but ' as a heathen.' ... 2. In respect- 
ing him as a heathen, the Church is to intend that he may 
may be gained, which is a spiritual end, and therefore the 
Holy Ghost should say he is to be esteemed so. . . . ' Ad- 
monish as a brother' is not inconsistent with that of a 
heathen and publican. . . . To admonish as a brother is 
actus juris nature as a brother, but not as Church brother. 
He builds much upon the word heathen and publican ; 
they are taken copulative, and not distributive. . . . We lay 
the last weight upon the word publican as separated from 
heathen, but take them both together. ... To thee, (i.} to 
(Sic in MS.) any man, for so the whole law is is ... A publican is esteemed 
a profane and flagitious man. Said they were not excluded 
from Church ordinances ; but he should have proved that 
dejure they were not excluded. . . . Publicans and heathens 
so remaining were excluded and secluded from many, and 
he saith it was for their birth, and not for their vice. ... If 
for their birth, then it was typical that in the New Testa- 
ment those that are not brethren in a church fellowship are 

certainly (?) to be excluded, xliv. Ezek. 8, 9 Though 

the heathen at some times were admitted to some, yet it 
proves that there was a sort of debarring, and is not this a 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 199 

sort of debarring? . . . But he hath not told us what is SF.SS. 603. 
meant by the word Church if the Sanhedrim meant . . . ~ I;5> 
Said there was not such a thing as a Christian Church 
when Christ uttered the same word xvi. Matth. ; there was continued. 
not then a Christian formed Church, but in the xvi. of 
Matth. he must mean a Christian Church not the San- 
hedrim, for then the sense must be, I will build my San- 
hedrim upon this rock, and the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against the Sanhedrim. 

Mr. Gillespie The strength of the argument is no juris- See Gil- 
diction. If all this were true, it is not against the proposi- Aaron's 
tion that Christ hath instituted a government distinct . . . Rod Bios- ^ 
For his four particulars . . . Said this place doth not m. c h. 2, 3. 
express any censure. . . . To prove it, he cites two places 
where the power is express ; xvii. Deut. ... A. The parallel 
is made in this particular ... It is not said the judge shall 
put him to death. He may bring it from other scriptures. 
... It holds out that he shall die, but by whose hand is not 
said. . . . That of 2 Thes. iii. 14, ... if ' to thee' be meant of a 
private man, then it implies a contradiction, that Christ will 
have one and the same person, to be so to one single per- 
son and a brother to the whole Church. ... I take an Erasti 
argument of Erastus to prove that the whole Church 7% ^ 
should forgive the offender when he testifies his repent- ii. p. 158. 
ance, be[cause] Christ commands this to a private brother, 
xvii. Luke. The same thing commanded to one must be a 
duty to the whole Church. . . . ' To thee ' is not meant only 
of a particular person, but he must be to the whole Church 
by this necessary consequence. ... If one single person 
must be so to a single brother when he offends, then much 
more when he offends the whole Church, . . . otherwise 
Christ gives more power to one single person than He 
gives to the whole Church. . . . For his third, said heathens 
and publicans were not excluded from public ordinances. 
. . . This brother can never prove that heathens and publi- 
cans were not excluded from Church ordinances. . . . Said 
publicans were Israelites ; all Israelites were not admitted 
to ordinances. . . . Philo and Josephus both say profane, 
notorious, scandalous sinners were debarred from the 



2OO MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 603, Temple, publicans, (i.e.) prophane and scandalous publi- 
Ma jS St I3> cans. That of the publican that went up to the Temple 
to pray that might be atrium Gentilium, often called 
continued, the Temple. . . . ' Even as this publican,' an emphasis in 
that, a publican that was not a profane, scandalous man. 
. . . For the point of the heathens it cannot be proved ; for 
that of Scaliger, I deny it not, but admit it as true. They 
had not a fellowship in Church ordinances as Church mem- 
bers. . . . They were admitted as Proselytes when the[y] 
gave proof of their piety. . . . For the 4th : The seeming 
contradiction betwixt xviii. Matth. I only add this place 
is taken for an argument. . . . 

Mr. Lightfoot I think both the opponent and answerer 
do not take up the right sense. . . . Publicans amongst the 
Jews had as free access to the Temple as any Jew what- 
soever. The reason of their offence was their office, 
betrayers of their own nation into slavery : they were not 
secluded from the Temple. . . . Not as heathens came to 
the Temple, but when proselytes. . . . The sense of it in 
this place is not in reference to admission or suspension 
from the public ordinances, but in regard of civil con- 
verse. 

Mr. Seaman Whatsoever becomes of this place, the 
argument is not strong against the proposition. Though 
there were no excommunication, yet there may be a 
government. ... I suppose he grants the word Church 
relates to a Church Assembly. ... As touching those 
arguments he brings, be[cause] there is nothing ex- 
pressed, we deny this consequence, for many places 
where power is implied, and yet no censure set down. . . . 
He will say he grants it quoad nos. ... It is considerable 
how this text hath been interpreted in all ages ; this made 
use of with reference to all ecclesiastical assemblies. . . . 
For that of heathens and publicans, I wonder at the con- 
fidence of the brother. . . . For that of the opposition 
betwixt xviii. Matth. [and Hi.] Thess. there is a distinction 
about excommunication. Those places have no contra- 
diction at all. 

Mr. Lightfoot . . . 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2OI 

Mr. Coleman Said grant it doth not hold out excom- SESS. 603. 
munication, then it doth not hold out. . . . ^645 ! 3 ' 

Mr. Vines Saith x there is no particular expressed. . . . 
There is no sin expressed, and yet there is an offence. . . . continued. 
There is no enumeration. ... 2. Here is a particular 
expressed. ... I. A declaration to be made or informa- 
tion to be given to the Church, and then some act of the 
Church upon it declarative he allows. . . . And that there 
is a particular by way of sentence be[cause] there is an 
execution of that sentence. This is not an arbitrary thing, 
but in way of putting in execution the sentence of the 
Church. . . . For the 2d, Christ having spoken in the im- 
mediate coherence about seeking a lost sheep, He comes 
in with this, ' if thy brother shall offend,' showing how the 
Church should gain a lost brother, and seek 2 (?) him, a 
lost sheep. . . . And this must needs be a Church act. . . . 
A brother what, a Jew brother ? No, a Christian brother. 
What should Christian brothers do before the Sanhedrim ? 
. . . Gained thy brother, (z.) 3 brought him to repentance 
. . . from a sin sinned against God, and so Christ pursues 
the same thing in coherence. . . . For the way of bringing 
this man unto repentance, it is here set down. . . . The 
Church must bring this man to repentance for his sin, if 
he will not be gained. . . . ' To thee,' saith he, no Church 
act. ... A. Not to thee, till he have not heard the Church, 
so that some sentence of the Church must go before. . . . 
To thee it is in the second person, but that is the result 
of his not hearing the Church. . . . ' Verily I say to you, 
whatsoever [ye shall] bind on earth.' He doth not speak 
this to me, but of the Church that binds him. Those are 
still upon the same process and proceeding. ... It is not to 
repair an injury in matter of meum and tuum, but to bring 
him to repentance. . . . For heathen and publican, said 
taken both in a notion. We say he deals with me as a 
Jew and Turk. . . . For his last argument 'contrary to 
another text.' . . . The proper work of excommunication 
is not so much to throw men out, as by the throwing out 
to bring them in. 

1 Sic in MS. * Or save. 3 For i.e. 



2O2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 603. Mr. Palmer His argument is for an enumeration. It 
^L/ 3 ' is n t a good argument to say, here is no censure, and 
therefore no power, Tit. iii. I. . . For his second 'let him 

Debate 

continued, be to thee,' though primarily it may be meant of a parti- 
cular wrong. . . . but there is consequence, that be[cause] 
Christ doth direct His speech to them whom He spoke to 
first, therefore no Church censure. ... Is it a punishment 
or not ? . . . Christ's meaning is not here, to prescribe any 1 
for satisfaction of a particular wrong, . . . but of gaining a 
man to repentance. ... In the v. of Matth. Christ saith, 
' if a man smite thee on the one cheek, turn the other.' . . . 
It seems to be acknowledged by him, that the Church 
here was the Church Christian. ... I desire to know 
whether this be a precept or no, or a permission. If a 
precept, what kind of precept is it ? Had it its being 
aforehand ? . . . Where is this in all the Old Testament ? 
... It is so far from being a worldly recompense, that this 
be a course to put me into worse condition than I was ever 
in before. . . If a precept, whether it be a perpetual precept 
or no, written for our learning, for the Sanhedrim was not 
long-lived. It was not the heathen magistrate, be[cause] 
the apost[le] forbids it. ... When was this precept written ? 
Spoken when Christ was upon earth, but written many 
years after by Matthew. Did not this gospel concern all 
Christians ? ... If it be Church Christian, then here must 
be a censure. . . . The meaning of that is, let there be no 
familiar converse between thee and them. 

Mr. Mainard I desire to satisfy my conscience. That 
which most sticks with me it seems to me to be almost 
cardo questionis, whether this be a command, and what that 
Church is spoken of. ... Said this must be that Church 
which Christ spoke of 'upon this rock I will build my 
Church.' The word Church doth trouble us more than it 
need. ... It cannot be understood of the same ; for there 
Christ speaks of His Church from the foundation of the 
world to the end of it the universal Church. 

Mr. Seaman . . . 

Mr. Gillespie . . . 

1 Perhaps a wy for a way. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2O 

Mr. Vines For that of xvi. Matth. and 18 [v.] I am of SESS. 603, 
his sense, in that it is meant of the invisible Church, but it 
may be meant of the Christian Church. . . . For personal 
injuries, ... let us prove what is here meant in bringing a continued. 
man from his sin to repentance. 

Ordered Proceed in the debate, Monday morning. 

Scss, 604. March 16, 1645. 

[The leaves following in the MS. down to fol. 140, the 
last of the first fascicle, are blank, with the exception of 
three lines of shorthand jottings on fol. 1 36.] 



2O4 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 601. Sess. 60 1. March 9, I645- 1 Monday morning. 

March 9, 

'645- Mr. Reynolds moved, that in regard that Mr. Wood had 
lately in his absence passed the approbation of the As- 
sembly, against whom he conceived there was great cause 
of exception, that he might have liberty to enter his dis- 
sent ; and accordingly Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Seaman, Mr. 
Tuckney, and Mr. Palmer, did enter their dissents as to 
the approbation of Mr. Wood. . . . Upon farther debate 
concerning him, it was Ordered that Mr. Ley do move the 
chairman of the Committee ' of Plundered Ministers,' that 
Mr. Wood's certificate from this Assembly may be respited 
for a day or two, till the Assembly do give a further account 
concerning him. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the proposi- 
govem- tion, ' That Jesus Christ, as King and Head of His Church, 
handVof ^ atn appointed an ecclesiastical government in His Church, 
Church i n the hand of Church officers, distinct from the govern- 

officers. - , ... . , 

ment of the civil magistrate. 

Mr. Coleman moved to pass the proposition brought in 
by the Committee, and not to debate this proposition ; but 
that being not hearkened unto, because of the order of the 
Assembly for this debate, he moved again, that before he 
did enter upon the debate, the Assembly would determine 
whether, if he did dispute against the proposition, he might 
do it without breach of covenant and charge of perjury. 

1 This minute is the commencement of the second fascicle of the volume, 
extending from f. 141 to f. 237 of the MS. (ff. 141-143 and 234-237 being 
left blank), and from Session 601 to Session 900. Mr. Thompson says, ' It is 
evidently a fair copy, drawn up by Byfield at his leisure ; and the reports of 
Sessions when he was absent are still written in bis hand.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2O5 

This was debated, and the Assembly thought not fit to SESS. 601. 
pass any resolution upon that, it being free to any member " "545?' 
of the Assembly to speak his conscience in the Assembly ; 
and so he was called unto the argument. 

His argument he framed to this purpose : The Church Mr. Cole- 
of the New Testament doth not hold out any such dis- a "^ eiu 
tinction betwixt civil and ecclesiastical government. If it against. 
do so, then it is either in the xviiith of Matth., or i Cor. v., 
or in some other Scripture ; but neither of these Scriptures 
doth hold out two distinct governments, ergo . . . He began 
with the xviiith of Matth., and the debate of this session 
was upon that Scripture syllogistically. After debate, 
because Mr. Coleman could not be in the Assembly the 
next day, it was ordered to proceed in the debate of this 
Scripture on Friday. 

Report was made ' of the Sabbath.' 

Ordered To debate the report ' of Religion and 
Worship.' 

Sess. 602. March 10, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Sarson have a certificate without 
coming up to be examined, in regard that he cannot be 
dispensed with for his absence from the College. 

Ordered That Mr. Watkins have his certificate. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of Religion and Debate of 
Worship ; and upon debate it was 

Ordered That the head of Religion be laid aside. 

Ordered That the title be ' of Religious Worship.' 

This proposition was debated : ' The ingested principle 
and dictate of a natural conscience in man concerning a 
Deity having lordship and sovereignty over all, doth incline 
him to give the chiefest reverence and worship thereto.' 
Resolved upon the Q[uestion], the word ' incline' shall not 
stand. The rest was referred to farther debate. 

Mr. Seaman made report of * Christian Liberty and 
Liberty of Conscience.' 

Ordered That Mr. Smith have his certificate. 



206 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 603. Sess. 603. March 13, 1645. Friday morning. 

March 13, 

1645. Mr. Goodwin. 

Ordered That no testimonial be received in the As- 
sembly without a date. 

Ordered That Mr. Atwood Rotheram shall have his 
certificate. 

Mr. Cole- The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the former 
man re- proposition, according to the order of the Assembly ; and 

sumes his J 111-11 

argument. Mr. Coleman, after some offers to lay the debate aside and 
return to the proposition of the Committee, according to 
the desire of some in the Assembly, proceeded to urge 
what he had to say upon the xviiith of Matth. against the 
proposition ; unto which many answers were given ; and 
upon the desire of Mr. Coleman, that he might have time 
till the next session to gather up what had been spoken, 
and to give answer to it, it was referred to a further debate 
the next session. 

Sess. 604. March 16, 1645. Monday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate ; and after a 
large debate, it was 

Ordered To proceed in the debate the next session. 

Sess. 605. March 17, 1645. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Tuckney and Mr. Wilson do visit 
the Prolocutor. 

The Assembly proceed [ed] in the debate upon the 
xviii th of Matth. After a full debate, it was 

Assembly Resolved upon the Q., that the arguments brought by 
arguments t ^ le R- everen d Brother, Mr. Coleman, against the proposi- 
answered. tion in debate, have been answered. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 606. March 18, 1645. Wednesday morning. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Wood, it was Respited till 
those brethren that spake concerning him do come into 
the Assembly. 

Ordered That the Committee for Plundered Mini- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 207 

sters be moved in the behalf of Mr. Good, a member of SESS. 606. 
this Assembly, that he might be put in the sequestration iLc 1 ' 
of Bushey, as fit for the said place. 

An order was brought into the Assembly for the admit- berof 16 ' 
ting of Mr. Johnson a member of the Assembly, in the A ssembly. 
room of Mr. Carter, deceased. 1 He was called in and 
took the Protestation. 

The Assembly called to the order of the day to pro- Objections 
ceed in the debate. Mr. Coleman was not present. The tiorTby 03 
Assembly proceeded in the debate upon occasion of some members 
other objections made by some members of the House of fCom- 
Commons ; and after some debate, it was respited to m 
further debate. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 607. March 19, 1645. Thursday morning. 

Upon information in the Assembly by some members, 
it was 

Ordered That the Committee for Plundered Ministers Wood's 
be desired that the certificate given from this Assembly ^ t ^. ca 
for Mr. Wood may be withdrawn. drawn. 

The Assembly being informed that Mr. Coleman was 
not well, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Strickland and Mr. Valentine do 
visit Mr. Coleman in the name of this Assembly. 

Upon a motion about the Assembly asserting the jus Divine 
divimim of Church government, it was debated ; and upon Church 
debate of this Q., ' whether there shall be a Committee to govern- 
search the votes of the Assembly, to find out what the 



Assembly hath asserted in the point of Church govern- c urch 

i i T- . T-. T officers. 

ment, which is jure divino, it was Resolved negatively. 
Upon the offer of something else instead of the former, it 
was Resolved upon the Q., That this Question shall be 
put. Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a Committee 
to prepare something for the Assembly to assert the jus 
divinum of Church censures, and in whose hands jure 
divino these censures are. Resolved upon the Q., This 
Committee shall not be but five. Resolved upon the Q., 
1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. pp. 458, 459. 



2O8 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 607. This Committee shall be seven, and no more, or any 
Ma $ s . I9 three of them. 

Ordered That Mr. Vines, Mr. Palmer, Dr. Temple, Mr. 
Tuckney, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Reynolds, 
shall be this Committee, to meet to-morrow in the after- 
Scottish noon. The Commissioners of Scotland are desired to be 
Smer?" present at this Committee. 

Sess. 608. March 20, 1645. Friday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Prophet and Mr. Gibson do move 
the Committee for Plundered Ministers in the behalf of 
Mr. Good for Bushey. 

To pray. Mr. Greene, Mr. Gower, Mr. Tuckney, were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following. 

Mr. Strickland informed the Assembly, that he did visit 

Coleman Mr. Coleman, who returns thanks to this Assembly. He 

bu7wishes ' 1S verv i^- ^ e desires to be heard further in the argument, 

to continue when he shall be able to come unto the Assembly, and 

' therefore desires the Assembly would leave that debate 

till his coming. 

Scruples of Upon a motion made by Mr. Marshall, that since an 
conscience Ordinance of Parliament was now published for Church 

as to Par- 
liamentary government, speedily to be put in execution ; and since 

" there were some things in that Ordinance which did lie 
very heavy upon his conscience and the consciences of 
many of his brethren ; though he did bless God for the 
zeal in the two Houses expressed in settling of Church 
government, yet being much pressed in heart with some 
things passed in that Ordinance, that the Assembly would 
consider what is fit to be done in this business. Upon 
debate it was 

Ordered That Mr. Marshall, Mr. Vines, Mr. Seaman, 
and Mr. Newcomen, should be a Committee to consider 
what in point of conscience may press this Assembly to 
make their humble address to the Parliament, by way of 
petition ; and they are to prepare a petition to that pur- 
pose, and to make report to this Assembly. Accordingly 
they withdrew to prepare the petition, and the Assembly 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2OQ 

proceeded in the debate of Religious Worship ; and upon SESS. 6oS. 
debate it was ^'o^ 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The light of nature showeth 
that there is a God, who hath lordship and sovereignty over 
all, and is therefore to be worshipped.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' but the acceptable worship of 
the true God is ordained and limited by the revealed will 
of God Himself.' 

Mr. Marshall made report of a petition to be presented 
to both Houses of Parliament. It was read and debated ; 
and after some few alterations in it, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That this shall be transcribed 
and sent up to both Hon ble Houses of Parliament. 
Resolved upon the Q. That it be presented to both Houses 
of Parliament by a Committee of the whole Assembly. 
Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Marshall do present it 
to both Houses. 

Ordered That it be presented on Monday morning. 

Sess. 609. March 23, 1645. Monday morning. 

The Assembly met, and adjourned to carry up the Petition 
petition and return again. They met again, and Mr. P resented - 
Marshall informed the Assembly that he had delivered 
the petition to the House of Commons, and they had 
appointed Friday next to take the petition into considera- 
tion, both for the matter and manner ; and also to the 
House of Lords, and they had appointed a set day to take 
the petition into consideration. 1 

1 This petition, like so many others |drawn up by the Assembly, is not 
inserted in their minutes ; but it is so important to the understanding of sub- 
sequent occurrences, that it is here given at length, from the Journals of the 
House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 232 : 

To THE RIGHT HONOURABLE HOUSE OF PEERS ASSEMBLED IN 
PARLIAMENT, 

The humble Petition of the Assembly of Divines, now sitting by Ordinance 
of Parliament at Westminster ; 

Humbly skeweth, 

That your petitioners cannot but with joy remember the marvellous good- 
ness of God, in calling and continuing this Parliament in the time of this 
nation's greatest trouble and danger, and in making it singularly useful 

O 



2IO MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 609. Ordered That Mr. Topham have a certificate upon his 
f rmer approbation. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Rochet shall not have 
his certificate. 

Ordered That if nothing of exception come in against 
him upon Thursday next, that then he have his certificate. 

Sess. 610. March 26, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Johnson be added to the Committee 
for the North. 

Report was made from the Committee about the Magis- 
trate. It was read. 

Debate of The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Religious 
Worship ; and upon debate it was 

Ordered ' Religious worship is to be performed unto 
God alone, and is not to be given to any creature/ 

towards the saving of these Three Nations from the bondage of tyranny and 
idolatry, by taking off many yokes and burthens, both in matters of Religion 
and of Civil concernment, by laying the foundations and beginnings of a 
positive reformation, and by engaging this kingdom in that Solemn and 
Sacred League and Covenant, which, with our hands lifted up to the Most 
High God, we have sworn ; and, as we esteem ourselves always bound to 
acknowledge these and many other blessings, which the God of heaven hath 
made this Honourable Parliament His instruments to convey unto these 
poor kingdoms, with all affectionate thankfulness to God and to the Honour- 
able Houses, so we profess ourselves the more obliged hereby to show all 
active readiness to promote all the commands of Parliament tending to 
Reformation of Religion ; and that nothing but conscience of our duty to God, 
to yourselves, and the souls of the rest of our brethren, the people of the 
Lord, could excuse us in any seeming backwardness to act according to your 
Vote and Ordinances leading thereunto. Yet are we, to our grief, con- 
strained at this time, in all humility and faithfulness, to represent to the 
Honourable Houses, that there is still a great defect in the enumeration of 
scandalous sins, very many scandalous sins ordinarily committed in all places, 
and formerly presented by your Petitioners, being still omitted ; and that the 
provision of Commissioners to judge of scandals not enumerated, appears to 
our consciences to be so contrary to that Way of Government which Christ 
hath appointed in His Church, in that it giveth a power to judge of the 
fitness of persons to come to the Sacrament unto such as our Lord Christ 
hath not given that power unto; and also layeth upon us a necessity of admit- 
ting some scandalous persons to the Sacrament, even after conviction before 
the Eldership, and to be so differing from all example of the best Reformed 
Churches, and such a real hindrance to the bringing of the Churches of God 
in the three kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and uniformity, and in all 
these respects so disagreeable to our Covenant, that we dare not practise 
according to that provision ; and we do evidently foresee, that such Com- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2 I I 

Having finished the Report of Religious Worship, the SESS. 610. 
Assembly entered upon the Report of Christian Liberty, "l^f ' 
etc. ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., This shall be the title, ' Of Debate of 
Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience.' Resolved mJrtyand 
upon the Q., ' The liberty which Christ hath purchased lib erty of 
by His death for believers.' Resolved upon the O., There 
shall be no addition after the word ' death.' Resolved upon 
the Q., ' under the gospel consists, especially in freedom 
from the guilt and power of sin, from bondage to Satan, 
from the condemning wrath of God, from the ceremonial 
and judicial law, and from the curse of the moral.' Re- 
solved upon the Q., ' as also in a right, title, and interest 
in justification, adoption, and eternal life, with all the 
means tending thereunto ; that we might not only be 
delivered out of the hands of our enemies, to serve Him 

missioners will not only be offensive to the Reformed Churches abroad, but a 
discouragement to those amongst ourselves who are or shall be chosen elders, 
and a stumbling-block to very many of our best and conscientious people, 
who have long waited for Reformation, and are endangered to be cast upon 
the snare of separation, and no way left to reduce them or others who are 
already fallen into it ; Insomuch that we cannot forbear to profess our fears of 
God's sad displeasure if this should be continued, and the just imputation of 
sin unto us, if we, who have been held worthy by the Honourable Houses 
to be called to give them Advice in matters of Religion, should altogether hold 
our peace at this time. 

Wherefore your Petitioners, in discharge of their fidelity to God, to His 
Church, and to your Honours, do humbly pray, that the several elderships 
may be sufficiently enabled to keep back all such as are notoriously scandalous 
from the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, of which we must, as formerly in 
our Petition we have done, say [it] expressly belongeth to them by divine right, 
and by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ, which, with the help of 
superior Assemblies, in cases of appeal or mal-administrabion, will prevent 
(through the blessing of God) all the feared inconveniences ; and the Magis- 
trate (to whom we profess the Church to be accountable for their proceedings 
in all their Elderships and Church Assemblies, and punishable by him with 
civil censures for their miscarriages) may be so abundantly satisfied of the 
righteousness and equity thereof, as we still hope God will inspire the Honour- 
able Houses with such wisdom and zeal, as by their authority to strengthen 
the hands of his Officers in their duties herein, and even to command them to 
act zealously and faithfully in them. 

And your Petitioners shall pray, etc. 

CORNELIUS BURGES, Prolocutor pro tempore. 

JOHN WHITE, Assessor. 

HENRY ROBOROUGH, Scriba. 

ADONIRAM BYFIELD, Scriba. 



2 I 2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 610. without fear, but have access with boldness to the throne 
' of g race > and be filled with Jy and peace in believing.' 

Ordered That the Committee for ihejus divinum make 
report on Tuesday. 

Ordered That Mr. Rochet have his certificate. 

Sess. 611. March 27, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Case, Mr. Good, Mr. Hickes, were appointed to pray 
with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both kingdoms. 

Upon some debate about Mr. Wood, and a paper of infor- 
mation brought into the Assembly against him, it was 
Mr. Wood. Ordered That this Assembly doth not think fit to do 
anything with this information against Mr. Wood, but 
desire it may be referred to the Committee for Plundered 
Ministers ; and the Assembly doth declare that this As- 
sembly did never either send unto him, or receive any 
advice from him. 

Ordered That this Assembly is not satisfied with Mr. 
Bunning his testimonial. 

Monsieur Upon a debate about Monsieur Deperier, who desires 
epener. ^ e a pp ro b a tion of the Assembly to be admitted to a 
French Church, and a letter brought from Sir Theodore 
Meherne concerning him, it was 

Ordered That this business be referred to the French 
Church, as being not proper for the Assembly to inter- 
meddle in, and that Sir Theodore Meherne be acquainted 
with this, that the Assembly cannot intermeddle with this 
business. 

Mr. Marshall made report of a paper 1 from the Com- 
missioners of the Church of Scotland. It was read. 

Ordered That Mr. Dickes have a certificate upon his 
former approbation. 

Ordered That the Committee for a letter to the Com- 
missioners of the Church of Scotland do prepare a letter 
in answer to the letter last received ; and they are to take 
notice of the letter from the Parliament, and of this paper 
brought in this morning. 

1 Eeported to Lords and Commons the same day, but not engrossed in their 
Journals, nor in MS. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2 1 3 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Liberty of SESS. 6n. 
Conscience ; and upon debate it was 'To^ 27 ' 

Ordered ' None may practice any sin, or cherish any 
lust, or oppose any lawful power, or the lawful exercise of conscience, 
it, whether it be civil or ecclesiastical, upon pretence of 
Christian liberty, the liberty which is of Christ's procur- 
ing, and the powers which are of God's ordaining, not 
being opposite, or intended by God to destroy, but mu- 
tually to uphold and preserve one another.' 

The Assembly was informed that some Aldermen and 
others of the Common Council were without, desiring to 
deliver a message to the Assembly. They were called in ; 
and Alderman Foulke did, in the name of the Lord invitation 
Mayor, Common Council, and city of London, invite the fromTord 
Assembly of Divines to dine with the two Houses of Par- Mayor, 
liament at Grocers Hall, on Thursday next. They with- 
drew, and the Assembly accepted of the invitation, and 
ordered they should be called in, a[nd] have thanks given 
by the Prolocutor in the name of the Assembly, which was 
accordingly done by the Prolocutor. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 612. March 30, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Dickes have his certificate upon his 
former examination. 

The Assembly was invited to Mr. Coleman his funeral. Mr. Cole- 
Ordered That the members of the Assembly do attend an ' s 

J funeral. 

Mr. Coleman his funeral in the afternoon. 

An order was read from the House of Commons about 
Paul Best, for some members of the Assembly to speak 
with him, and labour to convince him. It is as fol- 
loweth 1 . . . 

Ordered That Mr. Millington is to be desired to give 
power to send for him to the Assembly. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Liberty of Debate of 
Conscience. The next proposition, viz., ' They who re- ^f^* 
quire absolute and blind obedience unto all superiors in science. 
all things for conscience sake, do destroy liberty of con- 

1 Not in MS., but given in Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 493. 



214 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 612. science and reason,' was debated ; and upon debate it 

March 30, 

j6 45 . was 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' in all things,' shall 
not stand. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' and reason,' shall 
stand. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the proposition shall be put 
to the question. 

Resolved upon the Q. ' They who require absolute and 
blind obedience unto superiors for conscience sake, do 
destroy liberty of conscience and reason.' 

Resolved upon the Q. There shall be an addition. 

Resolved to recommit it to bring in an addition. 

Sess. 613. March 31, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Paul Best * was brought before a Committee of the 
Assembly. He persisted in his errors. 

1 Though so frequent reference is made to Paul Best in these minutes, there 
is no detailed statement of the heretical opinions with which he was charged. 
This omission, however, is supplied in the Journals of the House of Commons, 
to whose bar he was repeatedly brought. Under date 4th April 1646, we 
have the following entry : ' Paul Best was brought in by the Serjeant to the 
Bar, and kneeled, the Serjeant standing by him on the outside of the Bar. 
Mr. Speaker commanded him to stand up, and acquainted him that he was 
brought to the Bar, upon information given to this House of some horrid 
opinions maintained by him in writing, and wished him to hearken to what 
he should be charged with by a member of the House. Mr. Millington stood 
up, and charged the said Paul Best with several horrid blasphemies, proved 
against him before a Committee of this House, to whom the examination of 
his crimes was referred and delivered in the charge, and the books that were 
sent up with the said Paul Best. Mr. Speaker told him that he was to give 
answer to the charge. Paul Best, standing at the Bar, answered, that he 
acknowledged the holy and heavenly Trinity, and doth not speak against it, 
but hoped to be saved by it ; but said further, that he denieth the Triper- 
sonality of Athanasius, and that it is Romish and Popish, and doth detest it 
till he be otherwise convinced. Diverse other questions arising from the 
matter of his charge were appointed by the House to be propounded to him 
by Mr. Speaker : which were propounded to him accordingly, and particular 
answers given by him to the said questions, wherein he did deny, that the 
Godhead of Jesus Christ is co-equal, co-eternal, and co-existent with the God- 
head of the Father.' 

A Committee of the House was appointed to deal with him, and also a 
Committee of divines, who held repeated conference with him. But they 
do not appear to have succeeded in convincing him of his errors ; and though 
he was kept in prison, he was so far from being intimidated by this, that 
he published soon after a pamphlet, bearing the pungent title, ' Mysteries 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2 I 5 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of ' Christian SESS. 613. 
Liberty and Liberty of Conscience.' Upon debate it was Mar <: h 3*, 

Resolved upon the Q., Not to recommit the rest of 
the Report. 

Sess. 614. April 3, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Delmy, Mr. Johnson, and Mr. Clayton were ordered 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms. 

The Assembly returned to the debate of the proposition ^ ba te of 
concerning ' the Church.' Diverse arguments against the Govern- 
proposition in debate were urged by Mr. Lightfoot, both ment> 
out of the Old Testament and the New, and diverse 
answers were given by several members of the Assembly. 
After a large debate it was, upon the motion of Mr. Light- 
foot, 

Ordered To proceed in the debate on Tuesday morning. 

Sess. 615. April^, 164.6. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Tutchin have a certificate without 
coming up unto the Assembly to be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Glisson be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Morton have his certificate without 
coming up to be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Paine's examination be respited till 
this day seven night, unless satisfaction be given before. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate ' of the Sab- ? eb t ? of 

the Sab- 
bath ; and upon debate it was bath. 

Resolved upon the Q., The title shall be, ' Of the Sab- 
bath day.' Upon some debate about this proposition, 
' Light of nature teacheth that a time be set apart for the 
solemn worship of God,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall not stand. 

Resolved upon the Q., That something be spoken in 
this proposition concerning the light of nature. 

Discovered, or a Mercurial Picture, pointing out the way from Babylon to 
the Holy City, for the good of all such as, during that night of general error 
and apostasy, have been so long misled with Rome's Hobgoblins. ' This was 
ordered to be burned by the common hangman, and the ordinance previously 
brought in for punishing him was again considered, but does not appear to 
have been finally passed. 



2l6 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 615. Resolved upon the Q., 'Light of nature teacheth that 
1646. ' some set times be observed for the worship of God.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' God in His word hath ap- 
pointed one day in seven for a Sabbath to be kept holy 
unto Him.' 

Ordered 'which from the beginning of the world to 
the resurrection of Christ was the last of the week, and 

Sic in MS. R 

from the resurrection to the end of the world the first of 
the week.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' consisting of 24 
hours,' shall be waived in this place. 

Sess. 6 1 6. April 7, 1646. T^lesday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate ordered for the 
day ; and after a large debate it was referred to further 
debate. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 617. Aprils, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proposi- 
tion ; and after a large debate it was referred to further 
consideration. 

Sess. 6 1 8. April 9, 1646. Thursday morning. 
Barton's An order was brought from the House of Lords about 
Mr. Barton's Psalms. It was read, and is as followeth * . . . 

Ordered That Mr. Palmer, Dr. Temple, Mr. Tuckney, 
Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Ny, Mr. Strickland, shall be a Com- 
mittee, to consider of an answer to the order of the Lords, 
and to make report to the Assembly with convenient 
speed. 

Mr. Marshall having this morning presented his book 
written against Mr. Tombes unto the Assembly, and 
dedicated it unto them, it was moved that thanks might 
be given to Mr. Marshall, for his great pains and respect 

' Upon reading the petition of Mr. William Barton, concerning his trans- 
lation of his Book of the Psalms, it is Ordered to recommend the same to the 
Assembly of Divines, to certify to this House why these Psalms may not be 
sung in churches as well as other translations, by such as are willing to use 
them.' Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 236. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2 1 7 

to this Assembly in his dedication ; which was accordingly SF.SS. 618. 

done by the Prolocutor. 

Upon some debate about the proposition, it was 
Resolved upon the Q., To proceed upon the affirmative 

arguments to confirm the proposition. Accordingly, the 

Assembly debated the affirmative proofs ; and upon debate 

it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' These scriptures, i Cor. xii. 28 ; The 

Acts xx. 17, 28 ; i Thess. v. 12 ; I Tim. v. 17 ; Heb. xiii. Chu ^h 

' * ' ' and its 

7, 17 ; do prove that Jesus Christ hath appointed some to govern- 
rule in His Church who are not civil magistrates ; and 
hath committed unto them a government which the people 
are commanded to yield obedience unto, distinct from the 
civil government.' 

Ordered That Mr. Palmer, Dr. Temple, Mr. Tuckney, 
Dr. Smith, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Price, be a Committee to 
put these texts, or any other texts or arguments, into 
form, to prove this proposition, and to make report to- 
morrow morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Lowther be approved for the North. 

Sess. 619. April 10, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Sterry, Mr. Gipps, Mr. Burroughs, were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms. 

Upon some debate about Mr. Gobbert, the Assembly 
would not meddle with it, because not referred to the 
Assembly by the Committee. 

Report was made from the Committee for drawing up of Proofs for 
the arguments for the proof of the proposition recommitted church 
the former session. It was read and debated, and upon distinct 
debate, the first proof, viz. ' Because Jesus Christ hath magis^ 1 
appointed officers in His Church, who are not civil magis- trates. 
trates, and yet by Him are appointed to rule, and the 
Church is commanded to obey and submit unto them.' 
The Scriptures also for the proof of the same were resolved 
upon. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left. 



2l8 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 620. 

April 13, 

1646. 



Proofs of 
Church 
govern- 
ment. 



Sic in MS. 



Sess. 620. April 13, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Good have a certificate for Bushey, 
as other members of the Assembly. 

Ordered That Mr. Paine have his certificate. 

A letter was brought from the ministers of Norfolk. It 
was read, and is as followeth . . . 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the 2d proof 
for the proposition, viz. 'Because we find in Scripture 
several acts of government, which these officers of the 
Church are directed to do, commended for doing and 
blamed for neglecting.' This proposition together with 
the proofs, upon debate were also assented to. 

Ordered That Mr. Herle, Mr. Gower, Dr. Smith, Mr. 
Goodwin, be added to the Committee for the proof of the 
proposition. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 



Sess. 621. April 14, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Report was made of a third proof for the proposition, 
viz. 'Because the Church of Christ for more than two 
hundred years had had no government at all unless they 
had had a church government in the hand of officers of 
their own, distinct from the civil government.' This proof 
was debated, and upon debate assented unto. The three 
proofs are as followeth. . . . 

Ordered That the Committee do proceed in the pre- 
paring of arguments for the proof of the proposition. 

Ordered That Mr. Ley, Mr. Gower, Mr. Herle, Mr. 
lous books. Newcomen, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Case, Mr. Ward, 
Mr. Byfield, and Mr. Hodges shall be a Committee to 
consider of and to inquire after those scandalous books 
written and licensed against the Government and the 
Assembly, and they are to meet this afternoon, and to 
make report to this Assembly. 

Sess. 622. April 15, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proposi- 
tion ; and Mr. Palmer urged another argument for it from 



Proofs of 
Church 
govern- 
ment. 



Scanda- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2IQ 

the xviii th of Matth. It was debated, and after a large SESS. 622. 
debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., This text of Matth. xviii th doth 

,-, ... i r Church 

prove the proposition before us. govern - 

Ordered That this be drawn up by the former Com- ment - 
mittee against to-morrow morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Reynolds be added to this Com- 
mittee. 

Sess. 623. April 16, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Mr. Sedgwick was dispensed with for his attendance for 
a time for his health's sake. 

Ordered That Mr. Beaumont be approved without 
coming up to be examined. 

The Committee for drawing up the argument from the 
xviii. of Matt[hew] made report that they could not finish 
their Report so soon as was desired, but hoped to be ready 
by the next sitting. Mr. Palmer urged another argument 
from the I Cor. v. It was debated, and upon debate it 
was 

Resolved upon the Q., This text of I Cor. v th chap, 
doth prove the proposition in debate. 

Ordered This argument be referred to the same Com- 
mittee to put it into form. 

Ordered That Mr. Vines be added to the Committee. 

Mr. Gippes craved leave to go into the country for a 
little time. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 624. April 17, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Walker, Mr. Herricke, and Mr. Herle were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Johnson be approved of without 
coming up to be examined. 

Another argument was urged for the proof of the pro- 
position from the xvi th of Matth. It was debated and 
waived as a distinct argument in this place. 

Ordered That Mr. Marshall, Mr. Herle, Mr. Hodges, Distribu- 



220 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 624. Dr. Temple, Mr. Walker, Mr. Gower, Dr. Smith, Mr. 
A ?646. 7 ' Whitakers, and Mr. Spurstow shall be a Committee to 
dispose of the -400 from the Committee of the Revenue. 

tion of 

Sess. 625. April 20, 1646. Monday morning. 

Report was made from the Committee for the disposing 
of the ^400. The names were read without the sums ; 
and it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The paper with the sums shall 
not be read ; but upon a second motion it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The former vote shall be re- 
voked ; and accordingly the names and sums were read. 

Ordered That consideration shall be had of the widows 
of the members of the Assembly in the next distribu- 
tion. 

In the further debate of the proofs for the proposition, 
an argument was urged from I Tim. iii. and I Peter v. ; 
but upon a motion to add no further 1 proofs, be[cause] the 
former proofs were sufficient, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The question shall be put. 

Resolved upon the Q., That no more arguments shall be 
urged for the proof of the proposition. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the rest of the 
report concerning the Church, and in particular of the 
necessity of discipline to the wellbeing of a Church. 

It was Referred to further debate. 

Sess. 626. April 21, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That the Committee for Mr. Barton's Psalms 
do meet in the afternoon, and make report to-morrow 
morning, 

Debate of Tne Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Report 
tSd e d" concernin g the Church. This proposition was debated: 
cipline. 'Ecclesiastical discipline is very necessary for the well- 
being of Churches, yet not so necessary as that the want 
of it, or defect in it, should make a Church to be no 
Church.' 
Resolved upon the Q., To proceed no further at this 

1 In MS. , fruther is added after further. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2 2 I 

time in the matter of discipline or censures of the Church, SESS. 626. 
as to the being or wellbeing of the Church. Al i64.6 '' 

Upon debate of the next proposition, viz. ' In visible 
Churches there hath always been a mixture of good and 
bad persons, which yet is no sufficient ground of separa- 
tion,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To waive that proposition at this 
time in this place. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 627. April 22, 164.6. Wednesday morning. 

Because the Committee for Mr. Barton's Psalms had not Barton's 
met to prepare a Report, three of them were sent out of Psalms - 
the Assembly to make it ready, and report it presently. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Report 
' of the Church ;' and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Although the Church hath many church. 
and great privileges, especially in respect of having the 
Word of God, the Holy Scripture, committed to it, and of 
the assistance of God's Spirit to understand and hold forth 
that truth, yet the purest Churches on earth are subject to 
error.' 

Resolved upon the Q., The word ' interpret' shall not be 
added to the word ' understand.' 

The Committee made report of an answer to the House Barton's 
of Lords about Mr. Barton's Psalms. It was read ; and Psalms - 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To be transcribed and sent to 
the Lords as the answer of this Assembly to their order. 
Mr. Carter, jun., enters his dissent to this vote of sending 
up this answer to the Lords. 

Ordered That Mr. Walker, Mr. Strickland, and Mr. 
Newcomen do carry this answer to the Lords. 1 

1 This answer is not inserted in the Minutes, but it has been preserved in 
the Journals of the House of Lords, and is as follows : 

To THE RIGHT THE HOUSE OF LORDS ASSEMBLED IN PARLIAMENT. 

The Assembly of Divines received April Qth from this Honourable House 
an Order, bearing date March 2Oth, 1646, to certify this Honourable House 
why the translation of the Psalms made by Mr. Barton may not be used and 



222 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 628. Sess. 628. April 23, 1646. Tlmrsday morning. 

i646 2 ' The Assembly entered upon the debate of the Report 
- concerning ' Church Officers ;' and upon debate it was 
officers. Ordered The title ' Of Church Officers and Church 

Censures.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The Church being the house of 
God, is to be under a spiritual government/ 

Resolved upon the Q., ' which belongeth to such Church 
officers as Jesus Christ hath appointed and are lawfully 
called thereunto.' 

Ordered When Christ ascended He gave gifts unto 
men for the good of His Church ; to which He gave some 
apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, which were 
extraordinary ; and some others, which are ordinary. 

The next proposition, viz. ' The officers which now are 
of an ordinary and continual use are pastors and teachers, 
elders, deacons,' was debated ; [and] it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' This proposition shall not now 
be debated.' 

Resolved upon the Q., The rest of the Report concern- 
ing Censures shall be now debated. 

Resolved upon the Q., 'Those that are rulers of the 
Church have the keys of the kingdom of heaven com- 
mitted to them, to shut it against the impenitent, and open 
it to the penitent sinner,' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' both by the ministry of the word 
and by censures and absolution respectively as occasion 
requires to retain or remit sins.' 

sung in churches, by such as shall desire it, as well as any other translation ; 
do humbly return this answer : That whereas on the I4th of November 1645, 
in, obedience to an order of this Honourable House concerning the said Mr. 
Barton's Psalms, we have already commended to this Honourable House one 
translation of the Psalms in verse, made by Mr. Rouse, and perused and 
amended by the same learned gentleman, and the Committee of the Assembly, 
as conceiving it would be very useful for the edification of the Church in 
regard it is so exactly framed according to the original text : and whereas 
there are several other translations of the Psalms already extant : We humbly 
conceive that if liberty should be given to people to sing in churches, every 
one that translation which they desire, by that means several translations 
might come to be used, yea, in one and the same congregation at the same 
time, which would be a great distraction and hindrance to edification. 
Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. pp. 283, 284. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 223 

Ordered ' The ends for which censures are to be inflicted Si.ss. 628. 
are to purge the leaven out of the Church, which might 164^' 
infest 1 many,' 

Ordered 'to vindicate the honour of God and the 
holy profession of the gospel, and to reclaim and regain 
the sinner.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' To this purpose they are to pro- 
ceed to admonition, suspension from the sacrament for a 
season, and excommunication from the Church, as the 
cause shall require.' 

Ordered 1 To debate the Report 'of the Civil Magistrate.' 

Sess. 629. April 24, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Mew, Mr. Thorrowgood, Mr. Arrowsmith, were 
appointed to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Com- 
mittee of both kingdoms, the week following. 

The Assembly debated the Report ' of the Civil Magis- 
trate.' 

Ordered The title ' Of the Civil Magistrate.' 

Ordered ' Magistracy is ordained of God for the good, 
safety and tranquillity of the people.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' It is lawful for a Christian to Civil 
bear the office of a civil magistrate being called thereunto.' 

Resolved upon the Q., The word 'rightly' shall not be 
added before the word ' called.' 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no addition to 
the proposition last voted. 

Upon debate of the next proposition, viz. ' No foreign 
power hath or ought to have superiority and authority 
over magistrates in their own dominions,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., This proposition shall be re- 
committed to the same Committee. 

Sess. 630. April 27, 1646. Monday morning. 

Upon an order from the Committee of Plundered 
Ministers, nominating a minister for Bath, it was 

Ordered That the Committee for Plundered Ministers 

1 Or infect. 



224 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 630. be desired to have a special care about the said place, it 
Pg 6 27 ' being a place of great consequence. 

Ordered That Mr. White's business be respited till 
Thursday morning for further consideration. 

Debate of Report was made from the Committee of the proposi- 
magis- tion concerning the ' Civil Magistrate.' It was debated ; 
and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The Pope hath not, nor ought 
to have, by any title or pretence whatsoever, any power 
or jurisdiction over magistrates in their own dominions, or 
over any of their people.' 

Ordered ' It is the duty of the civil magistrate, accord- 
ing to his place, to take order that the ordinances of God 
in His Church be duly settled, administered, and observed.' 
This order was, upon debate, altered thus : 
Resolved upon the Q., 'Although the civil magistrate 
may not challenge authority and power of ministry of 

Sic in MS. R 

divine offices, nor the power of the keys in the Church, yet 
he hath authority, and it is his duty, according to his place, 
to take order that the ordinances of God be duly settled, 
administered, and observed,' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'and that able and faithful 
ministers be provided throughout his dominions.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall not stand, 
' and that they and the people do their duty, and be kept 
from violence and contempt.' 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 631. April 30, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Man be examined, and his certificate 
stayed for a few days. 

Ordered That Mr. Bayley have his certificate. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. White shall not be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Cole have a certificate without 
coming up to be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Blany be respited till further satis- 
faction. 

Ordered That Mr. Watts be respited till he bring a 
better certificate. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 225 

A Committee from the Hon ble House of Commons came SESS. 631. 
to the Assembly by order from that House to acquaint 
the Assembly that they had broken the Privileges of 
Parliament in the late petition, presented to the House of privileges 
Commons in the name of this Assembly, against the Com- of Parlia - 

ment by a 

missioners lately established by ordinance of Parliament, petition. 
Sir John Evelyn, Mr. Nathaniel Fi[en]nes, and Mr. Browne 
spoke in the Assembly, 1 and gave the sense of that House 
concerning the said breach of privilege. After their 
speeches, Sir John Evelyn acquainted the Assembly, that 
the House of Commons had commanded them to deliver 
to this Assembly certain questions, which they desire to 
be satisfied in by the Assembly of Divines, and the Order 
of that House thereupon, 2 which was read by himself, and 

1 Notes of their speeches will be found in Fascicle III. 

a The following are the famous Questions, and the Order of the House of 
Commons regarding them : 

Whereas it is resolved by the House of Commons, that all persons guilty 
of notorious and scandalous offences shall be suspended from the sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper : The House of Commons desires to be satisfied by the 
Assembly of Divines in these Questions following : 

I. Whether the Parochial and Congregational Elderships appointed by 
Ordinance of Parliament, or any other Congregational or Presbyterial Elder- 
ships, are jure divino and by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ, and 
whether any particular Church government be jure divino ; and what that 
government is ? 

II. Whether all the members of the said Elderships, as members thereof, 
or which of them, are jure divino and by the will and appointment of Jesus 
Christ ? 

III. Whether the superior Assemblies or Elderships, viz. the Classical, 
Provincial, and National, whether all or any of them are jure divino and by 
the will and appointment of Jesus Christ ? 

IV. Whether appeals from Congregational Elderships to the Classical, 
Provincial, and National Assemblies, or to any of them, and to which of them, 
arejure divino and by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ ; and are their 
powers upon such appeals jure divino and by the will and appointment of 
Jesus Christ? 

V. Whether CEcumenical Assemblies are jure divino ; and whether there 
be appeals from any of the former Assemblies to the said CEcumenical jure 
divino and by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ? 

VI. Whether by the Word of God the power of judging and declaring, 
What are such notorious and scandalous offences for which persons guilty 
thereof are to be kept from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and of con- 
venting before them, trying, and actual suspending from the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper such offenders accordingly is either in the Congregational 
Eldership or Presbytery, or in any other Eldership, Congregation, or Per- 

P 



226 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



Day of 
humilia- 
tion 
ordered. 



SESS. 631. afterwards read by the scribe. After the reading of this 
Ap i6 1 6' the seconcl time the Assembly adjourned to the next 
session. 

Sffss. 632. May i, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Calamy, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Seaman, were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms. 

The paper brought from the House of Commons yester- 
day was read again. Upon a motion made by Mr. Palmer 
it was 

Ordered That a day of humiliation be kept by this 
Assembly in this place the next week, in reference to this 
great business that now is before us. 

Resolved upon the Q., that Tuesday next shall not be 
the day. 

Resolved that Wednesday next shall be the day of our 
humiliation. 

Ordered That five be employed in the work of that 
day. 

sons ; and whether such powers are in them only or in any of them, and in 
which of them/r<? divino and by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ? 

VII. Whether there be any certain and particular rules expressed in the 
Word of God, the Elderships or Presbyteries, Congregations or Persons, or 
any of them, in the exercise and execution of the powers aforesaid ; and what 
are those rules ? 

VIIL Is there anything contained in the Word of God, that the supreme 
Magistracy in a Christian State may not judge and determine, What are the 
aforesaid notorious and scandalous offences, and the manner of suspension for 
the same : and in what particulars concerning the premises is the said supreme 
Magistracy, by the Word of God, excluded ? 

IX. Whether the provision of Commissioners to judge of scandals not 
enumerated (as they are authorized by the Ordinance of Parliament) be con- 
trary to that way of Government which Christ hath appointed in His Church, 
and wherein are they so contrary? 

In answer to these particulars, the House of Commons desire of the 
Assembly of Divines their proofs from Scripture ; and to set do*vn the several 
texts of Scripture in the express words of the same. It is Ordered that every 
particular minister of the Assembly of Divines, that is or shall be at the debate 
of any of these Questions, do upon every Resolution which shall be presented 
to this House concerning the same, subscribe his respective name, either with 
the affirmative or negative as he gives his vote : And that those that do 
dissent from the major part shall set down their positive opinions, with the 
express text of Scripture upon which their opinions are grounded. Journals 
rf House of Commons, vol. iv. pp. 519, 520. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 22/ 

Ordered Mr. Palmer, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Arrowsmith, SESS. 632.. 
Mr. Case, Mr. Cawdry, shall be the five to be employed ; 
three of them to pray, and two of them to preach, as they 
shall conclude amongst themselves. 

Upon a debate about the attendance of the members of 
the Assembly in all this debate, it was 

Ordered That letters be sent to all the members of Attend- 
Assembly to desire their attendance, according to the order ^embers, 
of the Lords and Commons. Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Ley, Mr. ordered,. 
Spurstow, and Dr. Temple, their reasons for necessary 
absence for a time were allowed by the Assembly.. 

Resolved upon the Question, To debate the nature of 
a. jus divinum on Monday morning. 

Sess. 633. May 4, 1646. Monday mornwg: 

Ordered That Mr. Jones be respited till he bring a 
better testimonial. 

The Protestation was read. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the jus divi- 
num. Upon a debate it was 

Ordered To inquire how many ways the will and ap- 
pointment of Jesus Christ is set out in Scripture. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' in reference, to 
Church .government,', shall not be added. 

Sess. 634.- May$, .1646. Tuesday morning.- 

Ordered That Mr. Chandler be approved, and have a^ 
certificate. Ordered That Mr. Morton be approved,,. and 
have a certificate. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the ways by Debate 
which the will and appointment of Jesus Christ is set out .J^^" f s H 
in Scripture ; and upon debate it was may be 

Ordered ' That the jus divinum and the will and ap- pl 
pointment of Jesus Christ is set out several ways in 
Scripture.' 

Ordered ' One way wherein the will and appointment 
of Jesus Christ is set out in Scripture, is in express words.' 

Resolved upon the Q y The next work shall be to in- 



228 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 634. quire whether the will and appointment of Jesus Christ be 
^ 6 5 ' not held out in Scripture by ' necessary consequence,' as 

one way for the manifesting thereof. 

Ordered The exercise of the day, to-morrow, to begin 
at nine of the clock, and to end at four. 

Sess. 635. May 6, 164.6. Wednesday morning. 

How Fast The Fast was kept in the Assembly according to the 
observed. former orc } en After the Prolocutor had begun the As- 
sembly with prayer, Mr. Palmer began the work of the 
day with prayer, Mr. Cawdry preached on I Tim. i. 19, 
Mr. Whitakers prayed, and Mr. Arrowsmith preached on 
Esay ix. 6, and Mr. Case concluded the work of the day 
with prayer. 1 A collection was made, and the sum col- 
lected was ' Three pounds four shillings and two pence/ 
which was ordered to be disposed by the brethren that took 
pains that day as they shall think fit. The Prolocutor 
concluded with prayer, and adjourned the Assembly. 

Sess. 636. May 7, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Scot be respited till the Assembly 
be better satisfied concerning his conversation. 

An order was brought from the House of Commons to 

dispense with Mr. Conant and Mr. Strickland for their 

attendance for a time to go to Salisbury. It is as fol- 

loweth. 2 . . . 

Jus The Assembly proceeded to debate about ' necessary 

divinum ., , , 1 ., 

may be consequences ; and upon debate it was 

proved by Resohed upon the Q., ' Another way wherein the will 

necessary -_... ~ 

conse- and appointment of Jesus Christ is set out in Scripture is 

quence. ^y necessar y consequence.' 

Upon a debate about the addition of proofs, it was 
Resolved upon the Q., The proofs shall not be added 
now. 

Ordered That the proofs of this shall be prepared 

1 Full notes of the sermons preached by Mr. Cawdry and Mr. Arrowsmith 
will be found in the scribe's notes of this session, preserved in Fascicle III. 

2 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 532. ' Ordered That Mr. 
Strickland and Mr. Conant, two members of the Assembly of Divines, shall 
have leare, and are hereby desired to go to Salisbury.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 22Q 

when the Preface shall be drawn up, if the Assembly shall SESS. 656. 
think fit to add any Preface. 

Resolved upon the O., That there be three Committees 
to consider of answers to these questions from time to 
time, as the Assembly shall appoint. 

Sess. 637. May 8, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Taylor, Mr. Wilson, and Mr. Harris w r ere appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following-. 

Ordered That Mr. Collier have his certificate upon his 
former examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Horton be examined, 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Reynolds shall be 
examined upon this certificate. 

The Assembly debated the manner of proceeding in the 
Questions ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That the nature of jus divinum, Questions 
in reference to Church government in general, shall be ffe s 

aivinum 

considered by the first Committee. remitted 

Resolved upon the Q., The nature of Church govern- com-' 
ment, and wherein it doth consist, shall be considered by mittees. 
the second Committee. 

Resolved upon the Q., Whether this Church govern- 
ment be in the hands of Church officers only, shall be con- 
sidered by the third Committee. 

It was moved by one of the Dissenting brethren, that Dissenting 
the Assembly would make them a Committee by them- jf^ 
selves, to bring in their judgments upon the Questions ; a Com- 
and it was debated and well approved by many of the m 
Assembly, but because it was late, and the Assembly not 
a full number to put the question, it was respited. 

Sess. 638. May 13, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Nuthall be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Case and Mr. Arrowsmith visit the 
Prolocutor in the name of this Assembly. 

It was moved again in the Assembly, that the Brethren, 



230 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 638. according to their desire yesterday, may be a Committee 
ky themselves ; and Mr. Bridge was desired to speak 
whether it were still desired by them. Mr. Bridge an- 
swered that he did not move for it yesterday, that they 
that did are not present, and he can say nothing to it, but 
desires to be silent in it ; whereupon it was laid aside for 
.that time. 

.Resolved upon the Q., To adjourn the Assembly into 
three Committees till twelve of the clock. It was accord- 
ingly done, and at the time appointed the Assembly did 
meet again ; and report was made from the first Com- 
mittee. 

.Ordered That Mr. Reynolds his business be laid aside 
itill he bring a testimonial to satisfy the Assembly, and 
then to be taken into further consideration ; and that Mr. 
.Ley 'be entreated to speak to the chairman of the Com- 
imittee for Plundered Ministers, that there be no further 
proceedings in the business of Mr. Reynolds till the As- 
;sembly be further satisfied concerning him. 

Ordered That the three Committees do meet in the 
-afternoon. 

..Sess. 639. -May 14, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Resbtved upon the Q., That Mr. Mells shall be exa- 
mined. 

Ordered That Mr. Blany be respited till Tuesday 
next. 

Upon debate about Mr. Sprigge, who had lately been 
ordained by the B[isho]p of Lincoln, it was 

Ordered That. Mr. Sprigge shall be examined 

Resolved upon the Q., That the chairman of the Com- 
mittee shall testify the dislike of the Assembly of this act 
of his, in going to the B[isho]p for ordination. 

Resolved to enter upon the work of the day. 

Report was made additional to the Report of 'the first 
Committee made yesterday. 

Mr. Ny moved again that they might 'be a Committee, 
according to their former motion. It was debated ; and 
upon debate it was 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 231 

Resolved upon the O., ' Whereas Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Ny, SESS. 039. 
Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Grcenhill, A J'jy 4 ' 
Mr. Carter, junior, and Mr. Phillips, have desired to have 
liberty to be a Committee to bring into the Assembly seining 

what they shall think fit upon these questions, This As- b reth ren to 
' be a Com- 

sembly doth grant them liberty so to do, provided that miitee 

they do so order their Reports as that the Assembly may 
not be delayed in the debate of anything prepared for the 
Assembly by any of the three Committees.' 

Upon the resolving of this Q., Mr. Ny entered his dis- 
sent, because this did bound them more than they pro- 
pounded in their desire. 

Ordered That the same liberty be granted to them from 
time to time when any questions shall be given forth by 
this Assembly to the three Committees. Ordered To 
debate the Report of the first Committee the next session. 

Sess. 640. May 15, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Gibson, Mr. Whitakers, Dr. Stanton, were ordered 
to pray with the Lords and Commons and Committee of 
both kingdoms. 

Ordered That Mr. Haine bring a testimonial, according 
to the order of the Assembly, from the hands of known 
ministers where he last resided. 

Ordered That Mr. Bedford's examination be respited. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Report 
of the first Committee. 

Proofs that a necessary consequence is a sufficient argu- Argument 
ment of Christ's will. from C01V 

J sequences 

Resolved upon the Q., First proof ; ' Christ proves the for/j 
resurrection in Matt xxii. 31, 32 : " As touching the resur- dvvmum - 
rection of the dead, have you not read that which was 
spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abra- 
ham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob ? God 
is not the God of the dead, but of the living ;" which is a 
proof of the resurrection of the dead by a consequence 
only.' 

This proof ; ' Christ, John x., refutes the Jews reproaching 
Him with blaspheming for saying that He and the Father 



232 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 640. were one, by a consequence drawn from Scriptures,' calling 

M i a 6 y 4 6?' Ponces gods. 

Resolved upon the O., Acts xiii. 34, ' And as concern- 
ing that He raised Him up from the dead, now no more 
quences. to re turn to corruption, He said on this wise, I will give 
you the sure mercies of David/ which proves the resurrec- 
tion of Christ by a consequence only. 

Resolved upon the Q., Heb. i. 6, ' And again, when He 
bringeth in the first Begotten into the world, He saith, And 
let all the angels of God worship Him,' where it is proved 
that Christ is the Son of God by a consequence. 

Sess. 641. May 18, 1646. Monday morning. 

The Protestation was read. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of ' conse- 
quences ' ; and upon debate it was 

Ordered 'And this may be cleared by sundry other 
instances, many more of the articles of faith being proved 
by Christ and His apostles out of the Old Testament only 
by consequence.' 

Sess. 642. May 19, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Upon an order from the Committee for Plundered 
ministers to return an answer concerning the reasons why 
they have not approved of Mr. Scot for Fobbing, it was 

Ordered That the Chairman acquaint the Committee 
with the reason, and the testimonies of his conversation. 

Upon a motion it was 

Ordered That the Chairman do acquaint the Com- 
mittee for Plundered Ministers that the Assembly hath 
not yet received satisfactory testimony concerning the 
conversation of Mr. Reynolds, appointed to be examined 
for Rodwinter. 

Mr. Nathaniel Bacon brought an order from the House 
of Commons concerning a further enumeration of scan- 
dalous sins. It was read, and is as followeth . . .* 

1 'Resolved, etc., That a Committee be nominated to consider of a farther 
enumeration of scandalous offences for which a person guilty may be sus- 
pended from the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and to advise herein with 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2 1 3 

w \J 

Ordered That Mr. Marshall, Mr. Vines, Mr. Palmer, SKSS. 642. 
Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Seaman, 
Mr. Herle, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Newcomen, Mr Sedgwicke, 
Mr. Ash, Mr. Ny, Mr. Goodwin, or any four of them, shall 
be a Committee to attend on the Committee of the House 
of Commons to that purpose. They are to meet this after- 
noon, and consider of what hath been already presented to 
the Parliament in this business. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proposi- Debate of 
tions concerning examples, and upon some debate it as^ooFof 
was jm 

Resolved upon the Q., The proposition in debate shall 
be recommitted. 

Resolved upon the Q., That it be recommitted to the 
three Committees ; each of them to bring in their sense 
concerning it. 

Resolved upon the Q., The Committees shall not meet 
presently (it being neare 12 o'clock). 

Resolved upon the Q., The Committees to meet at 2 of 
the clock. 

Sess. 643. May 20, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Thorpe's examination be respited 
till Monday next. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Haine shall have his testi- 
monial from this Assembly upon his former examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Blany his business be respited till 
Friday next. 

Report was made from the Committee of the enumera- 
tion of scandalous sins. Report was made from the third 
Committee of Church Government in Church Officers only. 

Ordered That Mr. Ballam be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Report was made from the first Committee about 
examples. 

The Assembly entered upon debate of the catalogue of Further 
sins to be added to the enumeration ; and in the debate of^ 1 ^ 6 

daloussins. 
the Assembly of Divines, or such of them as the Assembly shall think fit.' 

Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 549. 



234 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 643. of the particulars, because the sins brought in were for- 
1 1646 mer ly passed in the Assembly, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' That so much of this Report 
formerly voted in this Assembly and presented to the 
House of Commons shall stand without farther debate.' 

Upon a debate about adding ' drinking of healths,' it was 
Drinking Resolved upon the Q., That that addition concerning 
drinking of healths shall be put to the question. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Such as use drinking of healths ' 
shall be added to the enumeration. Dr. Burges enters his 
dissent to that of drinking of healths to be added, as not 
clearly stated. These words, ' and such as are guilty of 
any other sin which the Scripture saith would exclude 
from the kingdom of heaven, if persisted in without 
repentance,' were waived. The rest was ordered. 

Resolved upon the Q., That this be transcribed and sent 
up to the Committee of the House of Commons. Mr. 
Lightfoot entereth his dissent The enumeration is as 
followeth . . . 

Sess. 644. May 21, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Ashton have a certificate upon his 
former examination. 

Upon debate about Mr. Bedford's business it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Bedford's business be 
referred to a Committee. 

Orderedr1\x& Mr. Seaman, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Ash, 
Mr. Wilson, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Tuckney, 
Mr. Calamy, 1 Mr. Woodcock, be this Committee, that time 
be given till this day month for their report. 

Ordered That Mr. Byfield, one of the scribes of the 
Assembly, be dispensed for his attendance on the As- 
sembly for a fortnight, because of occasions to go into the 
country. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of some additional 
sins to the enumeration. And upon debate it was 

Ordered ' All capital offenders not enumerated to be 
likewise mentioned and certified as those already enume- 

1 Mr. Calamy's name has been entered twice by an error of the scribe. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 235 

rated.' Upon debate about ' neglect of family duties,' SESS. 644. 
it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The question shall be put. 

Resolved upon the O., ' Such as usually neglect prayer 
in and with their family.' Dr. Burges enters his dissent. 

Resolved upon the O., These last votes be transcribed 
and sent up to the Committee to be added to the cata- 
logue. 1 

Sess. 645. May 22, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Philips, Mr. Carter, jun., and Mr. Langley were 
ordered to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee 
of both kingdoms, the week following. 

Upon debate about Mr. Blany, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The Assembly is not satisfied 
concerning Mr. Blany and his testimonial. 

Upon a motion about the two last votes concerning Enume- 
addition to the catalogue of sins [that they] might be ia 
ordered to be sent up, it was 

Ordered That those votes formerly passed shall be 
transcribed and sent up to the Committee, to be added to 
the rest of the catalogue. 

Upon a debate, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Such as neglect to instruct their 
families in those necessary principles of religion, the igno- 
rance whereof is a sufficient cause to debar them from 
the sacrament.' 

Resolved upon the Q., That this be added to the 
enumeration, and sent up to the Committee. 

Sess. 646. May 25, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Bretton his certificate be respited 
till Monday. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Boden's business be 
farther respited till his coming up. 

Mr. Carter, jun., desiring to be excused for praying with 
the House of Commons this week, it was 

1 Erased again in MS., but finally passed next session. 



236 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 646. Ordered That Mr. Young do 1 pray with the House of 
Commons. 

Upon a motion that the 9 questions might be committed 

Nine ques- A ^ 

tions to to 9 Committees, it was 

three com- Resolved not to proceed upon the debate of the motion 

mittees. . 

concerning 9 Committees. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the 9 questions shall be 
distributed to the 3 Committees. 

Resolved upon the Q., The I, 2, 6 questions be com- 
mitted to the 1st Committee. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the 3, 4, 5, 7 shall not be 
committed to the second Committee. 

Resolved upon the Q., The 3, 4, 5 shall be committed 
to the same Committee. 

Resolved upon the Q., The 7, 8, 9 shall be committed to 
the third Committee. 

Upon a motion ' That delinquents that have imbrued 
their hands in blood may be put into the enumeration of 
scandalous offenders not to be admitted to the sacrament 
without evidence of his 2 repentance,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That this shall be waived. 

Ordered To proceed the next day concerning the busi- 
ness Qtus divinum. 



Sess, 647. May 28, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Upon a motion about Mr. Watts, it was 
Ordered That Mr. Ley make return to the Committee 
for Plundered Ministers that the Assembly is not yet 
satisfied in any testimonial brought for Mr. Watts. 

Ordered That Mr. Duffy, formerly ordained at Sion 
College, shall have a certificate from this Assembly upon 
his former approbation. 

Ordered That Mr. Thorpe, formerly respited, shall be 
examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Cade have his certificate without 
coming up to be examined. 

Jus Resolved upon the Q., To proceed in the debate of the 

proved by Report of the first Committee concerning the force of 
examples. i Tn Ms to * Sic in Ms> 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 237 

examples in general. After some debate upon that pro- SKSS. 647. 
position, 'some examples show 2. jus divinum, and the will M x ^6 
and appointment of Jesus Christ,' and the instance of the 
first day of the week kept for a Christian Sabbath, it 
was 

Ordered That that proposition be recommitted to be 
brought in to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 648. May 29, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Carter, jun., Mr. Conant, Mr. Chambers, were 
appointed to pray with the Lords and Commons and 
Committee of both kingdoms the week following. 

A testimonial was brought into the Assembly for Mr. 
Reynolds for Rodwinter, and after a large debate about it, 
it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To put a final question concern- 
ing Mr. Reynolds' certificate. 

Resolved upon the O., That Mr. Reynolds shall not 
have a certificate. 

The Committee having made no report about the pro- 
position recommitted, the Assembly, after some debate 
upon the proposition, 

Ordered That the Committee meet this afternoon, and 
make report on Monday morning. 

Sess. 649. June I, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Selby have a certificate upon his 
former examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Bretton (formerly 
respited till this day) shall have his certificate. 

A testimonial was published for Mr. Watts, but it did 
not satisfy the Assembly. 

Report was made from the first Committee about the 
proposition recommitted concerning examples. It was 
debated ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Some examples show a jus Proof by 
divinum and the will and appointment of God ; as in the exam P es - 
Old Testament the building of altars to the Lord and 
offering of sacrifices by the fathers from Adam to Abraham, 



230 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 649. which was done in faith and acceptance, for which there is 
164.6' no foregoing precept recorded in Scripture.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The same may be said of the 
examples, duty of the surviving brother's marrying the wife of his 
brother deceased without issue, of which we have no 
evidence that it was the will and appointment of God 
before the law given by Moses, but the example of Judah's 
sons, Gen. xxxviii. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The like also we may say of 
Jews having of synagogues and worshipping of God in 
them, and in particular of their reading of Moses and the 
prophets there every Sabbath-day.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' In the New Testament we have 
the like instances of the observation of the first day of the 
week for the Christian Sabbath.' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'and of baptizing persons but 
once.' . . . Mr. Seaman enters his dissent. 

Resolved upon the Q., 'In all which examples, as we 
have cause to believe that the fathers at the first had a 
command from God for those things whereof we now find 
only their example for the ground of their posterity's like 
practice for many generations, so likewise, though we be- 
lieve that Christ, in the time that He conversed with His 
disciples before and after His resurrection, did instruct 
them in all things concerning the kingdom of God, yet 
nothing is left recorded to show His will and appointment 
of the things instanced in, but the example and the prac- 
tice of the apostles and the churches in their time.' 

Ordered To proceed in the debate to-morrow morning. 

Ordered That the 3 Committees do meet this after- 
noon. 

Sess. 650. June 2, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

An order was brought from the Committee for Plundered 
Ministers concerning a certificate of the proceedings of the 
Assembly concerning Mr. Reynolds, formerly sent unto the 
Assembly by order of that Committee. 

Mr. Key- Resolved To consider of this business of Mr Reynolds' 
nolds. ,, 

presently. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 239 

Resolved upon the Q., That this be referred to a Com- SESS. 650. 
mittee to make report to-morrow morning. 1 

Ordered That Mr. Ley, Mr. Gower, Mr. Marshall, Mr. 
Salway, Mr. Raynor, Dr. Temple, Mr. Byneld, Mr. 
Calamy, Mr. Thorowgood, Mr. Corbet of Norfolk, Mr. 
Ward, and Mr. Good shall be this Committee, they or any 
5 of them ; to meet this afternoon, and consider what 
answer to give to this order. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of examples ; and 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Those examples show a jus What 
divinum and the will and appointment of Jesus Christ, so 
as still to remain, which are nowhere in Scripture dis- 
allowed, and whose particular reason still abides,' These 
words shall be the next subject of our debate. 

Sess. 651. June 3, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

An order was brought from the Committee for Plun- 
dered Ministers concerning the examining of Mr. Watts, 
his sufficiency in learning, notwithstanding any allegations 
against him in conversation. 

Ordered There shall be a Committee to consider of 
what answer to give to this order of the Committee for 
Plundered Ministers concerning Mr. Watts. 

Ordered That Mr. Wilson, Mr. Vines, Mr. Tuckney, 
Mr. Herle, Mr. Hodges, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Gower, Mr. 
Simpson, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Valentine, shall be this Com- 
mittee ; to meet this afternoon, and to make report to- 
morrow morning. 

Mr. Ley made report from the Committee concerning 
the business of Mr. Reynolds. It was debated ; and upon 
debate, Resolved to be sent up to the Committee for 
Plundered Ministers by the Committee that drew it up. 

Sess. 652. J line 4, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Gregory be approved of by this 
Assembly for Lambeth. 

Ordered That Mr. Thorpe his certificate be respited 



240 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 652. till Wednesday next. If nothing be objected against him, 
I6A6 4 ' tnen h c i s t have his certificate. 

Resolved upon the O., That Mr. Paston shall not have 
his certificate for Solhill. 

Ordered That Mr. Sap have a certificate without 
coming up to be examined. 

Mr. Wilson made report from the Committee about the 
answer to the order of the Committee for Plundered 
Ministers concerning Mr. Watts. 

The Assembly debated an additional report to the 
answer of the Assembly concerning Mr Reynolds. It was 
agreed to, and the whole answer is as followeth . . . 

Resolved upon the Q., To debate the Report brought in 
by Mr. Wilson. Upon debate, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To be recommitted. 

Sess. 653. June 5, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Pickering, Mr. Cawdry, and Mr. Strickland were 
appointed to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Com- 
mittee of both kingdoms the week following. 

Orders as The orders from the Committee for Plundered Ministers 

of exami- being in a new form, only ' to examine sufficiency in learn- 

nation. j n g^> j t was orc i erec i that there be no return made from this 

Assembly to any of these orders till the case be determined 

in the Committee for Plundered Ministers. 

Report was made by Mr. Tuckney in answer to the 
order from the Committee for Plundered Ministers about 
Mr. Watts. 

Resolved upon the Q., That this paper shall be read. 
It was debated, and upon debate, Resolved and ordered to 
be sent to the Committee for Plundered Ministers. It is 
as followeth . . . 

Debate of The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proposi- 
contmued. ti on concerning examples ; and after some debate, it was 
respited till the next session. 

Sess. 654. June 8, 1646. Monday morning. 

A letter was brought from the Earl of Pembroke about 
Mr. Owen to be approved for a parsonage in Wales. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 24! 

Resolved upon the O., That Mr. Owen be examined SKSS. 654. 
presently by the Committee. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of Examples ; and 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the O., ' Those examples, either of the Examples 
apostles, evangelists, or of the Churches planted and ^ V1 
ordered by them, which are recorded in the New Testa- divinum. 
ment, and are nowhere therein disallowed, and the par- 
ticular reason whereof still abides, do show a. jus divinum, 
and the will and appointment of Jesus Christ so as still to 
remain.' 

Ordered That Mr. Owen be approved of by this 
Assembly. 

Ordered To debate the Report of the second Com- 
mittee to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 655. June 9, 1646. Ttiesdcty morning. 

Ordered That Dr. Smith deliver the paper to the Com- 
mittee for Plundered Ministers concerning Mr. Watts, and 
that he deliver this message with it, ' That though the Subjects 
Assembly send in an answer to one particular order, yet ^on^o 
finding the form of all orders of late to be varied " to ministers. 
examine only in point of learning" we desire this answer 
may be taken as to them all, and that the Assembly may 
make certificate for those that are now before them as 
they have formerly done ; ' and Dr. Smith is to give reasons 
why it is most proper for the Assembly to consider of the 
certificates before them ; and no way proper for them to 
be informers. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the Report Church 
of the second Committee concerning Church Govern- 
ment. 

Resolved upon the Q., To go on with the Report as it 
is brought in by parts. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Church government is that 
power and authority which Christ hath appointed to be 
exercised in His Church for the good thereof.' 

Resolved upon the Q., 2 Cor. xiii. 10, 'Therefore I 
write,' etc., shall be brought for the proof of it. 

Q 



242 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 656. Sess. 656. June 10, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

^646' Dr. Smith made report from the Committee for Plun- 
dered Ministers, that they had considered of the message 

of exami- from the Assembly ; and that they were resolved that 

nation. from henceforth the Assembly should have power in their 
order to certify both learning and conversation ; and that 
those orders before the Assembly should be recalled, and 
others sent in the like form. 

Debate of The Assembly proceeded in Debate of Church Govern- 

gwern 1 - ment 5 ancl U P 011 debate it was 

ment. Resolved upon the Q., 'This government is not civil, 

but spiritual ; Matth. xx. 25, 26, 27 ; John xviii. 36,' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'not original, but derivative, 
John xx. 21,' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'not supreme, but subordinate 
to Jesus Christ, I Cor. iv. I,' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'not lordly, but ministerial, 2 
Cor. i. 24 ; I Pet. v. 3 ;' ' not arbitrary, but limited by the 
Word of God, Matth. xxviii. ult., teaching them, etc.' 

Resolved u^on the Q., Matth. xx. 25, 26, 27, shall be added 
to prove that this government is not civil but spiritual. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' This government doth consist 
not only in preaching of the word and administering the 
sacrament (by virtue of an office), Matth. xxviii. 19, 20 ; 
.Rom. x. 15 ; Heb. xiii. 7 ; but also in the ordaining of 
officers ; I Tim. iv. 14 ; I Tim. v. 22 ; and in dispensing 
of censures ; I Cor. v. 12; 2 Cor. ii. 6.' 

Dr. Burges entered his dissent to the last vote, and so 
did Mr. Sedgwicke. 

Sess. 657. June n, 1646. Thursday morning. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate where they left. 
Upon a motion for leave to speak to that question last 
passed, 1 it was granted and debated ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The proposition last passed 1 shall 
be submitted to a further debate ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be an alteration in 
this proposition. 

1 In MS. past. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 243 

Resolved upon the Q., ' This government doth consist SESS. 657. 
in ordaining of ministers for the preaching of the word, 
and for administration of the sacraments, and in dispensing 
of Church censures by Church officers.' govern- 

Resolved upon the Q., That this text, I Tim. iv. 14, ment - 
proveth this branch of the proposition, that government 
doth consist in ordaining of ministers. 

Resolved upon the Q., I. Tim. v. 22 shall be added to 
the proof. 

Ordered That Mr. Pulley and Mr. Rainbow's examina- 
tion be respited till further satisfaction. 

Sess. 658. June 12, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Bond, Mr. Foxcroft, and Mr. Harris were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following. 

An information being brought concerning Mr. Anthrobus, 
it was ordered that the Chairman of the Committee do 
inform the Committee of Plundered Ministers of this in- 
formation concerning Mr. Anthropus. 

Ordered That Mr. Gere be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Calamy and Mr. Case do visit the 
Prolocutor. 

Ordered That Mr. Whitakers and Mr. Woodcocke do 
visit Mr. Gataker. 

Ordered That Mr. Hodges and Mr. Byfield do visit Mr. 
Wilkinson. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of Church Govern- church 



Ordered That these words, ' by the Church officers,' 
shall be left out of the last proposition. 

Ordered I Cor. v. throughout proves that clause, 'in 
dispensing of Church censures.' 

Resolved upon the Q., 2 Cor. ii. 6 shall be added to the 
former proof. 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no farther debate 
about an addition to this proposition. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' That Church Government is in 



244 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 658. the hands of Church officers only as contra-distinct to the 
J i646. 2 ' civil Magistrate.' 

Sess. 659. June 15, 1646. Monday morning. 
Ordered That Mr. Burvill be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Wing be approved. 
Ordered That Mr. Be[e]cher be approved. 

Debate of The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proof of 
govern- the proposition concerning ' Church Government in the 
ment. hands of Church officers only.' 

Resolved upon the Q., The proofs voted in the 
Assembly before for this proposition shall stand here. 
Mr. Goodwin entered his dissent. 

The Assembly debated the manner of taking the sub- 
scriptions of the Assembly upon the Questions ; and upon 
debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., No more shall be said to this 
business. 

Resolved upon the Q., To adjourn the Assembly till 
Wednesday morning. 

Sess. 660. June 17, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Leaver bring a better testimonial 
out of the place where he last lived. 

Ordered That Mr. Man be approved upon his former 
examination and approbation. 

The Assembly being informed that there was 600 to 
be disposed of amongst the members of the Assembly, 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a new Committee 
appointed for the distribution of the 600. 

Ordered Mr. Rayner, Mr. Ny, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Sedg- 
membersof wicke, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Seaman, Dr. Smith, Mr. Walker, 
y ' Dr. Gouge, Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Wilson, or any 
7 of them, shall be a Committee ; they are to meet in the 
afternoon. 

Report was made ' of Marriage." * 

Report was made from the Committee about ' the per- 
fecting of the Confession of Faith.' 

1 In MS. mariadge. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 245 

Ordered That Mr. Arrowsmith be added to the Com- SESS. 660. 
mittee for [perfecting] the Confession of Faith. Upon a j 
debate about the ' reading of the Report again,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Not to be read again entire, but Confession 
in parts.' It was debated, and the Assembly began with e r gad in 
the Scriptures ; and part of that head was ordered. parts. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left. 

Sess. 66 1. June 18, [1646]. Tliursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Blakerby be approved upon his 
former examination. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Confession Ch. \. 
of Faith concerning 'the Scriptures;' and upon debate 01 
the whole head concerning the Scriptures was ordered ; 
and it is as followeth 1 . . . 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Article con- Ch. ii. 
cerning 'God and the Holy Trinity;' and upon debate 01 
that head also was ordered ; and it is as followeth . . . 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Article ' of Ch. iii. 
God's Eternal Decree ; ' and upon debate part of it was ^fe^red 
ordered. Upon debate about the last clause of it, con- 
cerning the handling of this doctrine, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To refer this till to-morrow 
morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Bedford's business be respited till 
this day fortnight ; and Mr. Wilkinson, Mr. Rayner, Mr. 
Valentine, be added to that Committee. 

Sess. 662. June 19, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Byfield, Mr. Maynard, Mr. Salway, were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Presbury be examined to-day. 

Ordered That Mr. H olden be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

Ordered ' That the Committee for wording and metho- Powers of 
dizing of the Confession of Faith shall have liberty, as they 



see things imperfect, to complete them ; and to make in s Con - 

, . i i > fession. 

report unto the Assembly. 



These heads or chapters are not inserted in the MS. 



246 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 662. Report was made from the same Committee of those 

heads of the Confession of Faith concerning ' The Fall of 

Man, and Sin, and Punishment thereof.' 
ch. iii. The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Confession 

of Faith ; and upon debate, that head ' of God's Eternal 

Decree' was ordered, and is as followeth . . . 
iv. and The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Article ' of 

Creation ; ' and it was ordered, and is as followeth . . . 
v. ordered. The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Article 'of 

Providence ;' and upon debate it was ordered, and is as 

followeth . . . 

Upon Report from the Committee for Distribution of 

Money, was read, 1 

Resolved upon the Q., The distribution of money now 

read shall stand. 
Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Younger shall be approved 

of without coming up to be examined. 

Sess. 663. June 22, 1646. Monday morning. 

A petition being brought into the Assembly from the 
inhabitants of Barkamstead parva in Hertfordshire, and 
some exceptions against Mr. Bush, it was ordered that 
Mr. Bush be respited till the inhabitants of Barkam- 
stead have spoken with him upon the particulars men- 
tioned. 

Part of The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Confession 
ordered. ^ Faith about the Fall of Man ; and upon debate part of 
that Article was ordered. 

Sess. 664. June 25, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Boyford be respited till Thursday 
come sevennight. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Fall of 
Ch. vi. Man ; and upon debate the whole was ordered, and is as 
vii. and followeth . . . And in debate ' of God's Covenant with 
Man ; ' and it was ordered, and is as followeth . . . 



ord d ^ G ^ LSsem ^ )1 y proceeded in debate of that Article in 
the Confession of Faith concerning ' Christ the Mediator ;' 

1 Sic in MS. ; perhaps for 'which was read.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 247 

and upon debate the whole Article was ordered, and it is SKSS. 664. 
as followeth . . . - ]u $> 

Sess. 665. June 26, 164.6. Friday morning. 

Mr. Simpson, Mr. Vines, Mr. Greenhill, were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms. 

Ordered That Mr. Shorter be respited till better satis- 
faction in his testimonial and sufficiency. 

Ordered That Mr. Low be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Dr. Gouge, Mr. Prophet, and Dr. Smith 
do carry ten pounds to the Prolocutor, and that they do, 
in the name of the Assembly, visit the Prolocutor, and also 
satisfy him that there hath been no money paid by any 
order of Parliament to his use that hath been detained 
from him. 

Upon debate about the neglect of attendance contrary Attend- 
to the Order of the Lords and Commons, the Order was members, 
read ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That this Order last read shall 
from henceforth be duly executed by all persons whom it 
doth concern in all the parts of it. 

Sess. 666. June 29, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Anthropus his testimonial doth not 
satisfy the Assembly. 

Upon a motion about Mr. Presbury, that in regard the 
gentleman that informed against him doth not insist upon 
his information but recalls it, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Presbury be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Report was made by Mr. Tuckney ' of Free Will.' It Additions 
was read, and also some additionals to the Article 'of ordered.' 
the Fall of Man.' The additionals were debated, and 
ordered to be added. 

The Assembly debated the Report ' of Free Will ;' and 
upon debate about the first branch of it concerning ' the 
natural liberty in the Will,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To be recommitted. 



248 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 667. Sess. 667. June 30, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

J T6 e 4 6' Ordered That Mr. Roberts have a certificate without 

coming up to be examined. 

Ch. ix.and Report was made from the Committee of the proposi- 
tion concerning Free Will recommitted. It was read and 
debated, and the whole Article assented to. It is as 
followeth . . . 

x. passed. Report was made from the Committee for the wording 
and methodizing of the Confession of Faith concerning 
Effectual Calling. It was read and debated ; and upon 
debate assented to ; and it is as followeth . . . 

The first Committee was desired to meet in the after- 
noon to prepare something for the Assembly in answer to 
the Questions propounded by the House of Commons. 
Arrange- Ordered That in case there be not enough present at 
Commit- 10 t ^ ie Committee appointed to sit, and that there be no 
tee - Committee sitting, then all that come may have votes. 

Sess. 668. July i, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. North be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Read be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Upon information of some unworthy ministers gotten 
into sequestrations, it was 

Unworthy Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a Committee to 
admUtedto cons ider of those that have got into livings without appro- 
livings, bation of the Assembly, contrary to the Order of the 
House of Commons directed to this Assembly. 

Ordered That Mr. Ley, Mr. Gower, Dr. Stanton, Dr. 
Smith, Mr. Bond, Mr. Salway, Mr. Burroughs, and Mr. 
Seaman, or any 4 of them, shall be this Committee. They 
are to meet to-morrow in the afternoon. 

Answer^ Report was made by Mr. Marshall that at the first 
tions from Committee a paper was presented in reference to the 

House of answering of the Questions propounded by the House 
Commons. - 

of Commons. The paper was drawn by some brethren 

that had attended that business. The answer to the 
first Q[uestion], which is most comprehensive, they had 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 240) 

read to the first Committee ; and upon the reading of it, SK.SS. 668. 
the major part of the Committee did signify their willing- 
ness to have it presented to the Assembly as from the first 
Committee, but because there were some brethren that did Some oi>- 
oppose the passing of it in such a way, those brethren that J^ ct 
had taken pains in drawing of it up did therefore think 
fit to present this answer as from themselves, and the 
Assembly might do what they please in this business. 
Whereupon it was 

Ordered That this paper be read. It was read by Mr. 
Palmer. 

Ordered That those brethren that have taken so great 
pains in this Report shall be a Committee to bring in the 
answer to the rest of the Questions, and they have thanks 
for their learned pains in this Report. 

Ordered To take this Report into debate to-morrow 
morning. 

Sess. 669. July 2, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., The testimonial for Mr. Clopton 1 
doth not satisfy. 

Ordered That Mr. Jenkins be approved upon his 
former examination. Ordered That Mr. Wells be also 
approved, and Mr. Blakemore. 

Ordered That Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Sedgwick, and Mr. 
Tuckney do visit Mr. Rutherford 2 in the name of this 
Assembly. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the Report in 
answer, to the Questions. Upon debate about the manner 
of putting the Questions, and the subscriptions in order Salvo for 



to the answer to those Questions, and upon debate of a ^ 
salvo to be entered in the scribes' book, that those that do fully con- 
subscribe may not be interpreted to subscribe to every cu 
clause in the answer, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The question shall be put. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The several subscriptions at the 

1 Or Clapton. 

2 Shortly after Baillie refers to the variable health of Gillespie as well as 
Rutherford. See Laing's Ed. of his Letters, vol. ii. p. 392. 



250 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 669. close of the several Articles, or branches of them, are not to 
"646.' be interpreted as assent by each of them that do subscribe 
to every particular clause in the answer, but to the suffi- 
ciency of the proof of that answer. This to remain as a 
memorandum in the scribes' book.' 

Upon a debate about the adding the word 'proof after 
the word ' clause,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That there shall be no addition 
to this proposition. 

Sess. 670. July 3, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Ash, Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Scudder, were appointed to 
pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Shorter shall have his certificate. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Bedford's business be re- 
ported on Tuesday morning next. 

Ordered That Mr. Whitfield be approved upon his 
former examination. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the Report 
of the Answer to the first Question ; and first of the Pre- 
face to that Answer. After some debate of it, the Preface 
was laid aside till the other branches of the answer be con- 
sidered. The Answer to the first branch of the first Question 
was read and debated, and Respited to further consideration. 

Sess. 671. July 6, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Peachy be respited till Wednesday 
next. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Gobert, it was 

Ordered That the Committee and those that have 
known his Popish opinions do meet and confer with him, 
and see what satisfaction they can receive concerning him. 

Ordered That the Committee for Mr. Bedford do meet 
at the rising of the Assembly ; and that the Committee 
for Mr. Gobert do meet to-morrow morning. 

The Assembly proceeded to debate the first branch of 
the first Question ; and upon debate this was also Respited 
till the report of the second Question. The answer to the 
third branch was read and debated ; and upon debate it was 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 251 

Resolved upon the O., ncminc contradiccntc ' That SESS. 671. 
Jesus Christ, as King and Head of His Church, hath 
Himself appointed a Church Government,' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'Distinct from the civil' shall be mm 



added. appointed 

a Church 
ijovern- 

Sess. 672. July 7, 1646. Tuesday morning. mem. 

Report was made from the Committee about Mr. Bed- 
ford ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Bedford shall be 
examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Scargill bring a better testimonial. 

Resolved upon the Q., This course shall be observed in Regula- 
our Answer to the nine Questions, 'That the reports in votes 0^ 
answer to the nine Questions brought in by the Committee the ques- 
shall be passed the Assembly if the major part do approve by House 
of them : and then the names of all that are present are to of Com - 

" mons. 

be taken by the scribes, as the several members shall give 
their votes, either for the affirmative or the negative, and 
their names to be read in the Assembly ; and that those 
members that are for the negative shall bring in their 
positive, and then both to be referred to a Committee to 
be chosen out of the Assembly, and those that are 
negative to consider how far they may agree, and to 
make report unto the Assembly.' 

Resolved upon the Q., That the former vote, that there 
shall be no addition to the memorandum, 1 shall be 
revoked. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the words 'or proof shall 
be inserted after the word ' clause.' 

Upon some debate about the proof of the proposition 
formerly voted, 'That Jesus Christ as King and Head of 
His Church hath Himself appointed a Church government 
distinct from the civil,' it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That this proposition is suffi- 
ciently proved by the proofs last read. 

The names of the members of Assembly that were for 

1 This memorandum was adopted in Session 669, and the addition then 
refused was now accepted. 



252 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 672. the affirmative Mr. White, Mr. Palmer, Dr. Wincop, Mr. 
J ?6 y 4 6 7 ' Ley, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Walker, Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. Marshall, 
Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Delmy, 
Mr. Calamy, Mr. Prophet, Mr. Perne, Mr. Scudder, Dr. 
Smith, Dr. Stanton, Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Bayly, Mr. Taylor, 
Mr. Young, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Ash, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Good, 
Mr. Vines, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Corbet of 
Merton, Mr. Dury, Mr. Carter, sen., Mr. Salway, Mr. 
Hardwick, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Woodcock, Mr. Langley, Mr. 
Simpson, Mr. Carter, jun., Mr. Connant, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. 
Ny, Mr. Greene, Mr. De la March, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Herle, 
Mr. De la Place, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Price, Mr. 
Rayner, Mr. Gower ; 52. For the negative Mr. Light- 
foot. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall stand : ' This 
Church Government stands not in any power of external 
coertions,i in inflicting bodily punishments, fines, or mulcts, 
upon men's persons, or otherwise ruling and disposing of 
men's estates.' These members of the Assembly were for the 
affirmative : Mr. Palmer, Mr. White, Dr. Wincop, Mr. Ley, 
Dr. Gouge, Mr. Walker, Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. Marshall, Mr. 
Perne, Mr. Spurstow, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. 
Delmy, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Prophet, Dr. Smith, Mr. Scudder, 
Dr. Hoyle, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Bayley, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Young, 
Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Ash, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Good, Mr. Vines, 
Mr. Corbet of M[erton], Mr. Hardwicke, Mr. Gibson, Mr. 
Dury, Mr. Carter, sen., Mr. Carrill, Mr. Salway, Mr. Lang- 
ley, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Connant, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. De la 
March, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Greene, Mr. De la Place, Mr. 
Valentine, Mr. Gower, Mr. Price, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Wilson ; 
47. For the negative, Mr. Ny. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 673. July 8, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Wells be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Wright be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered That Mr. Back be also approved. 
1 Sic in MS. , or else coactions. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 253 

Ordered That Mr. Clopton shall be examined. SESS. .673. 

Ordered That Mr. Anthropus shall not be examined as 
to Bromley. 

Ordered That Mr. Scargill bring a better testimonial. 

Resolved That Mr. Gobert shall not have his certifi- 
cate. 

Resolved That the first order of this Assembly shall be 
yet observed concerning him. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Peachy shall not be 
examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in the former debate ; and 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the O., This shall be part of our answer 
to the nine questions, ' But it consists in applying spiritual 
means for the better ordering of the spiritual life, and pre- 
venting and removing of scandals ; and the end of it is 
for edification ; 2 Cor. x. 8, " For though I should boast 
somewhat more of our authority, which the Lord hath 
given us for edification and not for your destruction, I 
should [not] be ashamed," and I Cor. v. 5, " To deliver such 
an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the 
spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus." ' This 
Question was Resolved nemine contradicente These mem- 
bers voting in it, Mr. Palmer, Dr. Wincop, Mr. Ley, Dr. 
Gouge, Mr. Walker, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Marshall, Mr. 
Perne, Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Delmy, Mr. 
Taylor, Mr. Prophet, Mr. Bayly, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Spur- 
stow, Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Scudder, Dr. Stanton, Dr. Smith, Mr. 
Case, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Young, Mr. Price, Mr. Ash, Mr. 
Corbet of M[erton], Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Chambers, 
Mr. Woodcock, Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Carter, sen., Mr. Bond, 
Mr. Carrill, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Salway, Mr. Langley, Mr. 
Greenhill, Mr. Ny, Mr. Connant, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. 
Burroughs, Mr. Greene, Mr. Carter, jun., Mr. Byfield, 
Mr. Gower, Mr. De la Place, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Wilson ; 

49- 

The Assembly was informed that the Marquesse 1 of 
Argile was without ; and an order for his admission into 
1 Sic in MS. , Marquesse being corrected from Earle. 



254 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 673. the Assembly was read from the Lords and Commons. It 

8 is as flowed! 1 . . . 

Ordered That Mr. Marshall, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Ny, 
Mr. Perne, shall go forth and bring him in unto the As- 
sembly. The Marquesse of Argile being brought into 
the Assembly, delivered a letter to the Assembly from the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. The letter 
was read, and is as folio weth 2 . . . The Prolocutor, by order 
of the Assembly, did speak unto him, and congratulate his 
coming into the Assembly. 3 

Sess. 674. July 9, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Gobert, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Gobert shall have his 

certificate. Mr. Palmer enters his dissent Upon a farther 

debate of the same vote, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Gobert be examined again before 

he have his certificate. 

1 In the Journals of the House of Lords, under date of 7th July, the fol- 
lowing entry is made, engrossing at length the Commission to the Marquis of 
Argyle : ' A paper was read, delivered in from the Scots Commissioners. 

" EDINBURGH, ult. Junii 1646. 

" The Commissioners of the General Assembly, considering that the Lord 
Balmerino, who is appointed by the late Assembly to be one of the Com- 
missioners for the Kirk, for endeavouring the intended uniformity in Religion 
and Kirk Government betwixt the kingdoms, is not now to repair to London, 
having certain knowledge of the faithfulness and abilities of the Right Honour- 
able Archibald Lord Marquis of Argyle, who is now there ; do therefore, 
according to the power granted to them, nominate his Lordship in the place 
of the said Lord Balmerino ; giving hereby to him full power to join with the 
remanent Commissioners in prosecuting the Treaty for Uniformity with the 
Honourable Houses of the Parliament of England and the Reverend Assembly 
of Divines there, or with Committees from them, and to do all things neces- 
sary with the said Commissioners for promoving the work aforesaid, as freely 
and fully as any of the Commissioners, or as if his Lordship had been parti- 
cularly nominated to that effect by the General Assembly." 

' Ordered That this House approves of the Marquis of Argyle to be one 
of the Assembly of Divines in the place of Lord Balmerino. ' 

The concurrence of the House of Commons was asked to this Order, and 
on the same day that House resolved ' that the Marquis of Argyle be ad- 
mitted to the Assembly of Divines here.' 

2 This letter, as well as that addressed to the Houses of Parliament, was 
inserted among the printed Acts of Assembly of that year, and is given in 
Peterkin's Records of the Kirk, pp. 451, 452. 

3 Notes of the Prolocutor's address will be found in Fascicle in. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 255 

Ordered That Mr. Prime 1 be approved upon his former SESS. 674. 

examination. ^ u } y ^' 

1646. 

Ordered That Mr. Audley be respited for a little time. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the answer to 
the Questions ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall stand as part 
of our Answer, ' Furthermore (not to discuss the points of 
election, ordination, and removing of ministers from one 
place to another, or disposing things orderly in the Church), 
the government, which we conceive this Question aims at, 
stands in the due application of the censures which Christ 
hath appointed, which are to be dispensed as the nature of 
the fault or scandal doth require.' 

These members of the Assembly voted for the affirma- 
tive, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Whitakers, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Spur- 
stow, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Perne, Mr. Calamy, Mr. New- 
comen, Mr. Prophet, Dr. Smith, Mr. Herricke, Dr. Hoyle, 
Dr. Stanton, Mr. Case, Mr. Bayly, Mr. Young, Mr. Rey- 
nolds, Mr. Ash, Mr. Vines, Mr. Corbet of M., Mr. Bond, 
Mr. Carter, sen., Mr. Chambers, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Gibson, 
Mr. Carril, Mr. Langley, Mr. Connant, Mr. Greene, Mr. 
Woodcocke, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Hardwick, Mr. Herle, Mr. 
Price, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Gower, Mr. De la Place, Mr. Valen- 
tine, Mr. Wilson ; 39. For the negative Mr. Seaman. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall stand as part 
of our answer, ' Admonitions are first to be used (ac- 
cording as is farther expressed in the answer to the /th 
Question), wherein this order is to be observed if the 
offence or fault be private, the method appointed, Matth. 
xviii. 15-16, is to be followed, " Moreover, if thy brother 
shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between 
thee and him alone : if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained 
thy brother ; but if he will not hear thee, then take with 
thee one or two more," etc. ; if public, that method is not 
necessary ; I Tim. v. 20, " Them that sin rebuke before 
all, that others also may fear." ' This question was Resolved 
nemine contradicente, these members voting in it Mr. Ley, 
Mr. Taylor, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Marshall, Mr. 

1 Or Prince, or Prinne. 



256 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 674. Perne, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Newcomen, Mr. Spurstow, Dr. 
^646' Smith, Mr. Prophet, Dr. Hoylc, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Herricke, 
Mr. Case, Mr. Bayly, Mr. Young, Mr. Ash, Mr. Carrill, 
Mr. Vines, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Corbet of M[erton], Mr. 
Gibson, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Carter, sen., Mr. Bond, Mr. 
Langley, Mr. Woodcock, Mr. Greene, Mr. Connant, Mr. 
Price, Mr. Herle, Mr. Hardwicke, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. 
Byfield, Mr. Gower, Mr. Valentine, Mr. De la Place, Mr. 
Wilson ; 39. 

Sess. 675. July 10, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Hodges, Mr. Perne, Mr. Prophet were appointed to 
pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Gobert shall not have 
his certificate, 

The Assembly being informed that Mr. Clarke was for- 
merly, by the Committee of Plundered Ministers, ejected ; 
and he is one of the first century, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The Assembly shall proceed no 
farther in this business of Mr. Clarke. 
7. The Assembly proceeded in the debate ; and upon de- 

divmiim 

for exclud- bate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., This shall be next debated, ' That 
offenders it is the will and appointment of Jesus Christ, that noto- 
Lord's e rious and scandalous offenders should be kept away from 
Supper, the sacrament of the Lord's supper.' 

Upon a debate of adjourning the Assembly by reason 
of two days in the next week, one for a fast and another 
for a thanksgiving, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The Assembly shall not be ad- 
journed till Friday next.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Not to adjourn the Assembly 
till Wednesday next.' 

Upon a motion, after leave obtained, it was Resolved 
upon the Q., To revoke the former vote of not adjourning 
till Friday next. 

Resolved upon the Q., To adjourn the Assembly till 
Friday next. 



debate o( 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 257 

Sess. 676. July 17, 1646. Friday morning. SESS. 67(1. 

Mr. Cheynell, Mr. Carter, sen., Mr. Price, were appointed ^J/' 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Lawson be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Ladbroke be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Perkins be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Clarke, it was ordered that 
the Assembly doth insist upon the former vote. 

Ordered That the Three Committees do meet on 
Wednesday, in the afternoon. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the Proposi- Farther 
tion : and upon debate it was 

JUS 

Resolved upon the Q., ' It is the will and appointment div 
of Jesus Christ that notorious and scandalous offenders 
should be kept away.' This question was Resolved nemine 
contradicente These members voting for it : Mr. White, 
Mr. Palmer, Mr. Ley, Dr. Gouge, Mr. Walker, Mr. Sedg- 
wicke, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Perne, Mr. Whitakers, Mr. Pro- 
phet, Mr. Cheynell, Mr. Hodges, Mr. Harris, Mr. Arrow- 
smith, Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Bayly, Mr. Case, Dr. Smith, Dr. 
Temple, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Herrick, Mr. Price, Mr. Cawdry, 
Mr. Scudder, Mr. Ash, Mr. Chambers, Mr. Ward, Mr. 
Gibson, Mr. Wilkinson, jun., Mr. Corbet of M[erton], Mr. 
Strong, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Bond, Mr. Carter, sen., Mr. Wood- 
cocke, Mr. Connant, Mr. Maynard, Mr. Greene, Mr. By- 
field, Mr. Herle, Mr. De la Place, Mr. Raynor, Mr. Gower ; 

43- 

Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Carter, jun., being 
present in the Assembly, declared that they did forbear to 
give their vote in this till they see the scope of it. 

Resolved upon the Q., The proofs brought in by the 
Committee shall be debated next in order, in reference to 
the proof of the proposition last voted. 



R 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 677. 

July 22, 

1646. 

Death of 

Prolocutor 

Twisse. 



Mr. Ilerle 

succeeds 

him. 



House of 
Commons 
wish com- 
pletion of 
Confession 
of Faith 
and Cate- 
chism. 



Ur. 

Twisse's 

funeral. 



Sess. 677. July 22, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

In the time of the last Recess of the Assembly, Dr. 
Twisse the Prolocutor died ; whereupon, when the members 
of the Assembly met in the place of the Assembly, they 
thought fit to acquaint both Houses of Parliament with 
his death, and to desire their further order ; which was 
accordingly done by Dr. Burges. The Houses of Parlia- 
ment, taking it into consideration, sent an Order to the 
Assembly for Mr. Herle to be Prolocutor in the stead of 
Dr. Twisse, lately dead. The Order was read ; and Mr. 
Herle was called to the Chair. 1 

Mr. Rouse and Mr. Tate being sent with the Order 
above mentioned, did also inform the Assembly that ' they 
were commanded by the House of Commons to desire the 
Assembly to hasten the perfecting of the Confession of 
Faith and the Catechism, because of the great use there 2 
may be of them in the kingdom, both for the suppressing 
of errors and heresies, and the informing of the ignorance 
of the people.' 

The Assembly took into consideration how the funeral 
of Dr. Twisse should be ordered, it being by his friends 
referred wholly to the Assembly ; whereupon it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Harris shall be desired 
to preach at the funeral of Dr. Twisse, late Prolocutor. 

Ordered The day for his funeral shall be on Friday, 
and the time in the afternoon. 

Ordered That Dr. Smith and Mr. Byfield do move the 
Committee for Westminster College, that his body may 
be interred in some convenient place in the Abbey, and 

1 ' The House being informed that diverse ministers of the Assembly of 
Divines were at the door. They were called in, and Dr. Burges acquainted 
the House that Dr. Twisse, Prolocutor of the said Assembly, died on Sunday 
morning last, and humbly desired to know the pleasure of the House for the 
further ordering of themselves and their proceedings upon this occasion . . . 
Resolved, etc., That this House doth nominate and approve of Mr. Herle, one 
of the members of the Assembly of Divines, to be Prolocutor of the Assembly 
of Divines, in the place of Dr. Twisse, late Prolocutor, deceased. . . Mr. 
Tate being appointed, carried the same to the Lords for their concurrence . . . 
Mr. Tate brings answer that the Lords do agree That Mr. Herle be Pro- 
locutor of the Assembly of Divines.' Journals of t lie House of Commons, 
vol. iv. p. 622. 

2 In MS. they. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 259 

that the place for the entertainment of his friends at the SF.SS. 677. 
funeral may be the College. 1646 2 ' 

Ordered That the Committees about the Confession of 
Faith do meet this afternoon. 

Ordered That Report be made from the Committee 
for wording and methodizing of the Confession of Faith, 
to-morrow morning. 

Ordered ' That Mr. Ward be added to the Committee Catechism. 
for the Catechism.' 

Ordered That Mr. Gibson have his certificate. 

Sess. 678. July 23, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Report was made by Mr. Arrowsmith ' of Justification Ch. xj. 
and Adoption.' The Report was debated, and upon a<ri - eec i ' to . 
debate agreed to ; and it is as followeth . . . 

Ordered To debate the Report ' of Marriage ' to-mor- 
row morning. 

Sess. 679. July 24, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Wilkinson, jun., Mr. Woodcock, Mr. Guibon, were 
appointed to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Com- 
mittee of both kingdoms the week following. 

Two Reports were made from the Second Committee 
' of Certainty of Salvation' and ' of the State of the Soul 
after death.' 

Ordered To debate the Report concerning ' the Cer- Debate of 
tainty of Grace and Salvation.' The Assembly entered oFsalva^ 
upon that debate, and upon debate it was tlon - 

Ordered This to be the title ' Of the Certainty of 
Salvation.' 

Ordered ' Although hypocrites and other wicked men 
may vainly deceive themselves with false hopes and carnal 
presumptions of being in the favour of God and state of 



R. not to stand, 1 and be as a spider's web. 



salvation (which hope of theirs shall perish), yet such as 
truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love Him in sincerity, 
endeavouring to walk in all good conscience before Him, 
may in this life be assured that they are in the state of 
1 i.e. The words, ' and be as a spider's web,' were to be struck out. 



260 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 679. grace, may know that they have eternal life, and that 



"^6 G 4 ' ^y dwell in Christ and He in them, and may rejoice in 
the hope of the glory of God, which hope shall never 
make them ashamed.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' This certainty is not a bare, 
moral, conjectural, or probable persuasion, grounded upon 
R. not to stand ' full ' 

a fallible hope, but is an infallible assurance, founded upon 
the divine truth of the promises of salvation,' 
Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

July 27, 1646. Monday morning. 

There wanted some members to make a full Assembly, 
and therefore they sat in a Grand Committee. 

Sess. 680. July 30, 1646. Thursday morning,, 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate where they left ; 
and for the better connecting of the words following to 
those going before, for the clearing of some difficulties in 
the debate, it was agreed to leave out the word ' upon,' and 
the mention of the particular graces, and so the words 
following were 
Assurance Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be added to the 

ofsaiva- former, 'the inward evidence of those graces unto which 
tion. 

these promises are annexed, and the testimony of the Spirit 

of adoption witnessing with our spirits that we are the 
children of God, which Spirit is the earnest of our inheri- 
tance, whereby we are sealed unto the day of redemption.' 

Ordered ' This infallible certainty whereby the believer 
knows himself to be in the state of grace and salvation, 
doth not so belong unto the essence of faith as that a man 
cannot be a true believer or justified person without it,' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' yet a true believer being 
enabled by the Spirit to know the things that are freely 
given him of God may without extraordinary revelation 
in the right use of ordinary means attain thereunto.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' And therefore it is the duty of 
every one to give all diligence to make his calling and 
election sure, that thereby his heart may be enlarged in 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 261 

love and thankfulness unto the Lord, in strength and SKSS. 680. 
cheerfulness in the duties of obedience and inward peace "Zf ' 
and joy in the Holy Ghost.' 

Ordered ' This assurance of salvation may several ways 
in true believers be shaken, diminished, and intermitted,' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' by negligence in preserving of 
it ; by falling into some special sin, which woundeth the 
conscience and gricveth the Spirit ; by some sad and heavy 
temptation, or by God's own withdrawing the light of His 
countenance and suffering even such as fear Him to walk 
in darkness and have no light ; ' 

Ordered ' yet true believers are never utterly destitute 
of that seed of the Spirit, and life of faith and love of 
Christ and of the brethren, and conscience of duty, out of 
which this assurance may in due time arise and revive 
again, and by the which in the meantime their spirit is 
supported from utter despair.' 

Mr. Palmer entered his dissent to the word ' or,' 1 before 
' by God's own withdrawing.' 

Mr. Gillespie gave his books 2 dedicated unto the Mr. Gil- 
Assembly to the Prolocutor and the rest of the members les P ie P re ~ 

* sents h:s 

of the Assembly then present, for which he had thanks book. 

returned by the Prolocutor in the name of the Assembly. 

Sess. 68 1. July 31, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Ford, Mr. Ward, and Mr. Corbet of M. were 
appointed to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Com- 
mittee of both kingdoms, the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Baker be approved upon his former 
examination and approbation. 

The Assembly debated the report ' of the State of the Debate of 
Soul after Death' ; and upon debate it was sou i a f ter 

Ordered For the title, 'Of the State of the Soul after death. 
death.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The souls of men, being sepa- 

1 Probably in consequence of Mr. Palmer's dissent, this ' or ' appears to have 
been ultimately left out. 

2 This was his great work : ' Aaron's Rod Blossoming ; or, the Divine 
Ordinance of Church Government Vindicated.' It was dedicated 'to the 
Reverend and Learned Assembly of Divines, convened at Westminster,' and 
was published in London in 1646. 



262 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 681. rated from their bodies by death, having an immortal sub- 
J i646 31 ' sistence, do immediately return unto God who gave them,' 
Resolved upon the O., These words, ' to be by him dis- 
posed of in their own places,' shall not stand, 
state of Resolved upon the Q., ' So as the souls of the righteous 

soul after .,, , , , T ^ , . , 

death. are with the Lord Jesus Christ, 

Resolved upon the O., These words, ' in the third 
heaven,' shall not stand. 

Resolved upon the O., These words shall follow, 'in 

R 

everlasting habitations in the highest heavens, and being 
made perfect in holiness do enjoy the face of God in light 
and glory ; and the souls of the wicked are in hell in ever- 
lasting torments.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' And besides these two places for 
souls separated the Scripture acknowledged! no other.' 

Sefs. 682. August 3, 1646. Monday morning, 

The Protestation was read. 

Ordered That the 2d and 3d Committees do meet this 
afternoon. 

The Assembly debated the Report ' of Marriage ' ; and 
upon debate it was 

Ordered The title ' Of Marriage.' 

Debate of Resolved upon the Q., ' Marriage between one man and 
one woman is ordained of God, for the mutual help of one 
another, for the increase of mankind with a legitimate 

R 

issue, and of the Church with an holy seed, and for pre- 
venting of uncleanness, and it is lawful for all sorts of 
people/ 

Resolved upon the Q., ' who are able with judgment to 
give their consent.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' Persons before 
they marry ought to be able to perform necessary marriage 
duties, and to make a good choice, or with judgment to 
give their consent/ shall not stand. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Christians ought to marry in the 
Lord.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 263 

Resolved upon the Q., To go on in the debate of the SKSS. 682. 
Report as brought in by the Committee. ^1646^' 

Ordered ' Marriage ought not to be within the degrees 
of consanguinity and affinity forbidden by the Word of 
God.' 

Resolved upon the O., ' The man may not marry any of 
his wife's kindred nearer than he may of his own ; nor the 
wife of her husband's kindred nearer than of her own.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall not stand, 
' Children under parents' government ought to have their 
parents' consent to their marriage, yet so as they be not 
forced against their own liking.' 

Resolved upon the Q., This last proposition shall be 
recommitted. 

Ordered These words, ' It is meet that persons to be 
married be first contracted, and after that within some 
competent time the marriage be publicly solemnized.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' Marriage betwixt 
cousins-german 1 and others beyond the degree of cousins- 
german is lawful,' shall be waived. 

Resolved upon the Q., The unlawfulness of marrying 2 
with idolaters shall be recommitted. 

Ordered That Mr. Dalton and Mr. Reeve be approved 
upon former examination. 

Sess. 683. August 4, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Woodroff be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Boden shall have a certificate. 

Ordered That Dr. Gouge, Dr. Temple, and Mr. Ley 
be desired to wait upon the Committee of Plundered 
Ministers and acquaint them with the smallness of his (?) 
means for 3 that place, and to desire such course may be 
taken as may give encouragement to a minister in a place 
of so great consequence. 

Report was made from the 4 Committee of that com- Debate of 
mitted about Marriage. marriage. 

1 In MS. apparently ' cousin-germanes.' 2 In MS. marring or marriag. 
3 Apparently corrected into ' in.' 4 Sic in MS., qusere 1st. 



264 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 683. Report was made from the second Committee about 
1646?' Synods and Councils. 

Report was made from the 3d Committee about the 

Reports. _ 

Resurrection. 

The Assembly debated the report of that committed 
about Marriage, and upon debate it w r as 

Resolved upon the Q., The former proposition about 
' consent of parents' be waived. 

Resolved upon the Q., That mention shall be made con- 
cerning Papists and other Idolaters. 

Resolved upon the Q., That some others besides Papists 
and other Idolaters shall be mentioned. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Such as profess the true 
Reformed religion ought not to marry with Papists, 
Infidels, or other Idolaters,' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' nor ought such as are godly to 
be unequally yoked with such as are notoriously wicked in 
their life,' 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a further addition. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be added, ' or 
maintain damnable heresies.' 

Ordered To debate the Report of Synods. 

Sess. 684. August 5, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Debate of The Assembly entered upon the debate of the Report of 
Synods ; and upon debate it was 

Ordered The title ' Of Synods or Councils.' 

Upon a motion to leave this head out of the Confession 
of Faith, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To go on with this Report. 

Resolved upon the Q., No mention to be made of the 
constituent members of Synods in the first proposition. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' For the better government and 
further edifying of the Church, there ought to be such 
Assemblies as are commonly called Synods or Councils.' 

Mr. Ny, Mr. Simpson, entered their dissent 

Resolved upon the Q., ' As Magistrates may lawfully call 
a Synod of Ministers and other fit persons to consult and 
advise with about matters of religion, so the ministers of 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 265 

Christ, of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they with SESS. 684. 
other fit persons, upon delegation from their churches, may ' i'f 46 5 ' 
assemble if the Magistrates be open enemies to the Church.' 

r> 7 /~\ r- Debate of 

Resolved upon the O., It belongcth to Synods and synods. 
Councils ministerially to determine controversies of faith 
and cases of conscience, and to set down rules and direc- 
tions for the better ordering of the public worship of God 
and government of His Church ; and their decrees are to 
be received with reverence and submission.' 

Resolved upon the Q., This to be debated in this 
form : ' Synods or Councils made up of ministers and other 
ruling officers of the Church have not only a directive 
power in things ecclesiastical, but a corrective power also, 
and may rescind an 1 evil sentence, if adhered unto in any 
inferior Assembly, and excommunicate such persons as are 
otherwise incorrigible.' 

Sess. 685. August 6, 164.6. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Barton have a certificate upon his 
former examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Goodwin's business be 
stopped, and he have no certificate from hence. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proposi- 
tion about Synods ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The question shall be whether 
this proposition shall be debated in order to the Con- 
fession of Faith. 

Resolved upon the Q., This shall be debated in order 
to the Confession of Faith. 

Ordered That they who will shall have liberty to pro- 
ceed upon the negative to-morrow morning ; and if not, 
then to proceed upon the affirmative. 

Sess. 686. August 7, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Newcomen, Dr. Wincop, Mr. Spurstow, were 
appointed to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Com- 
mittee of both kingdoms, the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Bould have a certificate without 
coming up to be examined. 

1 In MS. 'and.' 



266 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 686. An order was brought from the House of Lords to 
A i6 g 6 7 ' certi fy tncir opinions of allowing Mr. Cradocke, Mr. 
Simonds, and Mr. Walter 1 to be Itinerant Preachers in 
synods. Wales. It was read, and is as followeth 2 . . . 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate. An argument 
was urged for the negative ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the O., 3 The argument now urged hath 
been answered. 

Ordered To go on in the debate of the argument from 
the iv th of Ephesians. 

Scss. 687. August 10, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That the Orders for the regulating of the de- 
bates of the Assembly be read the first Monday in every 
month [to begin the next month]. 4 

Dr. Gouge made Report ' of Divorce.' 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the argument 
from the iv th of Ephesians ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., This argument from the iv th of 
the Ephesians hath been sufficiently answered. 

Another argument was urged for the negative ; 5 and 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The argument last urged hath 
been now answered. 

Sess. 688. August II, 1646. Tuesday morning. 
Continued Ordered That Mr. Creyton be approved upon his 

opposition f ... 

to chap, former examination. 

on synods Resolved upon the Q., The former order concerning Mr. 

inserted in Scot shall Stand. 

Upon the desire of some members of the Assembly, it 
was 

Resolved upon the Q., That motions shall be heard and 
made concerning the waiving of the debate of this proposi- 
tion ordered for debate or the committing of it. 

1 Or Walker. 2 Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 454. 

3 R. * (Fascicule III.} This added in Fascicle III. 
1 ' Nothing of the Ruler elder's ordination, office, qualification, or work, 
nothing in matter of fact recorded of him in particular.' (Fascicle III. ) 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 267 

Upon a large debate about the waiving of the proposi- Sr.ss. 688. 
tion in order to a Confession of Faith, it was j^Se"' 

Resolved upon the O., This proposition shall stand to 
be debated in order to the Confession of Faith. 

Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Ny, did enter their 
dissent. 

Ordered That the whole Assembly sit as a Committee 
on Friday in the afternoon to receive the Report of the 
Answer of the Assembly to the Reasons of the Dissenting 
Brethren, as hath been formerly done in the like Reports. 

Sess. 689. August 12, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Upon a caveat put in from Sir Henry Vane, senr., 
against Mr. Wildbore upon complaints against him from 
diverse ministers in the country, it was Ordered That Mr. 
Wildbore be respited till further satisfaction. 

Upon a motion to take the Order of the Lords concern- 
ing the three Itinerant Preachers into consideration, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., A message shall be now returned 
to the House of Lords in answer to their Order. 

Resolved upon the O., This message shall be sent : ' That Message as 
this Assembly have not hitherto been able to satisfy their preachers. 
Order, because the persons mentioned in that order have 
not appeared before them ; and the Assembly is informed 
that two of them were gone into Wales some weeks before 
the Order came to this Assembly ; and this Assembly 
doth not think fit to give any approbation of these men 
for Itinerant Preachers without conference first had with 
them.' 1 

Ordered That Dr. Gouge, Dr. Smith, Dr. Temple, Dr. 
Hoyle, Dr. Stanton, and Mr. Byfield do deliver this 
message to the Hon ble House of Lords. 

Sess. 690. August 13, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Wood be excused from 2 
not coming up to be examined and approved of by this 
Assembly. 

1 Given more fully in Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 463. 

2 Sic in MS., but in Fascicle III. ' for not coming.' 



268 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

HESS. 690. The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proposi- 

A i6 4 6 3 ' tion ' and anotner argument was urged for the negative 

against the power of Synods as to excommunication ; and 

Debate of 

synods. upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the O., The argument last urged against 
the proposition is answered. 

[Dr. Smith made report from the House of Lords. They 
give thanks to this Assembly for their care in obserying of 
their order, and that they have no further to desire of the 
Assembly at the present.] x 

Ordered To proceed in the debate to-morrow morn- 
ing. 

Sess. 691. August 14, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Tisdale, Mr. Hardwicke, Mr. Good, were appointed 
to pray with the Lords, Commons, and Committee of both 
kingdoms, the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Ley do certify the Committee of 
Plundered Ministers that this Assembly is not satisfied 
concerning the fitness of Mr. Robert Anthrobus 2 for 
Bromley, in the county of Kent. 

Argument The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the proposi- 
agamst \\Q^ as to the negative ; and another argument was 
elders held brought against Ruling Elders their being constituent 
sweredT members of a Synod ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The argument last urged hath 
been answered. 

Ordered That Mr. Brian be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 692. August 17, 1646. Monday morning. 

The Protestation was read. 

Ordered That Mr. Underwood's examination be 
respited. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the power of 

1 Addition in Fascicle III., also in Lords' Journals, vol. viii. p. 463. 

2 The spelling of this name varies in different parts of the MS., and here if. 
is difficult to decide whether the writer meant to correct p into b, or b into /. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 269 

Synods ; and another argument was urged against the pro- SESS. 692. 
position ; and after some debate it was 164.6^' 

Resolved upon the O., This argument is sufficiently 
answered. 

Upon a motion to put the proposition to the question, 
it having been so long debated and formerly proved in the 
Assembly, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The proposition shall be put to 
the question. 

Resolved upon the O., There shall be 2 questions. 

Resolved upon the O., This proposition is true, viz. Truth of 
'Synods or Councils made up of ministers and other j^ 105 
ruling officers of the Church have not only a directive affirmed. 
power in things ecclesiastical, but a corrective power also, 
and may rescind an evil sentence if adhered unto in any 
inferior Assembly, and excommunicate such persons as 
are otherwise incorrigible.' 

Resolved upon the Q., This proposition shall not stand Yet not to 
in this Confession of Faith. g^ ion 

of Faith. 

Sess. 693. August 1 8, 1646. Tiiesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Becke be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Mazy be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Mr. Palmer informed the Assembly that the Committee Answer to 
formerly appointed to draw up an Answer to reasons of ^ssntine 
the Dissenting Brethren against the subordination of As- brethren. 
semblies had prepared an Answer to the said Answer, and 
read it over in a Committee of the whole Assembly, and 
they had ordered him to acquaint the Assembly that the 
Report was ready, if it pleased the Assembly to hear it. 
Hereupon it was 

Resolved upon the Q., This Report shall be now read 
in the Assembly. It was read by Mr. Palmer : and be- 
cause of the length of it, the Answer to the three first 
arguments of the Dissenting Brethren was only read this 
session ; and upon the reading of it, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., This Answer to the three first 



270 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 693. arguments of the Dissenting Brethren against the subordi- 
AU i6 4 6 8 ' nation of Assemblies shall stand as the Answer of this 
Assembly. 

Resolved upon the Q., The rest of the Answer shall be 
read to-morrow morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Lewis be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

Sess. 694. August 19, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Additions Resolved upon the Q., These heads of Faith, Repent- 
to Con- ance anc i Good Works shall be referred to the three Com- 
tession. 

mittees in their order to prepare something upon them 
for the Confession of Faith. 

Report was made of the remainder of the Answer to the 
Reasons of the Dissenting Brethren against subordination 
of Assemblies ; and after the reading of it, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The rest of the Answer to the 
Reasons of the Dissenting Brethren against the subordi- 
nation of Assemblies shall stand as the Answer of this 
Assembly. The whole Answer is as followeth * . . . 

Ordered To proceed in the debate of the Report of 
Synods and Councils. 

Sess. 695. August 20, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Baker shall not have his cer- 
tificate from the Assembly till he bring a better testimonial. 

Resolved upon the Q., Dr. Wells shall be approved 
upon his former examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Bennet be approved upon his former 
examination. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Synods ; and 
upon a motion it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That an addition shall be made 
to the proposition last voted. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be added to the 
proposition last voted, after these words, ' and submission,' 2 

1 Not in MS., but printed in ' The Grand Debate between Presbytery and 
Independency.' 

2 See in Sess. 684. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 271 

not only for their agreement with the word, but also for SESS. 
the power whereby they are made, as being an ordinance 
of God appointed thereunto.' 



Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be added, 
' They have likewise power to receive complaints in cases 
of mal-administration, and authoritatively to determine 
the same.' To this last addition some brethren 1 entered 
their dissent as followeth . . . 

Resolved upon the Q., Synods or Councils are to handle 
and conclude nothing but that which is ecclesiastical, and 
are not to intermeddle with civil affairs which concern the 
commonwealth, unless by way of advice, for satisfaction 
of conscience, they be thereunto required by the Civil 
Magistrate. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' All Synods or Councils, since 
the Apostles' time, whether general or particular, may err, 
and many have erred, and therefore are not to be made a 
Rule of faith and practice, but to be used as a help in both.' 

Ordered To debate the Report of the Resurrection. 

' The Assembly after this session did not sit as an 
Assembly for divers days till the 1st of Sep- 
tember, because there wanted such a full 
number as are ordered to be present at the 
debating and voting of anything for the Par- 
liament, and in the interim, upon the several 
days of their meeting, after adjournment to the 
next day, they sat as a Grand Committee, and 
prepared something for the Assembly. On the 
said days the certificates for the ministers to 
the Committee of Plundered Ministers were 
passed, and several Reports from Committees 
received as about Saving Faith, the Last 
Judgment, and some additional propositions 
concerning the Law. And Mr. Valentine and 
Mr. Rayner were appointed to pray with the 
Lords and Commons one week, and Mr Good- 
win and Dr. Hoyle the week following. 
1 ' Mr. Simpson, Mr. Greenhill, and Mr. Woodcocke.' Fascicle III. 



2/2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 696. Scss. 696. Sept. i, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Cawdry be added to the Committee 
for the perfecting of the Confession of Faith. 

The Assembly debated the additional Report concern- 
ing the Law ; and upon debate it was 

Debate of 'Resolved upon the O., After these words, ' in respect of 
the law. t j ie aut h or j t y O f G^ the lawgiver,' these words shall be 
added, ' from whom it should always have had that bind- 
ing power, though it had never received any corroboration 
from Christ in the gospel, which doth no way dissolve, but 
doth much strengthen that obligation.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Although the faithful be said to 
be dead to the law, and not to be under it either in respect 
of justification, as by which they neither are nor can be 
justified, or of condemnation, there being no condemning 
power in the law over any that are in Christ ; yet are 
there many and special uses of the law to believers as well 
as to others.' 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no addition to the 
words last voted. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' It serves as a rule of our life, 
whereby being informed of the will of God and the duty 
of man, which are both revealed therein, we are directed 
to walk accordingly, to the embracing of that which is 
good and avoiding of that which is evil,' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, * and bound,' shall 
be added to the last proposition after the word ' directed.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' which power is not contrary to 
the work of the Spirit of Christ, freely and cheerfully 
leading God's children in all the ways of God, but sweetly 
complying with it,' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' and is subordinate to it,' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'the spirit of Christ subduing 
and enabling the will of man to do that freely and cheer- 
fully, which the will of God revealed in the law requires to 
be done.' 

Mr. Seaman enters his dissent to those words, ' and is 
subordinate to it,' as not true. 

Upon some debate about the next paragraph, ' concern- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 273 

ing the use of the promises and threatening of the law,' SESS. 696. 
it was *& 

Resolved upon the Q., That this shall be recommitted. 

Resolved upon the O., This shall be recommitted to a the law. ' 
special Commitee. 

Ordered [Mr.] Goodwin, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. Palmer, Dr. 
Temple, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Seaman, and Mr. Strong shall 
be this Committee, or any 5 of them. They are to meet 
this afternoon, and to make report to-morrow morning. 

Sess. 697. Sept. 2, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

After the publishing of an order for Mr. Smith for 
Armington in the county of Devon, the Assembly was 
informed that the Committee for the West did desire 
this business might be respited ; it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Smith his approbation 
for this place shall be respited for a time. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Ley, a member of this 
Assembly, shall have an approbation from this Assembly 
for the sequestration of Ashbury in the county of Chester. 

Report was made from the Committee of the proposi- 
tion concerning the use of the promises and threatenings 
of the law recommitted yesterday. It was debated, and 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The law is of use to the regene- 
rate, to restrain their corruptions by forbidding sin. The 
threatenings of the law are of use to show them what even 
their sins deserve from God,' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' and what temporal chastise- 
ments they may expect for their sins.' Dr. Burges enters 
his dissent. 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be an addition. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 698. Sept. 3, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Harris be approved for Petersfield. 
Report was made by Dr. Temple ' of Good Works.' 
Ordered The Committee for the perfecting of the Con- 
fession of Faith do prepare a title for it. 



274 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 698. The Assembly proceeded in the debate, and upon debate 
Sept. 3, if . 
1646. lt: was 
Resolved upon the Q., This addition shall be made, 

the b law 'though freed from the curse thereof threatened in the 

continued. 



Resolved upon, the Q., The word 'afflictions' shall be put 
in instead of the word ' chastisements.' 

Upon a debate about the promises, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The question shall be put. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The promises of the law show 
God's approbation of obedience,' 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 699. Sept. 4, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Case and Mr. Palmer were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons for the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Wildbore have no approbation from 
this Assembly, and that a return be made to the Com- 
missioners of the Great Seal. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the Assembly shall sit in the 
afternoons after Wednesday next. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate. 

Resolved upon the Q., An addition shall be considered 
in reference to the last proposition. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be added, ' and 
what they may expect of temporal blessings in a way of 
faithfulness.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Neither is it an evidence that 
a man is under the law, and not under grace, when he 
refrains from evil and doeth good, because the law 
encourageth to the one and deters from the other/ 

Resolved upon the Q., ' but rather a sign of the power of 
God's grace in him, when his heart is subdued conscien- 
tiously to live according to the Rule, though in things 
contrary to the dictate of corrupt nature, from the con- 
sideration of God's goodness in rewarding freely those that 
do well, and of his justice in punishing them that do ill.' 

Ordered ' As a glass, wherein we may see the defor- 
mities of our natures, and the transgressions of our lives, 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 275 

and to examine ourselves by it, we may be more convinced, SESS. 
and humbled, and self-condemned for, and brought to a 
greater hatred against, sin ; as thereby appearing to be so 
hateful in God's sight.' 

Report was made from the Grand Committee of the 
Assembly concerning 'the Resurrection of the Dead.' It 
was debated, and upon debate it was 

Ordered The title ' Of the Resurrection of the Dead.' Debate of 

Resolved upon the Q., 'There is no resurrection of thetionofthe 
soul, for the souls of men do neither die nor sleep with their dead - 
bodies in death, but the bodies of all shall be raised up at 
the last day, the self same bodies and no other, with 
different qualities, and shall be united again to their souls 
for ever.' R. ' The bodies of the unjust shall by the power 
of Christ be raised to dishonour, the bodies of the just by 
his Spirit to honour.' 

The Assembly debated the Report ' of the Last Judg- 
ment ;' and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The title ' Of the Last Judgment 
and Life Eternal.' 

Ordered ' There shall be a day wherein the world shall 
be judged in righteousness by Jesus Christ, the Son, to 
whom all power and all judgment is given of the Father.' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'In which day not only the Last judg- 
Apostate angels shall be judged, but likewise all persons m 
that have lived upon earth shall appear before the tribunal 
of Christ to give an account of their thoughts, words, and 
deeds unto God, and to receive according to what they 
have done in the body whether good or evil.' 

Ordered ' As Christ would have us to be certainly 
persuaded that there shall be a time of judgment,' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'both to deter all men from sin, 
and for the greater consolation of the godly in their 
adversity,' 

Ordered 'so he will yet have the day of judgment to 
be unknown to men,' 

Ordered 'that they may shake off all carnal security, 
being always watchful and prepared because they know 
not at what hour the Lord will come.' 



276 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 699. Ordered 'The end of God's appointing this day of 
judgment is for the manifestation of the glory of his 
mercy and goodness to them that believe, and of his truth 
and justice against them that are wicked and disobedient, 
in the eternal salvation of the elect and damnation of the 
reprobate.' 

Ordered ' For then shall the righteous go into everlast- 
ing life and receive that fulness of joy and refreshing, which 
shall come from the presence of the Lord ; but the wicked, 
who know not God and obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ, 
shall be cast into eternal torments, and be punished with 
everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and 
the glory of his power.' 

Resolved upon the Q., No more shall be added to the 
Report of the Last Judgment. 

Ordered to debate the Report ' of Faith,' the next Ses- 
sion. 

Sess. 700. Sept. 9, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Dr. Stanton made Report of the Article concerning 
Repentance. It was read. 

Debate of The Assembly entered upon the debate 'of Faith ;' and 
upon debate it was 

Ordered The title ' Of saving Faith.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Saving faith is a grace wrought 
by the Spirit of Christ in the hearts of the elect, enabling 
them to believe to the saving of the soul.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' This faith is ordinarily wrought 
by the ministry of the word.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' By this faith a Christian believeth 
whatsoever is revealed in the Word to the soul to be true, 
for the authority of God himself speaking therein.' 

Ordered ' As faith thus extends itself to every word of 
God in Scripture, so doth it further act differently upon 
that which each particular passage containeth in it.' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'The principal acts of Saving 
Faith are accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ 
alone, for justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by 
virtue of the Covenant of grace.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 

Ordered 'It likewise resteth upon every other promise SKSS. 700. 
of God even for this life also.' 

Ordered ' It worketh by love, in yielding obedience to 
the commands, and by fear in trembling at the threatcn- 
ings of the Word.' 

Resolved upon the O., ' This faith is different in degrees, 
weak or strong ; may be assailed with doubting, but gets 
the victory ; cannot wholly fail or be lost, but at length 
obtaineth the end thereof, the salvation of the soul, Christ 
the author being the finisher thereof.' 

Sess. 701. Sept. 9, 1646. Wednesday afternoon. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the article 
concerning ' Good Works ;' and upon debate it was 

Ordered The title ' Of Good Works.' 

Ordered ' Good works are the fruits of a true and lively 
faith.' 

Ordered ' We cannot by our best works merit the pardon 
of sin or eternal life ; because when we have done all we 
can, we have done but our duty and are unprofitable 
servants ; and also because there is always much weakness 
and imperfection in them, so that they cannot endure the 
severity of God's judgment, neither can they make any 
satisfaction for sin past, nor hold any proportion with glory 
to come.' 

Ordered ' Yet notwithstanding they are through Christ Debate of 
pleasing and acceptable to God, whose workmanship we 
are, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God 
hath before ordained that we should walk in them,' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' so as having our fruit unto holi- 
ness we shall have the end eternal life.' 

Ordered 'It is the Spirit of Christ in regenerate persons 
that enables them to all that good which at any time they 
do, and they are so far from having any strength in them- 
selves for holy performances that notwithstanding the 
graces they have already received there is always required 
a continued influence from the same holy and blessed 
Spirit to work in them both to will and to do.' 

Ordered ' Yet are not regenerate persons thereupon to 



278 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 701. grow negligent as if they were not bound to any duty but 
upon a special motion of the Spirit, but they are always 
to stir up the grace of God in them.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Works done by persons unre- 

Sic. R 

generate though for the matter of them they may be the 
things God commands, yet because they proceed not from 
a heart purified by faith and are not done in a right 
manner, nor to a right end, the glory of God, they cannot 
make men meet to receive grace from God, but they are 
sinful, and cannot please God.' 

Debate of Resolved upon the Q., ' They who in their obedience 
works. attain to the greatest height, which is possible in this life, 
are yet so far from being able to supererogate, and to 
do more for God than God requires of them, as that they 
are never able to do so much as in duty they are bound 
to do.' 

Resolved upon the Q., To add after these words, ' please 
God,' 'yet, notwithstanding, the neglect of duties in them is 
more displeasing.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The persons of believers being 
accepted through Christ, their works, though imperfect and 
defective, are also accepted in him, yet not as if through 
Christ their works were made perfectly holy and good and 
so unblameable and unreproveable in God's sight in this 
life ; but that God looking upon them in Christ is pleased 
to accept that which is sincere though accompanied with 
much weakness and imperfection.' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'The works which God would 
have his people to walk in are such as he hath commanded 
in his holy Scripture, and not such works as men have 
devised out of their own brain, of a blind zeal and devotion 
without the warrant of the word of God.' These words to 
be added after the first paragraph. 

Sess. 702. Sept. 10, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Debate of The Assembly entered upon the debate of Repentance ; 
since" anc ^ upon debate it was 

Ordered The title ' Of Repentance unto Life.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 279 

Resolved upon the O., ' Repentance unto life is an evan- SESS. 702 
gelical grace, whereby a sinner, out of sight of the filthiness 
and odiousness of sin as contrary to the holy and righteous 
law of God, and upon the apprehension of God's mercy in 
Christ to penitent sinners, grieves so and hates his sins, 
that he purposeth and endeavoureth to turn from all sin 
unto God.' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'Although repentance be not the Ofrepem- 
cause for which a sinner is pardoned, nor required us a ancc ' 
satisfaction for sin, or to be rested in or trusted unto for 
itself ; and although the pardon of sin be the act of God's 
free grace in Christ ; yet, notwithstanding, repentance is 
so necessary to a sinner as that he may not expect pardon, 
that doth not truly repent.' 

Ordered ' Men ought not to content themselves with a 
general repentance, but it is every man's duty to endeavour 
to repent of his particular sins particularly.' 

Resolved upon the O., ' He that hath scandalized the 
Church of Christ ought to be willing to declare his repent- 
ance to the Church by a public confession of his sin and 
sorrow for it.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' As there is no sin so small but it 
is damnable, so there is no sin so great that [it] can damn 
those who truly repent.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' It is the duty of every minister 
of the gospel to preach the doctrine of repentance as well 
as of faith in Christ.' 

Sess. 703. September 10, 1646. Thursday afternoon, 

The Assembly entered upon the debate ' of Divorce ; ' Debate of 
and upon debate it was divorce. 

Ordered The title ' Of Divorce.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Adultery or fornication com- 
mitted after a contract, being detected before marriage, 
giveth just occasion to the innocent party to dissolve that 
contract.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' In the case of adultery after 
marriage, it is lawful for the innocent party to sue out a 
divorce/ 



280 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 703. Resolved upon the O., ' and upon the divorce to marry 
Se i P 646' another as if the offending party were dead.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be waived : 
' Death doth so fully dissolve the bond of marriage that 
the surviving party may marry another.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be waived : 
' If either of the married persons forsake their yokefellow, 
and by no means that can be used by the party forsaken, 
or friends, or magistrate, will be reduced, after sufficient 
time set down by the magistrate, and made known to the 
party that so desireth, it is lawful for the innocent party 
to marry another.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Wilful and obstinate desertion 
of one married party giveth just cause to the other, after 
all means used to reduce the offending person, to sue out 
a divorce and for liberty to marry another.' 

Sess. 704. September 1 1 , 1 646. Friday 'morning. 

Dr. Gouge and Mr. Marshall were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Upon a motion that the Assembly would consider of an 
addition to the head of Baptism, about the children that 
are to be baptized, whose children may be admitted to that 
ordinance, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Good, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Whitaker, 
Mr. Calamy, Mr. Burroughs, Dr. Temple, Mr. Palmer, Mr. 
Marshall, Mr. Woodcocke, Mr. Carrill, Mr. Guibon, shall 
be a Committee to consider what children are to be 
baptized. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Divorce, and 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Other causes of divorce between 
two parties lawfully married besides these the Scriptures 
do nowhere allow.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words shall be added in 
the head of Marriage : ' And such incestuous marriages 
no law of man nor consent of parties can ever make lawful, 
so as those persons may live together as man and wife.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 281 

Ordered To make report of the Catechism ' in the Sl ss - 74- 
afternoon.' ' ^1646. ' 

Sess. 705. September 14, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Gower and Mr. Greenhill do visit 
Dr. Hoyle from this Assembly. 

Mr. Palmer offered to the Assembly the Report of the 
Catechism, which he could not make on Friday in the 
afternoon, because there was no Assembly at that time. 
The report was read. 

Report was made by Mr. Tuckney ' Of Perseverance 
and Certainty of Salvation.' 

Mr. Gataker sent his books to the Assembly, in answer 
to Mr Saltmarsh, 1 whereupon it was 

Ordered That Mr. Taylor and Mr. Whitaker do visit 
Mr. Gataker, and in the name of this Assembly give him 
thanks for his great respect to this Assembly. 

The Assembly debated the report ' of Perseverance,' and Ch. xvii. 
upon debate it was assented to, and is as followeth . . . 

Sess. 706. September 14, 1646. Monday afternoon. 

The Assembly debated the Catechism, 2 and upon Catechism, 
debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The former answer shall be thus 
expressed : ' The only rule of faith and obedience is the 
written Word of God, contained in the Bible or the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. What special proofs are there 
that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament are the 
very Word of God ? ' 

Sess. 707. September 15, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

A petition was brought in to the Assembly from Mr. 
Gobert, and upon debate of it, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Mr. Gobert shall have a certifi- 
cate from this Assembly.' 

1 ' Shadows without substance or pretended new lights.' London, 1646. 

2 Fascicle III. adds here : ' Debate of reciting the Creed. This left till 
the end of the Catechism, the Assembly now only considering of the materials.' 



282 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 707. Upon an order from the Committee of Plundered 
Se I p 6 t 46 ' 5 ' Ministers to send a more particular account concerning 
Mr. Anthrobus, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That this answer shall be re- 
turned to the Committee for Plundered Ministers : ' That 
this Assembly hath taken the business of Mr. Anthropus 
into consideration, according to their order, and do make 
this return, that they are not satisfied concerning the 
fitness of Mr. Anthropus for that place.' 

Ch. xviii. The Assembly debated the report 'of Assurance of 
Grace and Salvation,' and upon debate it was assented to, 
and is as followeth . . . 

Report was made from the Committee for perfecting 
the Confession of Faith ' of the Law.' It was read and 
debated, and upon debate much of it was assented to, the 
rest referred to the Committee. 

Sess. 708. September 15, 1646. Tuesday afternoon. 

Catechism. The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Cate- 
chism, and upon debate it was 

Ordered [as answer to O. in sess. 706] ' A. The Scrip- 

R. neg. 
tures are specially] proved to be the very Word of God 



by their majesty and holiness of doctrine,' 

Ordered ' and the fulfilling of the prophecies,' 
Ordered ' by their exalting God and debasing man, 

and yet offering him sufficient means of comfort and 

salvation,' 

Ordered ' and by their light and power in convincing 

and converting.' 

Upon a debate about putting the next answer into the 

former, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The next answer shall be to a 

distinct question. The question and answer were * as 

followeth : 

' Q. May not all these excellencies and perfections be 

found in other books besides the Scriptures ? A. No 

words or writings of men have all these excellencies and 
1 In MS. 'was.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 283 

perfections in them but as they agree unto and are taken SKSS. 708. 
from the Scriptures.' ^1646^' 

Resolved upon the Q., The former question and answer 
, .. , . . Catechism. 

shall be waived. 

Ordered That the former vote of an answer to a 
distinct question shall be waived. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' 5 Q. Are all these proofs 
sufficient of themselves to persuade a man to believe that 
the Scriptures are the Word of God ? A. It is only the 
Spirit of God that makes any proofs effectual to assure 
the soul of this truth, that the Scriptures are the Word of 
God.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' 6 Q. What do the Scriptures 
teach us to conceive of God ? A. God is a most glorious 
being, infinite in all perfections.' 

Ordered ' 7 Q. Are there many Gods, or is there but 
one God ? A. There is but one God.' 

Ordered '8 Q. How many persons are there in the 
Godhead ? A. There are three persons in the Godhead, 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and these three 
are but one God.' 

Ordered ' 9 Q. Is the Son equal with the Father in 
the Godhead ? A. The Son of God, who is the only 
begotten of the Father from all eternity, is true God, 
equal with the Father.' 

Ordered ' 10 Q. Is the Holy Ghost also God, equal 
with the Father and the Son ? A. The Holy Ghost, who 
from all eternity proceeds from the Father and the Son, 
is also true God, equal with the Father and the Son.' 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be several questions 
upon the several attributes. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' 1 1 Q. Hath God any body, or 
is He to be seen with bodily eyes ? A. God is a spirit, 
invisible, without body or bodily parts, not like a man or 
any other creature.' 

Resolved upon the Q., '12 Q. Is God contained in any 
one place in heaven or earth ? A. God is everywhere, and 
fills both heaven and earth, yet is not contained in any 
place.' 



284 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 708. Ordered' 13 O. What arc we to believe concerning 
> the P ower f God ? A. God is almighty, and can do all 

things ; nothing is too hard for him.' 
Sm ' Resolved upon the Q., ' 14 O. What are we to believe of 
the wisdom and knowledge of God ? A. God is most wise, 
knowing all things past, present, and to come, even the 
secrets of all hearts, and cannot be deceived.' 

The Assembly being informed that one Mr. Cloggey 
had lately passed the approbation of the Assembly, and 
that he was a Chaplain in the King's Army, and was taken 
prisoner in Wor[ce]stershire, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Ley desire the Committee of Plun- 
dered [Ministers] that Mr. Cloggey his certificate from the 
Assembly may be withdrawn. 

Ordered That Mr. Salway be desired to signify unto 
the Committee for Wor[ce]stershire that Mr. Cloggey his 
approbation from this Assembly may be withdrawn, be- 
cause the Assembly did not understand that he had been 
in the King's Army, and now for that reason they cannot 
approve of him. 

Sess. 709. Sept. 16, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Greenwood be respited. 

Ch. xiii. Mr. Tuckney made report of Sanctification and Saving 
ordered Faith. They were debated, and upon debate ordered, and 
they are as followeth. . . 

Sess. 710. Sept. 17, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ch. xix. Mr. Tuckney reported some alterations in the article of 
e ' The Law. They were considered and voted and the whole 
is as followeth. . . 

Mr. Tuckney made report of the article of ' Repentance 
unto life ;' and the Assembly entered upon the debate of 
it. Upon a debate upon these words in the second para- 
graph, 'and odiousness of sin as contrary to the holy 
nature of God,' and they being voted, Mr. Palmer entered 
his dissent ; and so also did Mr. Herle, the Prolocutor, if 
he may do it, and so also Mr. Walker. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 285 

Sess. 711. Sept. 17, 1646. Thursday afternoon. SESS. 711. 

Sept. 17, 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; l6 4 6 - 
and upon debate it was Catechism. 

Resolved upon the Q., '15 O. What are we to believe 
concerning the holiness of God ? A. God is most perfectly 
holy, and neither causeth nor alloweth any to sin.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' 16 Q. What are we to believe 
concerning the justice or righteousness of God ? A. God 
is always most just and in all things, punishing all sin, 
either in the sinner or in Christ the surety.' 

Resolved upon the O., ' 17 Q. What are we to believe 
concerning the goodness or mercy of God ? A. God is 
infinitely good and merciful, both in giving and forgiving 
freely.' 

Ordered'' 18 Q. What are we to believe concerning the 
eternity of God ? A. God is eternal, from everlasting to 
everlasting, having no beginning or end.' 

Ordered ' 19 Q. Is God subject to any change or 
changeableness ? A. God is always the same unchange- 
ably notwithstanding the changes in all other things.' 

Ordered ' 20 Q. What are we to believe concerning the 
truth of God ? A. God is most true in all his words, 
particularly in his promises and threatenings, and it is not 
possible for him to lie.' 

Ordered ' 2 1 Q. What are we to believe concerning the 
blessedness of God ? A. God is in himself most blessed, 
every way, and for ever, neither can any creature add to 
his happiness or take anything from it.' 

Sess. j 12. Sept. 18, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Sedgewick and Mr. Ny were appointed to pray the 
week following. 

The Assembly proceeded] in the debate of Repentance, Ch. xv. 
and upon debate the whole was assented to and is as ^ ser 
followeth. . . 

Mr. Rouse informed the Assembly that he had an order 
from the House of Commons for the hastening of the 



286 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 712. Confession of Faith. It was read, and the order is as 



Upon a motion to appoint a Committee to consider ot 
the Confession of Faith, what errors are not obviated in it, 
and to that end 2 that there be a review of the Articles of 
England and Ireland, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no Committee to 
consider of the reviewing of the Articles what errors are 
not obviated in them. 3 

Mr. Tuckney made report of the head ' of Good Works.' 
It was debated and much of it assented unto, and it was 

Ordered To proceed in the debate where we left. 

Sess. 713. Sept. 21, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Dr. Burges made report of the Confession of Faith 
transcribed, so much of it as the Assembly had perfected. 
It was read, and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' The several heads of the Con- 
fession of Faith shall be called by the name of Chapters.' 

Resolved upon the Q., That the several sections be 
distinguished by figures only. 

Ch. xvi. The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Good Works, 
assented an ^ U p O n debate the whole was assented to. and it is as 

to. 

followeth. . . 

Sess. 714. Sept. 22, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Upon some exceptions against Mr. Greenwood, it was 
ordered that this return be made to the Committee con- 
cerning Mr. Greenwood, that this Assembly is not satisfied 
concerning his fitness for a pastoral charge. 

1 Ordered 'That the members of this House that are of the Assembly of 
Divines do from this House desire the Divines of the Assembly to send in to 
this House the Confession of Faith, or so much thereof as they have perfected. 
And the care hereof is especially recommended to Mr Rouse.' Journals of 
House of Commons, vol. iv. p. 671. 

a In MS. 'and.' 

3 The following is the entry on this matter in Fascicle III. : ' A new Com- 
mittee to consider of all the errors unobviated in several Confessions of Eng- 
land, Ireland, and Scotland, to give in the catalogue of these errors to the 
Committee for the wording. R. No Committee to consider of the review- 
ing Articles what errors are not obviated in them.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 287 

Mr. Prophet moved to consider of an addition to be SF.SS. 714. 
made to the head of Good Works viz., ' Yet doth God 
command all men to repent and be converted and to 
attend the ordinances wherein he gives converting grace addition t<> 
according to his own good pleasure, and therefore is a ch - xvu 
neglect of them more displeasing to God, and shall receive 
greater damnation ;' and upon debate of it, it was 

Resolved upon the O., Not to take this paper now read 
into debate. 

Ordered To proceed in debate of the Catechism. Catechism. 
Accordingly the Assembly proceeded in the debate, and 
upon debate it was 

Ordered ' 22 Q. Since you say God cannot be seen, 
how do you know that there is a God ? A. I am sure 
there is a God, because the things that are in the world 
could neither have their being nor their preservation nor 
be ordered as they are without God.' 

Resolved upon the Q., This question shall not be inserted, 
' Who is this God ? ' 

Ordered ' 23 Q. Were all things in the world made 
by God ? A. God by his word alone made the world and 
all things therein, both visible and invisible.' 

Ordered ' 24 Q. Of what was the world made ? A. 
The world and all things therein were made out of nothing.' 

Ordered ' 25 Q. For what end was the world made ? 
A. God made all things for himself to his own glory.' 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a distinct question 
concerning the goodness of things at their creation. 

Ordered ' 26 Q. In what state and condition were the 
creatures made at first ? A. God made all things very 
good and perfect in their kind.' 

Ordered That the Committee consider of somewhat 
concerning the Decrees. 

Ordered ' 27 Q. How is the world preserved and 
ordered ? A. The power and wisdom of God is that which 
preserveth and ordereth all things throughout the world, 
even to the least circumstances.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' 28 Q. In what estate was man 
at the first created ? A. Man was created at the first 



288 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 714, in a very happy estate, after the image of God, and had 
e ^46 22 ' dominion given him over the creatures.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' 29 O. Wherein stood God's 
image in man ? A. God's image in man stood chiefly in 
knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness.' 

Mr. Walker enters his dissent to the last answer. 
Ordered That Mr. Jackson be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Sess. 715. Sept. 23, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Saunders be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Upon a motion for renewing the consideration of the 
former addition to ' Good Works,' it was 

Resolved 'upon the Q., This proposition shall not be added. 
Palmer Mr. Palmer, upon the motion of the Prolocutor, was 

^absence ca ^ ec l to ta ^ e ^ e pl ace f Assessor in the absence of Mr. 

of White. White. 

Upon a motion about revising of the Chapter of Sancti- 
fication, it was 

Ordered That Dr. Burges, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Whitakers 
do withdraw and consider of the head of Sanctification, 
and offer their thoughts of it for an addition. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Cate- 
chism ; and upon debate it was 

Ordered ' 29* Q. In what condition is man now by 
nature ? A. Man is now naturally in a very miserable 
condition by reason of sin and punishment for sin.' 

Ordered ' 30 Q. What is sin ? A. Sin is the trans- 
gression of God's law.' 

Ordered '31 Q. How came man to be sinful? A. By 
the first man's eating the forbidden fruit ail mankind 
Sess. 717.* 

became sinful ; being all conceived and born in sin.' 

Ordered ' 32 Q. How far are all men corrupted with 
sin ? A. All men have lost the image of God, and are by 

1 There seems to be a mistake in numbering this and the following ques- 
tions, as the last one voted in the previous session was numbered 29 Q. 
8 i.e. The last clause of the answer was added in Sess. 717. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 289 

nature wholly corrupted with sin both in soul and body, SESS. 715. 

being 1 inclined to all evil and enemies to all c?;ood.' Se P L , 23 ' 

1646. 

Dr. Burges made report of some additions and altera- 
tions in the chapt[er] of Sanctification. It was debated, to chap" 8 
and upon debate assented to, and the whole is as xiii - a s r eed 
followeth . . . 

Sess. 716. Sept. 23, 1646. Wednesday afternoon. 

Mr. Whitakers moved an alteration in these words in the 
chapt[er] of Predestination, viz. ' and some ordained 1 to 
everlasting death.' It was debated, and upon debate it 
was 

Resolved upon the O., The words shall stand without 
alteration. Mr. Whitakers enters his dissent. 

Mr. Arrowsmith made report of Christian Liberty. 

Ordered That this report be taken into debate [on] 
Thursday in the afternoon. 

Sess. 717. Sept. 24, 1646. -Thursday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism. Catechism. 
The next question and answer, viz., Q. ' Are children also 
thus guilty of sin and corrupted with it? A. All children 
conceived in a natural way are conceived and born in sin, 
and so was I too,' was waived. 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' being all conceived 
and born in sin,' shall be added to the answer last voted. 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no addition. 

Resolved upon the Q., This question and answer, viz. : 

' Q. If all mankind be thus corrupted, how comes any 
one to be better than another ? A. It is God's grace only 
that makes one man better than another, restraining all 
and sanctifying some,' shall be waived in this place. 

Resolved upon the Q., '33 Q. What is the punishment 
due to sin ? A. The punishment due even to the least sin 
is death, together with all curses in this life and eternal 
damnation afterward.' 

1 In Fascicle III., the words objected to by Mr. Whitakers stand as they 
do now in the Confession of Faith, ' and some foreordained to everlasting 
death.' 

T 



290 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 717. Resolved upon the O., '34 Q. What think you of your 
own sins: do tne y deserve such punishment? A. Even 

my sins deserve damnation and all other punishments 
Catechism. . , 

whatsoever. 

Resolved upon the Q., '35 Q. Shall all sinners be 
punished alike ? A. They that are greater sinners, if they 
repent not, shall receive greater judgment.' 

Sess. 718. Sept. 24, 1646. Thursday afternoon. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the report 
concerning Christian Liberty; and upon some debate it 
was recommitted. 

Ordered That Dr. Burges prepare a title to the Con- 
fession of Faith. 

Sess. 719. Sept. 25, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Burges and Mr. Sterry were appointed to pray. 
Confession Report was made of the title to the Confession of Faith ; 
of Faith. an d it was 

Ordered This to be the title: 'To the Hon ble the 
House of Commons assembled in Parliament, The humble 
Advice of the Assembly of Divines, now by authority 
of Parliament sitting at Westminster, concerning part of a 
Confession of Faith.' 

Report was made from the Committee of that recom- 
mitted concerning ' Christian Liberty.' 

Dr. Burges made report of the 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 chap- 
ters of the Confession of Faith ; and after the reading of 
them it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That the 19 first chapters of the 
Confession of Faith shall be sent to the House of Commons 
in obedience to their last order for sending so much of the 
Confession of Faith as is already perfected. Ordered 
That Dr. Burges, Dr. Temple, Mr. Ward, Mr. Tuckney, 
Dr. Gouge, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Cawdry, and Mr. Sedge- 
wicke do carry up this part of the Confession of Faith. 1 

1 This was done the same day, for, under date of September 25, we have the 

following entry in the Journals of the House of Commons (vol. iv. p. 677) : 

' The House being informed that some of the Divines of the Assembly were 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 2C)I 

Sept. 28, 1646. Monday morning. Sept. 28. 

The Assembly sat not this day, because there was not l646 ' 
a full number. To those that were present, Dr. Burges 
made report that he had delivered part of the Confession 
of Faith to the House of Commons, according to the order 
of the Assembly. 

Sess. 720. Oct. i, 1646. TJiursday morning. 

Ordered That a Duplicate of that part of the Con- 
fession of Faith sent to the House of Commons be sent to 
the House of Lords by the same Committee. 1 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Harriot be approved upon 
his former examination. 

at the door ; They were called in, and Dr. Burgesse acquainted the House, 
That according to the Order of this House to expedite the Confession of 
Faith and send in the same to this House, or so much thereof as was 
finished, the Assembly had diligently pursued that Order, and had com- 
manded them to deliver in as much thereof as is already done, which was 
nineteen heads the which he presented to the House. ' 

These heads were ordered to be read on Friday morning next ; and they 
were actually read on Friday, gth October, and ordered to be printed. 

1 Fascicle III. has, ' there being added, Being a duplicate of what was pre- 
sented to the Hon ble House of Commons on Friday last, Sept. 25, 1646.' 
This duplicate was presented to the House of Lords on October 1st, and under 
that date the following entry appears in their Journals (vol. viii. p. 55) : 
' Mr. Doctor Burges, with some others of the Assembly of Divines, presented 
a paper directed in kcec verba : 

" To the Right Honourable the House of Lords assembled in Parliament. 

"The Humble Advice of the Assembly of Divines, by authority of Parlia- 
ment sitting at Westminster, concerning part of a Confession of Faith ; being 
a duplicate of what was presented to the Honourable House of Commons on 
Friday last, September 25, 1646." The said paper was read in part.' 

The whole had been read a first and second time before November 6th, and 
under that date we have the farther entry in their Lordships' Journals (vol. 
viii. p. 588) : ' Next was read a third time that part of the Confession which 
was lately presented to this House from the Assembly of Divines as their 
Advice. And the question being put, " Whether to agree to the Confession of 
Faith now read?" It was Resolved in the Affirmative.' 

Ordered That the Confession of Faith now passed shall be sent down to 
the House of Commons, with this recommendation, ' That the Lords have 
received these Articles of Faith, which, after due consideration, they have 
passed, and desire the concurrence of the House of Commons therein ; it 
being necessary (hat the Protestant Churches abroad, as well as the people of 
this kingdom at home, may have knowledge hmu that the Parliament did never 
intend to innovate matters of Faith.'' No definite action, however, was taken 
by the House of Commons till after the whole Confession had been presented. 



2Q2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 720. The Assembly debated the Report concerning Christian 
Liberty ; and despatched some of it. 
Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

October 2, 1646. Friday morning. 

The Assembly sat as a Committee for want of number. 

Mr. Bridge and Dr. Burges were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons. 

Ordered That Mr. Marsden be excused from coming up 
to be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Newton be excused from coming up 
to be examined. 

Sess. 721. October 6, 164.6. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Bennet be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Whitting be approved upon his 
former examination. 

The Assembly debated what course was fit to be taken 
that the members of Assembly might attend more dili- 
gently ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That the Question shall be put. 1 

Resolved upon the Q., That the Order of the Lords 

and Commons of the 4th of December shall be strictly 

Attend- observed ; and to that end that the scribes [do] forthwith 

ance of prepare the names of the members of the Assembly 

Members. ... J 

according to their absence or presence, and that the names 

of the most negligent shall be returned to both Houses of 
Parliament. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the time of reckoning their 
diligence in attendance shall be since the date of the Order 
of Lords and Commons. 

The Assembly being informed that Mr. Craddocke did 
present himself unto the Assembly to be examined, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Craddocke shall be 
admitted to examination, and the order of the House of 
Lords prosecuted on his behalf. 

1 This Resolution is inserted in the MS. after that which follows, but in the 
margin this is numbered I, and that which follows 2. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 293 

Ordered That a testimonial for Mr. Craddocke shall be SF.SS. 721. 
read in the Assembly before he be examined. 6 ' 



Sess. 722. October 7, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Moore be approved upon his former 
approbation by the ministers appointed for ordination, 
Ordered That Mr. William Moore do send up a testi- 
monial. 

Upon an order from the Committee for Plundered 
Ministers for a particular account to be given in the busi- 
ness concerning Mr. Greenwood, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., A particular account shall be 
given to the Committee for Plundered Ministers in the 
business of Mr. Greenwood. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate ' of Christian Debate of 
Liberty and Liberty of Conscience ; ' and much debate Christian 
was upon that clause that ' for publishing of such opinions 
and maintaining of such practices as are contrary to the 
light of nature/ etc., and upon debate that clause was 
resolved. Mr. Ny, Mr. Carter, jun., and Mr. Simpson 
enter their dissent. And the next clause, ' contrary to 
the known principles of Christianity, whether concerning 
faith, worship, or conversation,' was also debated and 
resolved. Mr. Carter, jun., enters his dissent. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate. 

Sess. 723. October 8, 1646. Thursday morning. 

A testimonial was brought for Mr. Craddocke. Resolved^ 
upon the Q., That Mr. Craddocke shall upon this testi- 
monial be admitted to examination. 

Report was made of an answer to the Committee for 
Plundered Ministers concerning Mr. Greenwood, and it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That this answer shall be returned 
to the order concerning Mr. Greenwood . . . 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate ' of Liberty of 
Conscience,' and had some debate concerning that clause, 
' or the peace of the Church ;' and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., To be recommitted. 
1 In Fascicle R. -*. 



2Q4 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 724. Sess. 724. October 9, 1646. Friday morning. 

646 9 ' Mr - Green and Mr. Corbet of N[orfolk] were appointed 

to pray with the Lords and Commons. 

Debate of The Assembly proceeded in the debate, and finished 
mrty. an that clause concerning the peace of the Church, and 

concerning the proceeding against them by the censures 

of the Church. 

Sess. 725. October 12, 164.6. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Houghton be approved upon his 
former examination, as also Mr. Woodman and Mr. 
Knight. 

Ordered That Mr. Pryor be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate ' of Liberty of 
Conscience ;' and upon a motion to add the word 'obsti- 
nate ' to the words in the last vote, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The word ' obstinate' shall not 
be added. Mr. Carter entered his dissent to that vote. 

Mr. Tate brought an order from the House of Commons 
about the printing of the Confession of Faith, so much as 
is sent up, and annexing Scriptures thereunto. It is as 
followeth 1 . . . 

Upon debate of it, it was Resolved upon the Q., There 

1 It does not follow, however, in the MS., but it is entered in the Journals of 
the House of Commons (vol. iv. p. 688) in the following form : 

' According to former Order, the Grand Committee of the House sat to 
take into consideration the Advice of the Assembly of Divines concerning a 
part of the Confession of Faith Mr. Whittacre in the chair. 

' Mr. Speaker resumed the chair. Upon Mr. Whittacre's report from the 
Grand Committee, It is Resolved, etc., That Five Hundred Copies of the 
Advice of the Assembly of Divines, concerning part of a Confession of Faith, 
brought into this House, and no more, be forthwith printed for the use of 
the Members of both Houses only, with some expression in the title page that 
they are printed to the end that the members of both Houses may advise 
thereupon ; And that the Divines be desired to put in the margin the proofs 
out of the Scripture to confirm what they have offered to the House in such 
places as they shall think it most necessary. 

' Ordered That Mr. Selden and Mr. Tate do acquaint the Assembly of 
Divines with this Order : And that according to the meaning and purport of 
the said Order, Mr. Selden and Mr. Tate do likewise prepare some convenient 
expression to be put upon the title page that the said books are printed, to the 
end the Members of both Houses may advise thereupon.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 295 

shall be a Committee to consider of this order how obedi- SESS. 725. 
ence may be yielded thereunto. Ordered That Mr. 
Simpson, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Seaman, Mr. 
Calamy, Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. Vines, or any three of them, 
shall be a Committee to meet this afternoon, and to 
make report to-morrow morning. 

Mr. Tuckney made report ' of Religious Worship and 
Sabbath-day,' ' of Lawful Oaths and Vows,' ' of the Civil 
Magistrate,' ' of Marriage and Divorce.' 

Sess. 726. October 13, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Mr. Palmer made report of the Answer to the House of 
Commons concerning the annexing of Scriptures to the 
Confession of Faith and printing the same. It was de- 
bated, and upon debate assented to. 

Resolved upon the Q., That this answer shall be tran- 
scribed and sent to the House of Commons, to be pre- 
sented by the Committee that drew it up. The answer is 
as followeth 1 . . . 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the chap[ter] Debate 
of ' Liberty of Conscience' and the power of the Civil re 
Magistrate in punishing such as maintain and publish 
opinions against the light of nature, etc. 

Sess. 727. October 14, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Crompton do bring a better testi- 
monial. 

Mr. Marshall brought another Order in answer to the 

1 The Answer is not inserted at length either in the minutes of the Assembly 
or in the Journals of the House, but its purport may be gathered from the 
following entry in the Journals (vol. iv. p. 692) : 

'The House being informed that some Divines of the Assembly were at the 
door ; They were called in : and Mr. Marshall acquainted the House, That 
the Assembly having received an Order from this House of 9 Octobris 1646, 
they did humbly return this answer, and do desire that they may know the 
farther pleasure of this House thereupon. The Divines being withdrawn, the 
answer was read . . . Resolved, etc., That five hundred copies of the Con- 
fession of Faith be forthwith printed for the service of the Houses, without 
annexing of the texts of Scripture for the present : Yet, notwithstanding, the 
House does expect that the Divines should send in the texts of Scripture with 
all convenient speed. . . . The Divines were again called in, and Mr. Speaker 
acquainted them with this Order.' 



296 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS 727 message sent to the House of Commons about the printing 
Oct 14, of the Confession of Faith. The order is as followeth 1 . . . 
Ordered That the scribes do take care of the exact 
Debate of printing of the Confession of Faith. 

magistrate. The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the power of 
the Civil Magistrate in punishing heresies, etc. 

Sess. 728. October 15, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Tuppes be respited till he bring a 
better testimonial. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate about the power 
of the Magistrate. An argument was used for the affirma- 
tive that the Magistrate hath such a power ; and upon 
debate it was Resolved upon the Q., This argument hath 
not been sufficiently answered. An argument was also 
urged for the negative ; and upon debate it was Resolved 
upon the Q., This argument hath been answered. 

Sess. 729. October 16, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Gower and Mr. Taylor were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Tuppe, and some information 
brought in against him, it was 

Ordered That this answer be returned to the Committee 
for the County of Worcester, That Mr. Tuppe is not thought 
fit by the Assembly for any ministerial charge. 

Ordered That Mr. Francklin have his certificate upon 
his former examination. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of that part of the 
chapter 'of Liberty of Conscience' concerning the peace of 
the Church in reference to the power of the Civil Magistrate. 

October 19, 1646. Monday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. James have a certificate 
upon his former examination. 

Ordered That the Scribe do give a copy to Mr. 
Craddocke of his certificate sent unto the Lords, signed 
with his hand. 

1 See it in note on p. 295. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 297 

Sess. 730. October 20, 1646. Tuesday morning. SESS. 730. 

The Assembly debated the putting of the proposition f^' 
concerning the power of the Civil Magistrate into the Con- 
fession of Faith. 

Sess. 731. October 21, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Mr. Marshall did, in the name of the executors of the 
Earl of Essex, invite the Assembly to attend the funeral of 
the Earl of Essex the next day from Essex House. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Report 
' of Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience ;' and 
upon debate of the arguments against the putting of this 
proposition into the Confession of Faith, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That the arguments brought Proposi- 
against the putting of the proposition last voted into the stand "in 
Confession of Faith are answered. Resolved upon the Q., Confes- 
That this proposition shall stand in the Confession of 
Faith : ' That for their publishing such opinions or main- 
taining such practices/ etc. (as before voted), ' may be law- 
fully called to account and proceeded against by the power 
of the Civil Magistrate.' Mr Simpson, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. 
Greenhill, entered their dissent. Mr. Carter entered his 
dissent to the truth of it. 

October 23, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Calamy and Mr. Walker were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Sampson Bond's certificate be 
respited for a month, and that he bring a testimonial of 
his good conversation since his last approbation by the 
Assembly. 

Ordered That Mr. John Wall be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Sess. 732. October 29, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Report was made from the Committee concerning the 
absence of the members of the Assembly, and the means 
to provide an Assembly for the time to come. Ordered 
That the list of the names, with the reasons annexed unto 



298 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 732. them, be recommitted. The rest of the report was de- 
i6 4 6 9> bated, and is as followeth . . . 

Ordered That Mr. Hart be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Sess. 733. October 30, 1646. Friday morning. 
Mr. Hickes and Mr. Johnson were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Resolved upon the Q., that Mr. Leaver be approved upon 
his former examination. 

Chap. xx. The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the last clause 
concluded. Q f ^e Q ia pt e r of Liberty of Conscience ; and upon debate 
that clause was laid aside, and the whole was concluded, 
and is as followeth . . . 

Chap. xxi. The Assembly debated the Chapter ' of Religious 
t0 ' Worship ;' and upon debate it was assented to, and is as 
followeth . . . 

November 2, 1646. Monday morning. 
Ordered That Mr. Richard Moore have a certificate 
upon his ordination. 

Sess. 734. November 3, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Daux, Mr. Charles, and Mr. Sander- 
son be approved upon their former examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Green, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Prophet, Mr. 
Salway, Mr. Ward,be added to the Committee for the North. 

An order was brought from the House of Lords to 
approve of Mr. Simonds and Mr. Walter. It was read, 
and is as followeth * . . . 

Report was made of the chapt[er] ' of Oaths and Vows.' 
It was debated. Ordered That Mr. Palmer, Mr. Mar- 
shall, Mr. Ny, Mr. Bridge, shall be a Committee to consider 
something about the usual ceremony of an oath. 

Ordered To proceed in the debate ' of Oaths and Vows.' 

Sess. 735. November 6, 1646. Friday morning. 
Mr. Carrill, Mr. Burroughs, were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. ' 

1 Not in MS., but given in Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 541. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 299 

Ordered Mr. Wright be approved upon his former SESS. 735. 

examination. N 7'c 6 ' 

1646. 

Ordered Mr. Tompson be respited a little. 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Swaine shall be examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate 'of Lawful Oaths Chap. xxii. 
and Vows ; ' and upon debate the whole was assented to, agree 
and is as followeth . . . 

Sess. 736. November 9, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Hunt be examined, and Mr. Smithies 
excused from coming up to be examined, and Mr. Made- 
well 1 have a certificate upon his former examination, and 
Mr. Grew be dispensed with from coming up to be 
examined. 

Ordered -That Mr. Boyer be respited till a certificate 
from ministers be brought for him ; and that Mr. Ricards 
be respited till Wednesday. 

The Assembly debated the chapter ' of Civil Magis- Chap, 
trate;' and upon debate it was assented to, and is as Assented 
followeth ... to. 

The Assembly debated the chapter 'of Marriage and Debate of 
Divorce ;' and upon debate those paragraphs concerning [ na 
wilful desertion were recommitted. 2 divorce. 

Sess. 737. November 10, 1646. Tuesday -morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Hunt shall have his 
certificate. 

Ordered That Mr. Wright have an approbation upon 
his former examination. 

Report was made from the Committee of the Sacra- Chap, 
ments ; it was debated, and upon debate the chapter of **yj|j *' 
the Sacraments and of Baptism was assented to, and is as assented 

to. 

followeth ... 

Report was made of that clause committed concerning 
wilful desertion. 

1 Madwell in Fascicle III., Maidwell in Nonconformists Memorial. 

2 In Fascicle III. the entry is: 'The clause concerning wilful desertion 
respited for a day or two till the Committee meet to prepare something. The 
Committee is the brethren that did except against that clause.' 



;oo 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 738. 

Nov. n, 

1646. 



Clause of 

wilful 

desertion 

and ch. 

xxiv. 

assented 

to. 



Of the 
Lord's 
Supper. 



Sess. 738. November II, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr Howard 1 be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Ordered That it be certified to the Committee of Wor- 
cester that Mr. Ricards is thought unfit for a ministerial 
charge, and that the information now brought in against 
him be returned to the same Committee to consider of. 

Ordered That Mr. Tompson be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Calamy and Mr. Case do visit Mr. 



Burroughs. 

The Assembly debated the clause concerning wilful de- 
sertion, and upon debate it was assented to. The chapter 
'of Marriage and Divorce' is as followeth . . . 

The Assembly debated the Report concerning the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper ; and it was 

Ordered That this chapter be referred to Dr. Burges, 
Mr. Calamy, and Mr. Whitakers. 

Sess. 739. November 12, 164.6. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Pettit be approved. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Masterton 2 be approved. 

Ordered That Mr. Cawthorne be approved. 

Ordered That Mr. Wells be approved upon his ordi- 
nation. 

Ordered That those ministers that come with orders to 
this Assembly to be examined, and have been ordained by 
any Classis, do bring a copy of the testimonial of their 
conversation, signed under the hand of the Registrar 8 of 
the said Classis. 

Report was made of the chapter of the Lord's Supper. 
It was debated, and part of it assented to. 

Sess. 740. November 13, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Gippes and Mr. Carter, jun., were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Crumpton 4 have a cer- 
tificate. 



1 Or Haward. 

3 In MS., Register. 



2 Or Masterson. 
* Or Crampton. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. ^OI 

\J 

Ordered That all ministers that are to pass the appro- SK 
bation of this Assembly for any place do bring the reasons N 
of their removal, to be published together with their order 
and testimonial. 

Ordered That Mr. Ley, Mr. Delmy, and Dr. Smith do Mr. Taylor 
move the Committee of Plundered Ministers in the behalf Bended 
of Mr. Taylor, a member of this Assembly, that he may be for Can - 
put in to the place of Dr. Jackson to preach in the Cathedral Cathedral. 
Church of Canterbury. 

Report was made from the Committee of the remaining 
chapters of the Confession of Faith ' of the Church,' ' of 
Officers,' 'of Synods,' [and] 'of the Communion of Saints.' 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate ' of the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper.' 

Ordered That Mr. Webb be approved of. 

Sess. 741. November 16, 1646. Monday morning. 

An order was brought from the House of Lords for the 
approbation of Mr. Launce. It was read, and is as 
followeth. 1 ... It was debated, and upon debate it was 

Ordered That Mr. Launce his business be respited till 
further consideration. 

The Assembly debated the answer to the Lords' Order 
concerning Mr. Simonds and Mr. Walter ; and upon 
debate it was 

Ordered That this answer shall be returned ' That 
they have not appeared ; and it was Resolved upon the Q., 
It shall be signified that we hear that they are in Wales, 2 
and that the Assembly cannot give any approbation of 
these men for Itinerary Preachers without conference first 
had with them. Ordered That Mr. Ley and Dr. Smith 
do carry this 3 answer to the Lords. 

1 The inhabitants of the parish of Edmund the King in Lombard Street had 
petitioned that Mr. William Launce might be presented to be their minister; 
and because that he, being one of the Assembly of Divines, had for some time 
absented himself from the said Assembly, the House, on 3Oth October, 
ordered, ' that the Assembly of Divines do certify their opinions concerning 
the said Mr. Launce.' Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 550. 

2 In Fascicle III., R. ^. 'That we hear they are in Wales.' 

3 Or ' the.' It was transmitted to the Lords the same day ; yet the House 
forthwith read a third time and passed the Ordinance sent up by the Commons 



3O2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 741. The Assembly debated the chapter of the Lord's 
^646 ' Supper ; and upon debate it was assented to, and is as 
followeth . . . 

Chap. 

xxix. as- Sess. 742. November 17, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Perrot be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Chap. xxv. The Assembly debated the chapter ' of the Church ; ' 
assented an( j U p on debate it was assented to. It is as followeth . . . 
The Assembly debated the chapter ' of the Communion 
of Saints/ and finished part of it. The rest was recom- 
mitted. 

Sess. 743. November 19, 1646. Thursday morning. 
Report was made of that committed concerning the 
Communion of Saints. It was debated, a-::d up en debits 
.^j ^ T U 3 v.'hcl- cha"*-"- : ~. "". ^loeth 

Ct._fOv_i.i. t.^,U> tW. * J-iX* v Ai^/J.^- \_-iAtx. ^_^-A *iJ CtTj i v_/ A A \J ^>LjLl , , 

Sess. 744. November 20, 1646. Friday morning. 
Ordered That Mr. Rogers have an approbation. 
Chap ^ n Edition was offered to the chapter ' of the Com- 

xxvi. munion of Saints.' It was debated and concluded. The 
whole chapter is as followeth . . . 

Dr. Burges offered an addition to the head ' of Worship.' 
It was debated, and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no addition con- 
cerning Praise and Thanksgiving. Resolved upon the Q., 
These words ' Reverend and devout reading ' shall be 
revoked. Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no addi- 
tion concerning catechising. 1 

The addition is as followeth 2 . . . 

Sess. 745. November 23, 1646. Monday morning. 
Ordered That Mr. Wright be approved upon his former 
examination. 

appointing Simonds and Walter, as well as Craddock, itinerant ministers in 
South Wales, and allowing them .300 per annum out of the revenues of the 
Deans and Chapters of the Cathedrals of St. David's and Landaff. Simonds 
was approved of by the Assembly in Session 765. 

1 Fascicle III. gives the state of the vote in each case. ' R. neg. ^. An 
addition concerning Praises and Thanksgiving. J?. ^. Reverend and devout 
reading shall be revoked. J?. ^. No addition concerning catechising.' 

* Perhaps chap. xxiv. sec. v., or a part thereof. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 303 

Ordered That Mr. Craddicot be approved upon his SKSS. 745. 
former examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Vaughan be examined. 

Dr. Surges moved for an addition to that of a lawful 
oath, viz., 'an occasional and extraordinary part of God's 
worship ;' and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Extraordinary' shall not stand. 1 

Resolved upon the Q., Something shall be added to the 
head of Religious Worship ; which was accordingly done. 

The Assembly debated ' of Church Officers.' 

Sess. 746. November 26, 1646. Thursday morning'. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate ' of Church chap. xxx. 
Officers and Censures;' and upon debate it was assented j* ssen 
to, and is as followeth . . . 

The Assembly debated of 'Synods and Councils ;' and Chap. 
upon debate it was assented to, and is as followeth . . . semecfto 

The Assembly debated ' of the State of Man after chap. 

death ;' and upon debate it was assented to, and is as xxxu - , as ~ 

sented to. 

followeth . . . 

The Assembly debated 'of the Last Judgment;' and Chap, 
upon debate it was assented to, and is as followeth . . . sented to. 

The Confession of Faith was finished this day, and by Confession 
order of the Assembly the Prolocutor gave thanks, in the fimsned > 

J and thanks 

name of the Assembly, to the Committee that had taken given to 
so good 2 pains in the perfecting of the Confession of te mr 
Faith. 

Resolved upon the Q., The whole Confession of Faith To be sent 
shall be transcribed and read in the Assembly, and sent up i 
to both Houses of Parliament. 

Ordered That the last part of the Confession of Faith 
not sent up formerly shall also be transcribed and sent up 
to both Houses of Parliament, together with the whole. 

Mr. Ny, Mr. Carter, jun., and Mr. Greenhill, enter their 
dissent to the sending up of the Confession of Faith in 
order to the Preface. 

Ordered Before the Confession of Faith be sent up, the 

1 In Fascicle III. it is ' R. ^. Extraordinary shall not be added.' 
a In Fascicle III., 'great.' 



304 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 746. 

Nov. 26, 

1646. 

Proposed 
preface to 
the Con- 
fession. 

Dissents 
to be 
searched 
for. 



500 to be 
distributed 
among 
members 
of As- 
sembly. 



Some 
alterations 
in Confes- 
sion of 
Faith 
agreed to. 
Catechism 
proceeded 
with. 



Preface shall be debated and prepared to be sent up with 
it, if any be made. 

Ordered -To proceed in the debate of the Catechism. 

Ordered That the scribes do make search in their 
boo[ks] for the several dissents entered to any part of the 
Confession of Faith. 

Scss. 747. November 27, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Whitaker, were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Taylor be approved of upon his 
former examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Shiene be approved of upon his 
former examination. 

The Assembly being informed that that * there was 
an Order for ^"500 for the members of the Assembly, 
it was 

Ordered That Mr. Prolocutor, Mr. Palmer, Dr. Smith, 
Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. Ward, Dr. Burges, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. 
Seaman, Mr. Salway, Mr. Raynor, Mr. Maynard, and Mr. 
Perne be a Committee to consider of the disposal of the 
said money. They are to meet in the afternoon, and make 
report to the Assembly. 

The Assembly being informed by Mr. Byfield, Scribe of 
the Assembly, of a great aspersion cast upon the Assembly 
by Mr. Price, a member of it, upon debate of it, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Byfield hath in this 
information done nothing but what was his duty to do. 

Ordered That the Committee about the baptizing of all 2 
infants do meet again. 

Dr. Burges moved for some alterations in the Confession 
of Faith in some words, which were assented to. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was 8 

Ordered ' Q. Why is our Saviour called Christ ? A . 
Our Saviour is called Christ, that is, Anointed, because 

1 Sit in MS. z In Fascicle III. ' all' is omitted. 

8 The MS. here inserts, but again erases, the question and answer resolved 
on in Session 748. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 305 

he is set apart of God and perfectly furnished for the SKSS. 747. 
offices of Prophet, Priest, and King to His Church.' *l' & 7 ' 

Ordered ' Q. How did Jesus Christ become man ? A. 
Jesus Christ was conceived by the Holy Ghost and born of 
the Virgin Mary.' 

Resolved upon the O., There shall be no addition. 
Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. Was Christ such a man as 
other men are? A. Christ was conceived and born with- 
out sin.' Resolved upon the Q., 'and also lived and died 
without any sin, but else was like other men.' 

Upon further debate, these two last votes were revoked, 
and instead of them it was Resolved upon the Q., ' Christ 
had the same nature and common infirmities with other 
men, but otherwise was altogether without sin.' 

The other questions concerning the death of Christ were 
referred to the Committee ; and something to be added 
concerning the active obedience of Christ and His suffering 
in soul. 

Sess. 748. November 30, 1646. Monday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Burton, Mr. Jackson, and 
Mr. Bowfield be excused from coming up. 

Resolved Mr. Garthwaite be respited. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., ' Q. What 
do you call the general company of those that are re- 
deemed by Christ ? A. The whole company of those that 
are redeemed by Christ is commonly called the Holy 
Catholic Church.' 

Dr. Smith made report of the distribution of the 
money. 

Sess. 749. December I, 1646. Tiiesday morning. 

The Assembly debated about the Creed to be put into Debate as 
the Catechism ; and upon a motion to proceed in the [ e P Creef 
Report, it was in Cate- 

Resolved upon the Q., ' A question shall be put con- c 
cerning the going on in the Report now before us.' Re- 
solved upon the Q., There shall be a further debate about 

u 



306 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 749. the method of proceeding. 1 Resolved upon the O., The 
1646!' question shall not be put again. 

Upon a motion for an alteration in the chap[ter] of 

Alteration . . f r . . . 

in chap, of Censures in the Confession ot r aim, it was 

'Censures' Resolvcd-upon the O., There shall be no alteration. 

Ordered That the brethren that drew up the Confession 
of Faith do assist Dr. Burges in reading over the Con- 
fession of Faith with one of the scribes. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism. 
Ordered To go on in the debate of the Commandments 
for the Catechism. 

Addition Resolved upon the Q., There shall be an addition to 

SiueTon the Committee for the Catechism. Ordered That Mr. 

Catechism. Whitakers, Mr. Ny, Mr. Byfield, and the brethren that are 

for the methodizing of the Confession of Faith be added to 

the Committee. 

Scss. 750. December 2, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Hampton be approved. 

Catechism The Assembly debated the Catechism, beginning with 
^ e questions concerning Repentance before the Command- 
ments ; and upon debate it was 

Ordered ' Q. Who are they that shall be saved by 
Christ? A. Those only are saved by Christ that repent 
of their sins and believe in Christ.' Ordered ' Q. What 
is Repentance? A. Repentance is a grace of the gospel 
whereby a sinner acknowledging his sins with sorrow, 
shame, and hatred, turneth from all sin to God.' 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Hatred [to] stand in this place.' 
Resolved upon the O., It be referred to the Committee to 
bring in an addition. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. How far doth sin remain in 
those that truly repent ? A. Those that truly repent have 
sin still dwelling in them, hut they yield not up them- 
selves any more to be servants to obey it in the lusts 
thereof.' 

1 In Fascicle III. the entry is : ' Again ^|. R. ^. A further debate about 
the method of proceeding. ' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 307 

Sess. 751. December 3, 1646. Thursday morning. SESS. 751. 

Ordered Mr. Pinney be approved upon his former ex- ^'^" 
amination. Ordered Mr. Swan be respited. Ordered 
Mr. Heyson 1 be examined. Resolved upon the O., Dr. 
Biram be examined. 

Upon a motion made by Dr. Surges for some alterations Some 
in the Confession of Faith, upon debate thereof it was farther 

alterations 

Ordered in chap, xix., paragraph 6 ' thereof,' to be put in Confes- 
insteadof, 'of them.' 

Ordered Chap. xxii. 7 The word ' lawfully,' to be put 
out. Resolved upon the Q. chap. xxii. 3 These words 
shall be added after 'perform:' 'yet it is a sin to refuse 
an oath touching any thing that is good and just being 
imposed by lawful authority.' Resolved upon the Q., No 
further addition. 

Ordered Chap. xxi. 6, for ' may be directed,' read ' is 
directed.' 

Ordered Chap. xxxi. 5 These words shall be added 
at the end of the paragraph, ' or by way of humble petition 
in cases extraordinary.' Resolved upon the O., The last 
words shall be transposed. Mr. Ny, Mr. Simpson, Mr. 
Carter enter their dissent. 

Resolved upon the O., in chap, xxix These words, 
' and high presumption,' shall be left out. Resolved upon 
the Q., These words, ' or be admitted thereunto,' shall be 
added. 

The Committee do consider of that which is propounded 
concerning the chapter of the Civil Magistrate. 

Ordered Dr. Smith, Mr. Ny, Mr. Whitakers, and Mr. 
Ward shall be a Committee to move both Houses for a 
general Fast by reason of the weather. 2 

Sess. 752. December 4, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Tuckney, Dr. Stanton, were ordered to pray with 
the House of Lords and the House of Commons, the week 
following. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Swan bring a better testi- 
monial. Ordered Mr. Banke bring a good testimonial. 

1 Or Heyton. 2 Journals of House of Commons, vol. iv. pp. 737, 738. 



308 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 752. Dr. Smith made report that they had attended the House 
1646*' f Commons ; and the said House had ordered a Fast on 
Wednesday next in the City, and the Wednesday fortnight 
ordered, in the Country. 

Resolved upon the Q., Dr. Biram * have his certificate. 
Report was made of the remaining part of the Confession 
of Faith by Dr. B urges. 

Gillespie Upon a motion by Mr. Gillespie for an alteration in the 
^IlTera- chapt[er] about the Civil Magistrate, and upon debate it 

tion in was 

Resolved upon the Q., 2 ' That in the said chapter for the 
word " Christ," the word " God," shall be put in three 
Dr. Burges places.' Dr. Burges enters his dissent. 

Memorandum. 'This vote was not intended to deter- 
memo 1 - mine the controversy about the subordination of the Civil 
randum. Magistrate to Christ as Mediator.' 

Thanks re- Ordered That thanks be returned to the Assessor, Dr. 
nei ' Burges, for his great pains in transcribing the Confession 
Burges. o f Faith, which was done by the Prolocutor. 
Confession Resolved upon the Q., This 3 shall be presented to both 

to be pre- 

sented by 1 Or Biron - 

the whole 2 In Fascicle III. the entry is ' R. 20. For the word "Christ," the word 

Assembly. " God " in those three places.' 

3 This, i.e. the transcribed and finally adjusted copy of the Confession of 
Faith. This was presented to the House of Commons the same day, and the 
following is the entry in their Journals on the matter (vol. iv. p. 739) : 

' The House being informed that the Divines of the Assembly were at the 
door ; they were called in : and the Prolocutor informed the House that the 
Assembly of Divines had now finished the latter part of the Confession of 
Faith : which they desire humbly to present to the House : and for the more 
conveniency of the business they had reduced both parts likewise into one entire 
body ; They do desire, that if either the thing do seem long, or that they have 
been long in perfecting of it, that you will consider that the business is matter 
of great weight and importance. 

' Ordered, etc. That on Monday morning next, the first business, this part 
of the Confession of Faith, this day presented by the Assembly of Divines, be 
read, and immediately after the reading thereof and such order as shall be 
made thereupon, Mr. Speaker do leave -the chair, and the House meet in a 
Committee to take into consideration the Ordinance for preventing the spread- 
ing and growth of blasphemies and heresies according to the former Order.' 

It is not till 7th December, however, that we find the following entry in the 
Journals of the House of Lords (vol. viii. p. 597): ' This day Mr. Prolocutor, 
with many others of the Assembly of Divines, presented the remainder of the 
Articles of the Confession of Faith : one part whereof they brought up formerly, 
which their Lordships have passed ; and because of the great concernment of 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 309 

Houses of Parliament by the whole Assembly. The Con- SF.S-. 75 
fession of Faith as it was presented is as followeth l . . . ' 



Sess. 7 S3- December 7, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Hooke have a certificate upon his 
former examination. Ordered That Mr. Hciron 2 be 
approved without coming up to be examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism, Catechism 

i i i .. resumed. 

and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the O., ' Q. What is it to believe in 
Christ? A. To believe in Christ is to receive Christ 
according to God's offer, resting on him alone for pardon 
and all grace and salvation.' Resolved upon the O., ' Q. 
What ground or warrant have you, being a sinner, to believe 
in Christ? A. The ground of my believing in Christ is 
God's offer of Him in His word to me as well as to any 
other man, and His commanding me to believe in Him, 
as well as to believe or obey any other thing in His word.' 

Sess. 754. December 10, 1646. TJiursday morning. 

An order was brought from the House of Commons by 
Mr. Rouse to send up what is finished upon the Articles of 
the Church of England, and the Scriptures for it ; and to 
prepare the Answer to the Queries. It is as followeth 3 . . 
Ordered That Dr. Temple, M. Seaman, Mr. Bond, Dr. 
Stanton, be a Committee to consider of what is done in the 
Articles of Religion. They are to meet in the afternoon. 

Ordered That Mr. Boyer be approved upon his former 
approbation. 

it, they have likewise now brought it up in one entire body ; and he gave their 
Lordships thanks for their many encouragements they have received from this 
House. 

' The House received the said remainder of the Confession, and Ordered 
That the Speaker should let them know that this House hath passed the 
first part of the Confession, and have sent the same to the House of Commons, 
and likewise that they shall have thanks returned them for their great pains 
they have expressed in giving their advice in the matters concerning matters 
of religion ; and to signify to them that this House will be ready to give them 
all further encouragement in their progress of the work . . The Prolocutor and 
the rest of the Assembly were called in again, and the Speaker spake to them 
to the effect aforesaid. ' 

1 Not insertedjin MS., but given in Appendix from earliest edition. 

2 Or Hieron. 3 Journals of House of Commons, vol. v. p. 2. 



3IO MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 754- Resolved upon the Q., That the Reasons of the removal 
of the ministers that are brought before the Assembly be 
duly weighed in the Assembly, and sufficient satisfaction 
be given of the truth of them under the hands of credible 
persons. 

Ordered That Mr. Wethered be respited. 
Ordered That Mr. Watts bring a testimonial from the 
time that he was sequestered. 

Order for Another Order was brought for the printing of the Con- 

thTcon- fession of Faith ; it was read and is as followeth x . . . 

fession. Ordered That the Scribes take care of the exact print- 

ing of the Confession of Faith. 

Debate of The Assembly preceded in debate of the Catechism ; and 
Catechism , , , 

resumed. "po n debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. How are they bound to lead 
their lives who do believe in Christ ? A. They who believe 
in Christ are bound to serve God.' Upon a debate about 
the former answer, it was Resolved upon the Q., The ques- 
tion shall not be put again. Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. 
Which are those commandments.' 

Sess. 755. December II, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Seaman, Mr. Chambers, were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Wetherhead be approved upon his 

former examination. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Jackson 

be examined. Ordered Mr. King be approved upon his 

former examination. 

500 for The Assembly being informed that there was .500 for 

the mem- , , A 11-, 

bers of the Assembly, it was 

Assembly. Resolved upon the Q., The former Committee shall stand 
to dispose of the said money. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The former question shall be 
revoked. Resolved upon the Q., This shall be added to 

1 Journals of House of Commons, vol. v. p. 2. It directs that 600 copies 
only be printed for the service of the two Houses and of the Assembly, and 
that the care of the printing be devolved on the Assembly. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 3 I I 

the last answer, after 'serve God' [Scss. 754] 'according SESS. 755. 
to the rule of holiness and righteousness contained in the 
ten commandments.' l Ordered ' Q. Which is the first of 
the ten commandments? A. The first commandment is 
contained in these words, " Thou shalt have no other Gods 
before me." ' 

Resolved upon the Q., The commandments shall be 
rehearsed in one entire answer. 

Sess. 756. December 14, 1646. Monday morning. 

The Prolocutor made report of the delivery of the Con- Prolocutor 
fession of Faith to both Houses, and the good acceptance ^^* l1 ^ 
of the pains of the Assembly by both Houses. theConfes- 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism ; ^h 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. Which Houses. 
are those ten commandments? A. The ten command- J? eba ' e . of 

Catechism. 

ments are those which God spake, saying, " I am the Lord, 
etc." ' 

Resolved^Thati. it be referred to the Committee to con- 
sider of the preface. 

Ordered ' Q. Which is the first commandment? A. 
The first commandment is contained in these words, 
" Thou shalt have no other Gods before me." ' 

Sess. 757. December 15, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Bankes be respited awhile. Ordered Mr. 
Watts be respited for a week or two. 

Report was made from the Committee for the Catechism. 

Report was made from the Committee for the money. 

Resolved upon the Q., This Report shall stand. Resolved 
upon the Q., ' That the distribution of money for the time 
to come shall be exactly according to the presence or 
absence of the members of the Assembly from this day 
forwards.' 2 Resolved upon the Q., No further question 
shall be put concerning this business. 

1 Here and elsewhere in MS., 'commits.' 

2 Between this and the immediately succeeding resolution, Fascicle III. has 
the following additional entries : ' That the absence or presence of members of 
the Assembly shall be read weekly in the Assembly by the scribes every 
Friday after 12 o'clock.' 'That the absence or presence of the members of 



312 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 757. Ordered That the Committee for the Articles of Reli- 
1646. S lon ^0 meet this afternoon. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the command- 
Catechism. 

ments ; and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., Q. 

What doth the first commandment require? A. The 
first commandment requires us to know, acknowledge, 
obey, worship, and glorify the one only true God, as God, 
and as our God, with our whole man for ever.' 

Sess. 758. December 16, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Report was made from the Committee for the Catechism 
concerning the first and second commandment[s] ; and 
the Assembly did debate it ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be an addition to the 
affirmative part. Resolved upon the Q., This shall be 
added, ' And accordingly, to love and fear Him, and rest 
upon Him as our God.' Ordered These words to be 
added, ' with the whole man all the days of their lives ' 
after the words ' serve God.' Resolved upon the Q., This 
answer to stand, ' Ans. The first commandment requires 
us to know, acknowledge, love, fear, trust in, obey, wor- 
ship, and glorify the one only true God, as God, and as our 
God.' Resolved upon the Q., That somewhat be added 
about calling upon God. Mr. Palmer enters his dissent to 
that of calling upon God. 

Sess. 759. December 17, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Bankes shall be examined. 
Upon a debate about some members of the Assembly 

the Assembly be reckoned according to the order of both Houses of Parlia- 
ment, they meeting at 9 and sitting till 12. An account to be given of this 
weekly every Friday, before the rising of the Assembly, by the scribes.' The 
two are but different versions of one proposal, and the immediately succeeding 
resolution perhaps shows that they were not adopted. In the same Session, 
the following entry occurs : 'Mr. Hodges went away, and was called by the Pro- 
locutor, and would not return. ' It was no doubt in consequence of this that the 
Resolution entered in Fascicle III., under date Deer. 17, was proposed : ' R. 
In case any member of the Assembly go out of the Assembly during the sittings 
of it, and be called to stay by the Prolocutor, and do not stay or give reason 
of his going out, to be approved by the Assembly, then he shall be reckoned as 
absent for the day.' But this also appears to have been waived. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 7 I 7 

O \j 

going out and dissolving of the Assembly, some things SF.SS. 759. 
were offered for the preventing of it for the time to come ; ^g '^ 7 ' 
but it was Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no question 
put about this business. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., These words, 
'called upon,' shall be added after those words, 'trusted in,' 
in the former answer. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. What sins are forbidden by 
the first commandment ?' 

Resolved upon the Q., 'A. The sins forbidden in the first 
commandment are denying that there is a God, imagin- 
ing more Gods than one, not giving to the only true God 
that worship and glory that is due to Him, or giving it or 
any part of it to any other thing whatsoever.' 

Sess. 760. December 18, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Langley, Mr. Scudder, were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Hawkins shall have his certi- 
ficate. 

Ordered Mr. Gilbert Seabrooke bring a better testi- 
monial, and the causes of his remove attested by others. 
Ordered Mr. Troy have a certificate. Ordered Mr. Jack- 
son be certified insufficient. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the members of this Assem- Promise 
bly do promise not to publish and make known to the rec i mred of 

* members 

parties concerned, or any other, the names of any mem- of Assem- 
bers of the Assembly that shall at any time speak their y ' 
consciences in the Assembly concerning any minister in 
question before them, unless the Assembly give leave. 
Ordered That those that are stopped in the Assembly 
do repair to the scribe to receive an account of it, and to 
this end the scribe is to certify the party concerned of the 
reason of his stop. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism; Debate of 
and upon debate it was Catechism 

resumed. 

Ordered ' Q. Which is the second commandment ? A. 



314 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 760. The second commandment is contained in these words, 

" Thou shalt not make unto thee ' ctc> '" 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. What sins are forbidden in 

the second commandment ? A. The sins forbidden in the 
second commandment are all devising, using, approving 
any religious worship not appointed by God Himself, and 
particularly all representing and worshipping Him by any 
image or resemblance, and neglecting any of that worship 
which He hath enjoined.' Resolved upon the Q., The 
former words be altered thus, ' and particularly all repre- 
senting Him by any image or resemblance, or worshipping 
it or Him by it, and neglecting, etc.' 

Ordered Mr. Drake have a certificate upon his former 
ordination. 

December 21, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Coppin be approved upon his ordina- 
tion. Ordered Mr. Shingle be approved upon his former 
ordination. 

Ordered Mr. Harrison be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Sess. 761. December 24, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Cuffe be respited till the reason of 
his remove be certified, according to the order of the 
Assembly. 

Ordered That Mr. Hitche be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Malthouse be examined upon his 
testimonial now brought in. Ordered That Mr. Hore be 
approved upon his former ordination. Ordered That Mr. 
Smith be approved upon his former ordination. 

Ordered That Mr. Roberts be respited for a while. 
Ordered That Mr. Moore bring a testimonial. 

Mr. Gillespie informed the Assembly that some of their 
number are about to return to Scotland, and they desire to 
deliver a paper unto the Grand Committee ; and therefore 
they desire they may meet to-morrow in the afternoon ; 
whereupon notice was given accordingly. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 3 I 5 

Upon a debate about Mr. Launce, it was SKSS. 761. 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a Committee to D ^ | 4 ' 
consider of the whole business concerning Mr. Launce. 1 
Ordered That Mr. Ley, Mr. Wilson, Dr. Gouge, Mr. 
Walker, Mr. Raynor, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Palmer, 
and Mr. Whitakers shall be this Committee ; they are to 
meet this afternoon. 

Sess. 762. December 25, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Gibson and Mr. Dury were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons for the week following. 

Ordered Mr. Samon be approved upon his former exa- 
mination. Ordered Mr. Cranadge 2 be approved without 
coming up to be examined. Ordered Mr. Mosier 3 be 
approved upon his former ordination. Ordered Mr. 
Streete be approved upon his former ordination. 

Report was made concerning Mr. Launce that they were 
not satisfied concerning his fitness for that place ; and 
there was some debate about it, and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., That the former Committee shall 
admit of Mr. Launce to have conference with him upon the 
whole business, and they are to consider of the whole 
business. Resolved upon the Q., The Committee do not 
meet on Thursday next in the afternoon. Resolved upon 
the Q., The Committee to meet on Friday next. 4 

The Lord Chancellor of Scotland came into the Assem- Earl of 
bly to take his leave of the Assembly before his return into takes eave 
Scotland, being commanded thither by the Parliament of ofth e As- 
Scotland to render an account of their negotiation ; and Se 
gave thanks to the Assembly for their great zeal, piety, 
and indefatigableness in the work of the Lord now in their 
hands, and also for the respects of the Assembly to their 
nation ; and he did signify that if the Assembly had any 
commands to lay upon them, they were ready to serve 
them. 

1 In Fascicle III., * R. ^. A Committee to consider of the whole busi- 
ness, etc.' 

2 Or Cramidge. 3 Or Mesier. 

4 In Fascicle III. this is entered ' R. ~ cast by Prolocutor, Friday next.' 



316 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 762. Mr. Baillic, one of the Commissioners from the Church 

1646. f Scotland, being to return to the Church of Scotland, he 

did also thankfully acknowledge the favours and respect 

takes of this Assembly, promising to make mention of this 
Assembly, in his prayers, both public and private. 

The Prolocutor, by order of the Assembly, did return 
the thankful acknowledgment of the Assembly of the 
great encouragement and assistance the Assembly hath 
always found from those noble and worthy Commissioners, 
and of their faithfulness in the public service they have 
been employed in. 1 

Sess. 763. December 28, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. John Seabrooke be respited upon 
exceptions from Colonel Puresey. 2 Ordered Mr. Watts 
be respited for a further time. 

Mr. Palmer made report of a paper from the Commis- 
sioners of the Church of Scotland, and read it. It is as 
followeth. 3 . . 

Ordered The Committee for drawing up the Articles 
and Proofs formerly passed the Assembly do meet this 
afternoon, and make report on Wednesday come seven- 
night next, and Mr. Gower and Mr. Profitt be added to 
the Committee. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Nothing 
shall be added to the negative part of the [ 2 d ] command- 
ment. 

1 Notes of the speeches of the Commissioners and of the Prolocutor are 
given in Fascicle III. 

2 Or Purefoy. 

3 It is given at length in the Journals of the House of Lords (vol. viii. pp. 630, 
631), and urges, inter alia, the speedy ratification of the Confession of Faith, 
the approval of Rouse's amended metrical version of the Psalms, the more 
complete establishment of the presbyterial government, and the suppression of 
heresies and scandalous pamphlets ' against magistracy and ministry, and par- 
ticularly against the authority of Parliament, against the Reverend Assembly 
of Divines, against the Covenant and the Public National Reformation, against 
the union of the two Kingdoms, against the Church and Kingdom of Scotland 
and all the Reformed Churches ; yea, against Jesus Christ Himself and the 
sacred Word of God. ' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 3 I 7 

Sess. 764. December 31, 1646. Thursday morning. SKSS. 764. 

Ordered Mr. Robert Cassinghurst be respited for two 1646.*' 
weeks. Resolved upon the O., Mr. Gilbert Seabrooke have 
his testimonial. 

Upon another order from the Committee for the county 
and city of Worcester concerning Mr. Tuppe, discharging 
him from the articles against him, and desiring a further 
examination of him by the Assembly, it was ordered that 
this return be made to the said Committee: ' That in regard 
of other informations from other places and persons con- 
cerning the conversation of Mr. Tuppe, the Assembly is 
not satisfied concerning his fitness for a ministerial charge.' 

Ordered That Mr. Cuffe be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Marshall, Mr. Salway, Dr. Temple, 
and Mr. Maynard, be added to the Committee for Mr. 
Launce. 

Ordered That Mr. Slaney do bring a testimonial of his 
conversation and the reasons for his removal from Lincoln- 
shire, where he so long exercised his ministry. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism; Catechism 

j 11 -, third 

and upon debate it was command- 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. Which is the third command- ment - 
ment ? A. The third commandment is contained in these 
words, "Thou shalt not take, etc.'" 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. What doth the third com- 
mandment require? A. The third commandment requires 
the reverent and right using of God's titles, attributes, word, 
ordinances, and works.' 

Resolved upon the Q., These words, ' and other,' shall 
not be added before the word, ' ordinances.' 

Sess. 765. January I, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Cawdry and Mr. Bond were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Herbert do bring a better testi- 
monial. Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Tuppe shall not 
have a copy of his testimonials. Ordered That Mr. 
Simonds be approved. 



318 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 766. Scss. 766. January 4, 1646. Monday morning. 

"1646^ Ordered That Mr. John Ny be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered That Mr. Robert Smith be ap- 
proved upon his former examination. 

Catechism The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism ; 

command- an d upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. Which 

ment. j s j-] ie f our th commandment? A. The fourth command- 
ment is contained in these words, " Remember, etc." ' 

There were two questions propounded by the Committee, 
viz. 'What doth the fourth commandment require?' and, 
' What is the chief time which God hath appointed for His 
solemn worship?' and upon debate it was Resolved upon 
the O., To reduce these two questions and answers into 
one. 

Resolved upon the Q., ' Q. What doth the fourth com- 
mandment require? A. The fourth commandment requires 
that one whole day of seven be in all ages kept holy to the 
Lord, which day under the Old Testament was the last day 
of the week, and under the New Testament is the first, 
called the Lord's day.' 

Sess. 767. January 5, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. William How be approved upon his 
former examination. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Wm. 
Whitting be examined. 

Old Eng- The Old Articles and the Scriptures for the proof of 
ticks r them were read and examined in part. The remaining 
part was respited till the next day. 

Scss. 768. January 6, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Newberry have his examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Whitting shall have his certi- 
ficate. Ordered That Mr. Thomas Warren be approved 
upon his former examination. 

The remaining part of the old Articles and the Scrip- 
tures for the proof of them were read and examined ; and 
it was Ordered That they be transcribed to be sent up to 
the House of Commons. 

Ordered That Mr. Wilson, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Gower, be 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 3 1 9 

a Committee to prepare Scriptures for the 1 Confession of SESS. 768. 

Faith. J a "- />' 

1646. 



Sess. 769. January 7, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Moore be certified to the Committee 
as not giving satisfaction to the Assembly in his testi- 
monial. 

Report was made of the Scriptures for the Proof of the Scripture 
first chapter of the Confession of Faith, concerning ' the Q^!/ 
Holy Scriptures.' sion. 

Ordered That the Members of the Assembly do bring 
their books of the Confession of Faith, whilst the Scriptures 
are in debate. 

The Assembly entered upon the debate of the Scriptures Debate of 
for the proof of the first chapter, 'of the Holy Scriptures,' pl C oo^ UU 
and agreed on the proofs for the first paragraph. The said 
proofs are inserted in the margin of the Confession of 
Faith, in the book appointed for the votes of the Assembly 
thereupon ; to which we do refer throughout the whole 
Confession. 

Sess. 770. January 8, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Strickland and Mr. Connant were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Herbert be approved. 

The business of Mr. Malthus 2 was debated ; and upon 
debate he was approved by the Assembly, and so certified 
to the Committee for Plundered Ministers. 3 

Mr. Wilson made report of the Scriptures for the proof 
of the 2d chapter, ' of God and of the Holy Trinity.' 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Scriptures for 
the proof of the first chapter, concerning ' the Holy Scrip- 
tures,' and agreed upon the Scriptures for the proof of the 
2d paragraph of that chapter, as they are entered in the 
margin of the said book. 

1 It does not seem quite clear whether in this case an original a is meant to be 
changed into the, or an original the into a. In Fascicle III., the only is found. 

2 In Session 761, Malthouse. 

3 In Fascicle III. the entry is added, ' J?. Nothing shall be spoken of this 
business. ' 



32O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 771. Sess. 771. January n, 1646. Monday morning. 
J I046. 1 ' An order was brought from the Committee for Berkshire 
for Mr. Spinnage, to approve of him without any place 
assigned. Upon debate it was 

Ordered That he should be informed that the Assem- 
bly cannot give any approbation except they know the 
place he is assigned unto. 

Proofs for The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Scriptures for 

^agreed* t^ 6 proof of the first chapter concerning ' the Holy Scrip- 

to - tures;' and agreed upon the Scriptures for the proof of the 

3d, 4th, and part of the 5th paragraphs of that chapter, as 

they are entered in the margin of the said book. 

Sess. 772. January 12, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That this Return be made to the Right Hon. 
the Commissioners for the Great Seal, that this Assembly 
is not satisfied with the testimonial for Mr. Lukey. 

Ordered That Mr. Cooper be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered That Mr. Casinghurst be respited 
till Tuesday come fortnight, if there be need. 

Ordered That return be made to the Committee for the 
County of Berks concerning Mr. Spinnage, that the Assem- 
bly doth not use to certify the fitness of any man for the 
ministry without a place designed. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures 
for the proof of that chapt[er] ' of the Scriptures,' and agreed 
to the proofs for the remaining part of the 5th paragraph, 
as they are entered in the margin of the said book. 
Earl of The Earl of Lauderdale, 1 one of the Commissioners 

takes his from the Church of Scotland, took his leave of the Assem- 
leave. kiy^ being the next morning to set forwards towards Scot- 
land ; and the Prolocutor, in the name of the Assembly, 
gave him thanks for his great respect unto the Assembly. 

Sess. 773. January 13, 1646. Wednesday morning. 
There was an Order brought from the Committee for 

1 Lotherdale in MS. In Fascicle III. he is designated by his old title of 
Lord Maitland, and notes of his speech and the Prolocutor's address are 
given. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 7^1 

\J 

Plundered Ministers for Mr. Sidrach Simpson to be ap- SKSS. 773. 
proved of for to preach in the afternoon at the Chapel in 
Somerset House. It was debated, and upon debate it was 

Ordered That there shall be a Committee to consider 
what answer is fit to be returned to this order. Ordered 
That Dr. Temple, Mr. Bond, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Wilson, Dr. 
Smith, Dr. Burges, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Vines, Mr. Cawdry, 
Mr. Ny, Mr. Hodges, shall be a Committee for this pur- 
pose, or any five of them. They are to meet on Monday 
in the afternoon. 

Ordered That Mr. Fetherstone be respited for a time. 

Report was made by Mr. Wilson of Scriptures for the 
proof of the 3d chapter of the Confession of Faith concern- 
ing the Decrees. 

Sess. 774. January 14,* 1646. Thursday morning. 

Upon a motion made by Mr. Vines, it was Ordered 
' That the Committee for the Catechism do prepare a TWO Gate- 
draught of two Catechisms, one more large and another ^ hlsms to 

be pre- 
more brief, in which they are to have an eye to the Con- pared. 

fession of Faith, and to the matter of the Catechism already 
begun.' 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures 
for the proof of the first chapter of the Confession of Faith 
concerning ' the Holy Scriptures,' and agreed to the Scrip- 
tures for the proof of the 6th and 7th paragraphs, as they 
are entered in the margin of the said book. 

Sess. 775. January 15, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Dury and Mr. Maynard were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 
Upon a debate about Mr. Fetherstone, it was 
Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Fetherstone shall pass without 
coming up to the Assembly. Upon a motion concerning 
the said business, it was Resolved upon the Q., The ques- 
tion shall be put again. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Fether- 
stone shall not pass without coming up to be examined. 2 

1 In MS. 15, by an error of the scribe. 

2 In Fascicle III. there are the following additional entries, which perhaps 

X 



,22 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



Proofs for 
rest of ch. 

i. agreed 
to. 



SESS. 775. Ordered That Mr. Griffith be approved upon his former 
1646 examination. 

Mr. Wilson made report of the Scriptures for the proof 
of the 4th chapter ' of Creation.' 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Scriptures 
for the proof of the first chapter of the Confession of Faith 
concerning 'the Scriptures,' and agreed to the Scriptures 
for the proof of the remaining paragraphs of that chapter, 
as they are entered in the margin of the said book. 

Sess. 776. January 18, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Dod be approved upon his former 
approbation. 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of 
the 2d chapter of the Confession of Faith concerning ' God 
and the Holy Trinity;' and agreed to the Scriptures for 
the proof of that chapter, as they are entered in the margin 
of the said book. 



Scripture 
proofs for 
ch. ii. 
agreed to. 



Sess. 777. Jamiary 19, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Richard Edwards be approved upon 
his former examination. Ordered That Mr. Sagge be 
approved without coming up to be examined. Ordered 
That Mr. Richard Spinnage be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered That Mr. Warren his business be 
respited for a month, till Mr. Salway inform himself con- 
cerning him. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Fetherstone be 
approved without coming up to be examined. 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of 
the three first paragraphs of the 3d chapter of the Confes- 
sion of Faith concerning God's Eternal Decrees ; * and 
agreed to them as they are entered in the margin of the 
Confession of Faith. 

explain the resolution adopted by the Assembly at a subsequent session : 
' That none shall pass this Assembly without coming up to be examined except 
a testimonial be brought. That Mr. Fetherstone do send a testimonial from 
the next classis ; or from the ministers at York of his ordination, and of his 
fitness for the ministry. ' 
1 Sic in MS. 



Part of 
proofs of 
ch. iii. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 323 

Sess. 778. January 20, 1646. Wednesday morning. SF.SS. 778. 

Ordered That Mr. Debanke be approved upon his igwf ' 
former examination. 

The Assembly 1 debated the Scriptures for the proof of Further 
the 4th, 5th, and 6th paragraphs of the 3d chapter 1 concern- p fs for 
ing 'God's Eternal Decrees;' and they were agreed unto agreed to. 
as they are entered in the margin of the Confession of 
.Faith. 

Sess. 779. January 21, 1646. TJiursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Seth Elcocke be approved without 
coming up to be examined. 

Mr. Wilson made report of the Scriptures for the proof 
of the 7th chapter of the Confession of Faith. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures Proofs for 
for the proof of the 7th and 8th paragraphs] of the 3d J' ' *" t d 
chapter ; and of the first and part of the 2d paragraph of agreed to. 
the 4th chapter, ' of Creation ;' and upon debate they were 
agreed to, as is set down in the margin of the Confession of 
Faith. 

January 22, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Salway and Mr. Vines were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Resolved upon the O., That Mr. Sinckler be approved 
without coming up to be examined. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Smelt 2 shall send up a 
testimonial of his conversation from his neighbour ministers 
such as shall be approved of by the Assembly. 

January 25, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Saxby be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered That Mr. Collins be respited till 
Mr. Wilson comes. 

Sess. 780. January 28, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Casinghurst have his certi- 
ficate. 

1 Here and often after in MS. ' chapt.' * Or Snell. 



324 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



Proofs for 
parts of ch. 



SESS. 780. Mr. Whitakcrs made report concerning Mr. Launce, 
' That they were not satisfied in conscience to give him 
their approbation for any place in the city.' 

Because this report was general, he was Ordered To 
make report of the particular reasons inducing them to that 
resolution. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures 
^ or ^ Q proof of the remaining part of the 4th chapter, 'of 

agreed to. Creation,' and of the ist and 2d para[gra]phs of the 5th 
chapter, 'of Providence;' and upon debate, they were 
assented to, as is set down in the margin of the Confession 
of Faith. 

Sess. 781. January 29, 1646. Friday morning, 

Mr. Simpson and Mr. Burges were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Pettit and Mr. Roberts be approved. 

Further The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Scriptures for 

ch 0< v. S r the proof of the 3d and part of the 4th paragraph, ' of Pro- 

agreed to. vidence ;' and upon debate they were assented to, as is set 

down in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Sess. 782. February I, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Burney be respited till this day 
sevennight. Ordered That Mr. Neale l be respited till he 
bring a better testimonial of his former conversation. 
Further The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Scriptures for 
ch. v. S r the remaining part of the chapter, ' of Providence ; ' except 
the latter part of the 5th paragraph, which was recommited. 
The proofs are entered in the margin of the Confession of 
Faith. 

Sess. 783. February 2, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Carpenter shall not be admitted 
to examination. Resolved That an answer shall be drawn 
up to be sent to the patron, to signify that the Assembly 
is not satisfied concerning his conversation, and so concern- 
ing his fitness for a ministerial charge. 

1 Or Nevile. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 325 

Mr. Whitakers made report concerning Mr. Launce. It Si.ss. 78 
was debated and voted as followcth : ' They cannot in 
conscience give Mr. Launce his approbation as fit for 
Edmund's, Lombard Street, London, upon these reasons : concernm- 
I. Because we find him sequestered by the Committee for ^ Ir- 

1 J Launce. 

Plundered Ministers upon diverse articles, from Michael's 
Querne, London ; and [he] yet still continueth under the 
said sequestration. 2. Upon sight and consideration of 
diverse things much unbeseeming a minister of the gospel 
objected against him during the time of his title to Harrow 
Hill ; and having heard his personal answer thereunto, in 
which, notwithstanding his protesting to speak as in God's 
presence the truth only, the Committee finds upon enquiry 
from persons of undoubted credit, that in this his answer, 
instead of that ingenuity and truth which might be 
expected from a minister of Christ, he hath added to his 
former miscarriages diverse words of falsehood.' 

Resolved upon the Q., This shall be transcribed and sent 
up to the Hon ble House of Lords. 

Mr. Wilson made report of the Scriptures for the Qth 
chapter of the Confession of Faith. 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of Proofs for 
the 6th chapter in the Confession of Faith, ' of the Fall of ch- V1 - 

agreed to. 

Man, of Sin, and the Punishment thereof.' They were 
assented unto, and are entered in the margin of the Con- 
fession of Faith. 

Sess. 784. February 3, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Report was made by Mr. Wilson of the Scriptures for 
the proof of the loth chapter in the Confession of 
Faith. 

The Assembly debated the proofs of the four first para- p roo fs for 
graphs of the 7th chapter, ' of God's Covenant with Man ;' P art ? f 

53 r ' ' ch. vn. 

and upon debate they were assented unto, as they are agreed to. 
entered in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Ordered That Mr. Bound * bring a better testimonial. 
Ordered That Mr. Collins be examined. 

Resolved upon the Q., The Old Committee shall stand 

1 Or Brand. 



326 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 784. for the distribution of the money. Resolved upon the Q., 
*i646 3 .' There shall be no addition to this Committee. 

Sess. 785. February 4, ib^.lhursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Neale be examined. Resolved upon the 
Q., Mr. Allen shall be again examined by the Com- 
mittee. 

Examinees Ordered That the Chairman of the Committee for 
whether" examination of ministers do specially enquire of all the 
they be ministers that come for approbation from the Assembly 

presbyters. 

whether they be presbyters or no ; and that at the report 

he gives to the Assembly of his approbation he do inform 
the Assembly that he is a presbyter. 

Ordered That Mr. Bound be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Smelt have an approbation upon 
his former examination. 

Mr. Wilson made report of the Scriptures for the proof 
of the nth chapter. 

Report was made from the Committee of the business of 
Mr. Simpson's preaching at the Chapel of Somerset House, 
in answer to the Order of Committee of the House of 
Commons ; and some debate was upon it, but respited for 
further consideration. 

Ordered That Mr. Bennet be respited till a better testi- 
monial. 

Sess. 786. February 5, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Greenhill and Mr. Pickering were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons for the week following. 

Mr. Wilson made report of the Scriptures for the proof of 
the 1 2th, 1 3th, and I4th chapters of the Confession of Faith. 

Ordered That Mr. Beane be excused from coming up. 
Remaining The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures 
chTvit r f r th e P r of of the remaining part of the 7th chapter, ' of 
agreed to. God's Covenant with Man ;' and upon debate they were 
assented to, as they are entered in the margin of the Con- 
fession of Faith. 

The answer to the House of Lords concerning Mr. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 327 

Launce was read and assented to. It is as followcth 1 . . . HESS. 786. 
Dr. Smith and Mr. Whitakers were ordered to carry ^'^' 
it up. 

Another certificate was read and assented to concerning 
Mr. Carpenter ; to be sent to Mr. Jennings, the patron. 

Ordered Mr. Shaw be respited for a fortnight. 

Sess. 787. February 8, 1646. Monday morning. 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Allen shall have his certificate. 
Ordered Mr. Chudsley be approved upon his former exa- 
mination. Ordered Mr. Howes 2 be respited for ten days. 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of Proofs fur 
the 8th chapter, 'of Christ the Mediator;' and upon de- agreed. 1 to. 
bate it was assented to, as it is entered in the margin of 
the Confession of Faith. 

Ordered Mr. Christopher Wright be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Sess. 788. February 9, 1646. Tiiesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Floyd be respited. Resolved upon 
the Q., Mr. Samford 3 be approved upon his former exa- 
mination. 

Report was made of the distribution of money, and it 
was assented to. 

Ordered -That Mrs. Ny and Mrs. Hall, widows of two 
members of this Assembly, ' deceased/ shall be considered 
in the next distribution. 

Resolved upon the Q., The Scribes do weekly give an 
account of the names of the members of the Assembly, 
their presence and absence. 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of Proofs for 
the 9th chapter, 'of Free Will;' and of the loth chapter, ^^' 
' of Effectual Calling ; ' and upon debate it was assented agreed to. 
to, as it is entered in the margin of the Confession of 
Faith. 

1 Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 1 5. ' After all due means to inform them- 
selves concerning him, they cannot in conscience give him their approbation 
as fit to be minister in the said place.' 

2 Or Hawes. 3 In Fascicle III., Sanford. 



328 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 789. Sess. 789. February 10, 1646. Wednesday morning. 
F i6 4 6.' Ordered That Mr. Burncy be respited till he bring a 

better testimonial. 

P artof 01 The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of 
ch. xi t j ie two fi rst p ara g r aphs of the nth chapter, ' of Justifica- 

agreed to. . . , 

tion ; ' and upon debate it was assented to, as it is entered 

in the margin of the Confession. 

The Assembly had some debate of the Report concern- 
ing Mr. Simpson ; and after some debate it was 

Ordered To proceed in the debate on Tuesday next. 

Ordered That Mr. Reimes be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered That Mr. Hall be respited till he 
bring a better testimonial. 

Sess. 790. February 1 1, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That the inhabitants of Thaxstead have a fort- 
night's time to produce their exceptions against Mr. Hall. 

Ordered That the Chairman of the Committee for [the] 
examination of ministers do not henceforward examine 
any ministers till the Scribe deliver unto him the names 
of those ministers that are to be examined, and the place 
they are designed to. 

Ordered That Mr. Bond be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

Ordered That it be certified to the Commissioners of 
the Great Seal that the Assembly is not satisfied concern- 
ing the fitness of Mr. Lloyd for that place that he is designed 
unto. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Clopton have his certi- 
ficate upon his former examination. 

Proofs for The Assembly proceeded in the debate of Scriptures for 

and^ii the proof of the remaining part of the nth chapter, and 

agreed to. the 1 2th chapter of the Confession of Faith concerning 

' Adoption.' Upon debate they were assented unto, as 

they are entered in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Sess. 791. February 12, 1646. Friday morning. 

Dr. Temple and Mr. Ash were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 329 

Ordered That Mr. Bound and Mr. French be approved SKSS. 791. 
upon their ordination. e i6 4 6. 2 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of the 
1 3th chapter, 'of Sanctification ;' and of the I4th chapter, 
'of Saving Faith;' and of the I5th chapter, ' of Repentance 
unto Life.' 

Ordered That Mr. Fisher be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Sess. 792. February 15, 1646. Monday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. [Newall] 1 be examined 
upon his testimonial. Ordered That Mr. Thomas Spend- 
low be approved upon his ordination. 

The Assembly debated some informations brought in 
against Mr. Warren ; and after some debate it was 

Ordered That Mr. Warren's business be respited till 
Thursday next. 

Ordered That there be a Committee to prepare some- Committee 
tiling to be presented to the House of Lords to prevent the to P revent 

o coming in 

coming in of scandalous ministers by institution and in-ofscan- 
duction ; and that there may be a Registry to which men masters, 
may resort to find who is instituted and inducted. Ordered 
That Dr. Burges, Mr. Cawdry, Mr. Strong, Mr. Ley, Dr. 
Stanton, and Dr. Gouge, or any three of them, be that 
Committee ; and they are to meet this afternoon. 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of Proofs for 
the i6th chapter, 'of Good Works;' and upon debate Lr 
they were assented to, as they are entered in the margin of 
the Confession. 

Sess. 793. February 16, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Walwin be approved without 
coming up to be examined. Ordered That Mr. Thomas 
Watts be respited till Monday. 

Ordered That Mr. Bosse bring the reasons of his remove. 
Resolved upon the Q., That his examination be respited for 
three weeks, that the Assembly may be better satisfied con- 
cerning the reasons of his remove. 

1 A blank is left in MS. here, but in Fascicle III. Newell or Newall is the 
name given. 



33O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 793. Dr. Burges made report of a. Petition to be sent to the 

P io 4 6! 6> Ri S ht Hon ble House of Peers about a Registry, and the 

trial of the fitness of ministers to be admitted to institu- 



tions by some fit persons appointed thereunto. It was 

Peers re- debated, and upon debate it was recommitted. 
committed. , . 

Upon Mr. Simpson's desire, by reason of his necessary 

absence, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Simpson's business be respited till 
Thursday come sevennight. 

Sess. 794. February 17, 1646. Wednesday morning. 
Resolved upon the O., Mr. Garthwaite be excused from 
coming up. 

Some complaints being brought against Mr. Fetherstone, 
who lately had the approbation of the Assembly, it was 

Ordered That this information against Mr. Fetherstone 
be returned to the Committee of Plundered Ministers. 
New Com- An Order was brought into the Assembly from the Lords 
missioner ^ Commons for admitting Mr. Winrham, a Commissioner 

from Scot- 

land. from the Church of Scotland, to sit in the Assembly. It 

was read and is as followeth * . . . He was brought into 
the Assembly by some 2 members appointed thereunto, 
and the Prolocutor, by order of the Assembly, did con- 
gratulate his admission into the Assembly. 

The Assembly debated the proofs of Scripture for the 
1 7th chapter, ' of Perseverance of the Saints ;' and the two 
first paragraphs of the i8th chapter, 'of Assurance of Grace 
and Salvation ; ' and upon debate they were assented to, as 
entered in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

1 The following Order was passed by the House of Lords on loth February : 
' Ordered That this House appoints Mr. George Winraham to be admitted 
of this Assembly as the other Commissioners from Scotland were ; and that 
the concurrence of the House of Commons be desired herein.' Their con- 
currence was given on February 14. Winraham's commission is inserted at 
length in the Journals of the House of Lords, vol. viii. pp. 716, 719. It is 
from the Commissioners of the General Assembly, and authorizes him, ' in 
absence of the said Lord Balmerino, and of any other formerly designed and 
appointed in his Lordship's place, or in the absence of the said Lord Warris- 
ton, to join with the remanent Commissioners at London in prosecuting the 
treaty of uniformity with the Honourable Houses of the Parliament of England, 
and the Reverend Assembly of Divines there, or with Committees from them.' 

2 In Fascicle III., ' the commissioners and two members of the Assembly.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 331 

Ordered That Mr. Clarke be approved upon his former SESS. 794. 

,. ,- Feb. 17, 

ordination. l6 ^/ 

Sess. 795. February 18, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That the Committee for [the] examination of 
Ministers do speak with Mr. Fetherstone to hear him 
before return be made to the Committee for Plundered 
Ministers. 

The Assembly debated the business of Mr. Warren ; and 
upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Warren shall not have the 
approbation of this Assembly. Ordered That this shall 
be certified to the Committee of Worcester. 

Report was made by Mr. Wilson of the Scriptures for 
the proof of the 2ist and 22d chapters of the Confession of 
Faith. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Howes be admitted to his 
examination. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Scriptures for Proofs for 

r r i r ^1 o.,i i remainder 

the proof of the remaining part of the i8th chapter, con- O f ch xviii 
cerning 'Assurance of Grace and Salvation;' and upon a s reed to - 
debate it was assented to, as it is entered in the margin of 
the Confession of Faith. 

Sess. 796. February 19, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Mew, Mr. Carter of Dinton, appointed to pray, the 
week following, with the Lords and Commons. 

Ordered Mr. Edmund Thorpe be approved upon his 
former examination. Ordered Mr. Ainsworth be approved 
upon his former examination. 

The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of Proofs for 
the four first paragraphs of the I9th chapter, 'of the Law ^ rt x x 
of God ;' and upon debate they were assented to, as they agreed to. 
are entered in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Report was made by Dr. Burges of the Petition recom- 
mitted to be sent to the Lords. It was read and debated, 
and upon debate assented to. 

Resolved upon the Q., That this shall be transcribed and 
sent to the House of Lords. Mr. Carter, jun., entered his 



332 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 796. dissent. Mr. Hodges entered his dissent to all except the 
i6 4 6 9 ' third paragraph. The Petition is as followeth 1 . . . 

Ordered That Mr. Burney be not admitted to exami- 
nation. 

Scss. 797. February 22, 1646. Monday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Watts be respited till Mr. 

Guibon comes. 

Proofs for The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of 
ck xix. the remaining part of the iQth chapt[er] of the Confession 
agreed to. o f F a ith, 'of the Law of God ;' and upon debate it was 

assented to, as is entered in the margin of the Confession 

of Faith. 

Scss. 798. February 25, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Francis Merricke be respited till this day 
sevennight. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Wood shall have 
no approbation till he come up to be examined. Resolved 
upon the Q., Mr. Sellinger 2 shall be examined. 

Ordered Mr. Simpson's business be debated on Tuesday 
next peremptorily. 

Proofs for The Assembly debated the Scriptures for the proof of 
of ch. xx. the three first paragraphs of the 2Oth chapter, ' of Christian 
agreed to. Liberty and Liberty of Conscience;' and upon debate it 
was assented to, as it is entered in the margin of the Con- 
fession of Faith. 

Ordered Mr. Burt be examined. 

Sess. 799. February 26, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Spurstow and Mr. Hodges were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons for the week following. 

Ordered Mr. Lawry be examined. Ordered Mr. 
David Floyd be examined. Ordered Mr. Thomas 
Brewer be examined. 

Ordered Mr. Freeman be approved upon his former exa- 
mination. Ordered Mr. Gilbert Seabrooke be approved 
upon his former examination. Ordered Mr. John New- 
ham be approved upon his former examination. 
1 Journals of House of Lords, vol. ix. p. 31. 2 Or, as in Sess. 810, Jellinger. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 77^ 

*_/ \J \. ) 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a Committee to SESS. 799. 
consider of a way concerning the examination of ministers 1 ' j' 6 ' 6 26 
to be settled and approved in Wales. Ordered Mr. Sal- 
way, Mr. Greene, Mr. Gower, Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Spurstow, ^consider 
Dr. Temple, Mr. Mew, Mr. Ley, Mr. Case, to be this ofwa >' of 
Committee ; [and] the care of the meeting of this Com- tion of 

mittee be referred to Dr. Temple. in ^. e f 

for \\ ales. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures p roo fs for 
for the proof of the 4th paragraph of the 2Oth chapter, ' of P art of 4 
Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience;' and upon agreed to. 
debate they were assented to, as they are entered into the 
margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Report was made concerning Mr. Fetherstone. 

Ordered That Mr. Richard Williams be approved upon 
his former examination. Ordered That Mr. Ward be 
approved upon his former examination. 

Sess. Soo. March i, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Cappage be examined. 

Ordered Mr. Hinton be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered Mr. Gaiton be approved. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Fetherstone's approbation 
shall not be recalled. Ordered Mr. Samuel Jones be 
approved. Ordered That Mr. William Davis be respited 
till Mr. Wilson come. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. James shall have his cer- 
tificate. 

Ordered Mr. Francis Merricke do bring a better testi- 
monial of his conversation from some ministers or others 
known to the Assembly, and the reasons of his remove. 

Sess. 80 1. March 2, 1646. Tuesday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Congham 1 be respited for 
three weeks, and do bring a better testimonial of ministers, 
and a certificate of his taking the Covenant, and his orders. 

Ordered Mr. Browne be approved upon his former 
approbation. 

Ordered Mr. Simpson's business be respited till he be 
so well as to come to the Assembly, and then a day to be 

1 Or Longham. 



334 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 801. set by the Assembly for the hearing of it. Resolved upon 
^646 2 ' the Q-, There shall not 1 be Committee appointed to give 
reasons to the Committee of Plundered Ministers of the 
delay of Mr. Simpson's business in this Assembly. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures 
for the proof of part of the 4th paragraph of the 2Oth 
chapter of the Confession of Faith. 

Sess. 802. March 3, 1 646. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Herbert Hackwell be examined. 

Ordered Mr. Robert Stansby be approved without 
coming up to be examined. 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Nesbitt be admitted to 
examination upon those certificates now brought in. 

Mr. Tabor brought a copy of an order from the Com- 
mittee for Plundered Ministers to the Assembly for the 
examination of the said Mr. Tabor, signed by the Regis- 
trar's 2 hand of the 7th Classis. Upon some debate about 
it, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., 3 That ' no question shall be put 
concerning this business.' 

An order was brought from the Committee for Plun- 
dered Ministers for Mr. Carre and Mr. Worley for Chig- 
wall. After some debate of it, it was 

Ordered Mr. Worley have a week's time to bring in a 
testimonial of his conversation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Carre shall be admitted to 
examination upon the certificate brought in. 

Ordered That there be a Committee to consider what 
the Assembly shall do with those ministers that are 
sent for approbation of the Assembly, and come out of 
enemies' quarters. Ordered That Mr. Palmer, Mr. Ray- 
nor, Mr. Sedgwicke, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Byfield, Dr. Temple, 
Mr. Scudder, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Case, Mr. Calamy, Mr. 
Valentine, or any five of them, to meet to-morrow in the 
afternoon. The care of this is referred to Mr. Raynor. 

1 In Fascicle III. the entry is 'JR. ^ neg.' 2 In MS. Register's. 
3 In Fascicle III. the entry is '. ^ cast neg, by the Prolocutor.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 335 

Ordered That Mr. Walway 1 be approved upon his SK*S. 802. 
former ordination. 

Report was made of the Scriptures for the proof of the 
23d, 24th, 25th ; 26th chapters of the Confession of Faith. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Scriptures Debate of 
for the proof of the 4th paragraph of the 2Oth chapter of |^ c f j x f x 
the Confession of Faith. 

Scss. 803. March 4, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Tabor be approved upon 
his ordination. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Garthwaite shall be approved 
without coming up to be examined. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Lea shall have a certificate 
without coming up to be examined. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Daniel Evans shall 
have the certificate of this Assembly upon the knowledge 
that they have of him. 

Ordered That Mr. Whitsey be approved upon his 
ordination. 

An order was published for Mr. Dicks for Tiverton. 
Upon debate of it, by reason of the desire of his parish- 
ioners in Bride's, London, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a Committee to 
consider of Mr. Dickes his business. Ordered That Dr. 
Gouge, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Ash, Mr. Bond, Mr. 
Hicks, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Hardwicke, Dr. Temple, and 
Mr. Vines shall be a Committee to consider of this busi- 
ness. They are to meet on Monday in the afternoon. 
The care of this business is referred to Dr. Gouge. 

Ordered Mr. Paine be respited for a better testimonial. 
Ordered Mr. Meredith be examined. Ordered Mr. 
Merricke's business be respited till Monday. Ordered 
Mr. Gone 2 and Mr. Bacon's order be respited till to-morrow 
sevennight. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scrip- 
tures for the proof of the 4th paragraph of the 2Oth chapter 
of the Confession of Faith. 

1 Or Walley. * Or Gore or Gove. 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 804. Sess. 804. March 5, 1646. Friday morning. 

1646 5> Mr. P erne an d Mr. Price were appointed to pray with 

the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Bond be excused from his attend- 
ance for a time, upon the desire of the gentlemen of the 
county for his assistance in the county of Devon, for the 
settling of the Government. 

Examinees Resolved upon the Q., That the Chairman of the Com- 
if the aSked m i ttee f r examination of Ministers shall examine those 
have taken that come before them whether they have taken the 
nant. " Covenant, and make report of it to this Assembly. 

Report was made of the Scriptures for the proof of the 
29th, 3Oth, 3 ist, 32d, 33d chapters of the Confession of 
Faith. 

Thanks Ordered That thanks be returned to the Committee for 

Committee tne Scriptures, for their great pains and diligence in that 
on Scrip- business ; which was accordingly done by the Prolocutor. 

ture proofs. J 

Committee Ordered That Mr. Burges, Dr. Smith, Mr. Calamy, 
to revise Mr. Palmer, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Strickland, Mr. Spurstow, 
the proofs. Mn Casej Mr Scudder) and Dr Hoyle, or any three of 

them, shall be a Committee to join with the Committee 
for the Scriptures, to review the Scriptures. They are to 
meet on Thursday next in the afternoon. The care of this 
Committee is referred to Mr. Scudder. 

Ordered That Mr John Leare be respited till Monday. 
Ordered That Mr. Drayton be approved upon his former 
examination. 

Further The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the 4th para- 
proofs 6 of ra P h of the 20th cha P ter of the Confession of Faith. 
4- 

Sess. 805. March 11, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Hill be examined. 

Ordered Mr. John Twisse be approved upon his ordina- 
tion. Ordered Mr. John Masy be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. William Watts be admitted 
to examination. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Merricke be 
examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Henry Goodyere be approved upon 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 337 

his former approbation. Ordered Mr. William Davis be SESS. 805. 
examined. Ordered That Mr. Leere do bring a better ^/g!// 1 
testimonial. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures Debate 
for the proof of the 4th paragraph of the 2Oth chapter of R 
the Confession of Faith. 

Sess. 806. March 12, 164.6. Friday morning. 

Mr. Wilkinson, jun., and Mr. Hodges were appointed 
to pray with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered Mr. Richard Saunders be approved upon his 
ordination. 

Ordered Mr. John Hill be examined. Ordered Mr. 
Samuel Hall be respited for a week. Ordered That Mr. 
Gone be examined in the afternoon. 

Ordered That the Committee for Mr. Dickes do meet 
this afternoon. Ordered Mr. Paine be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the names shall be called. 1 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Halifax shall be examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Scriptures Proofs of 
for the proof of the 4th paragraph of the 2oth chapter of ' * e d to 4 
the Confession of Faith ; and the Scriptures were assented 
to as in the margin of the Confession. Mr. Carter enters Carter's 
his dissent to the proofs about the Civil Magistrate. 

Sess. 807. March 15, 1646. Monday morning. 

Upon some debate about Mr. Bacon, a testimonial being 
produced for him, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The testimonial for Mr. Bacon is 
not satisfactory. 

Ordered That the whole business concerning Mr. Bacon Committee 
be referred to a special Committee to speak with him, as * c n s 
they shall see cause, and to consider of his testimonial. 

Ordered That Mr. Seaman, Mr. Ley, Dr. Gouge, Dr. 
Smith, Mr. "Gower, Mr. Scudder, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Calamy, 

1 In accordance with the Resolution adopted in Sess. 721. In Fascicle 
III. this is inserted after the memorandum of the debate of the Scripture 
proofs. 

Y 



g 



338 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 807. Mr. Burges, Mr. Byfield, Mr. Walker, Dr. Temple, Mr. 

M 'i646. I5> Prophet, Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Sedgwicke, and Mr. Young shall 

be this Committee, or any five of them. They are to meet 

on Wednesday at 2 of the clock in the afternoon. The 

care of it is referred to Mr. Ley. 

Ordered That the Committee for Mr. Dickes do meet 
this afternoon at 2 of the clock, and that Mr. Gibson, Mr. 
Thorrowgood, Mr. Wilkinson, jun., be added to this 
Committee. 

Ordered That Mr. Bolch and Mr. Simner be examined. 

Sess. 808. March 16, 164.6. Tuesday morning. 

An order was brought from the House of Peers for 
examining of Ministers that offer themselves upon presen- 
tations. It was as followeth. 1 . . . 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Waite 2 shall have an appro- 
bation without coming up to be examined. 

Ordered That Mr. Dickes be respited till Tuesday. 

An order was brought from a Committee of the House 
of Lords concerning Mr. Launce. It is as followeth 3 . . . 
Ordered That the Committee for Mr. Launce do meet 
this afternoon, and prepare something to report to the 
Assembly to-morrow morning, to be presented to the 
Committee of the House of Peers according to their order. 

Ordered Mr. Archibald Simner be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Ordered That Mr. Mapleden be approved upon his 
former examination. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Allen shall be examined. 

Order An order was brought from the House of Peers about a 

Luther's translation of Dr. Martin Luther's Last Discourses. It is 

last dis- as followeth 4 . . . Ordered That Mr. Dury, Mr. Hodges, 

Dr. Temple, Mr. Palmer, Dr. Smith, Mr. Delmy, Mr. De la 

March, Mr. De la Place, shall [be] a Committee to consider 

of this order. They are to meet on Thursday at 2 of the 

clock. The care of this business is referred to Mr. Palmer. 

Report was made concerning the business of Mr. Dickes 

1 Not discovered in Journals of House of Lords. 2 Or Waile. 

3 Journals of House of Lords, vol. ix. p. 75. * Ibidem. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 339 

his remove, and debated and assented to as followeth. . . . SF.S.S. 808. 
Ordered That the Committee do draw up an answer to M ^\ 16 ' 
the Committee of Plundered Ministers in answer to their 
order concerning Mr. Dickes. 

Sess. 809. March 17, 1646. -Wednesday morning. 

Upon a debate about an order concerning Mr. Reading 
and Mr. Vintnor, both recommended to one place, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Reading shall not be ad- 
mitted to examination for Weston. Ordered That Mr. 
Vintnor be admitted to examination. 

Ordered Mr. Cresswell Wheatley be approved upon a 
presentation. 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Allen shall be admitted to 
examination. Ordered That Mr. Shaw do bring a better 
testimonial. Ordered That Mr. Burney be certified as 
unfit. 

Report was made of the answer to the Committee con- 
cerning Mr Dix. 1 

Report was made by Mr. Whitakers concerning the 
business of Mr. Launce. It was debated and resolved, and 
is as followeth . . . 

Sess. Sio. March 18, 1646. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Thomas Jesop be certified to the 
Committee for Plundered Ministers to have passed the 
approbation of the Assembly formerly, but by reason of 
the long distance of time and some informations concern- 
ing him, it is desired that he may be examined again. 

Ordered That Mr. Jellinger be examined again. 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Thomas Bowes be exa- 
mined. 

Resolved upon the Q., That the examination of Mr. 
Vintnor shall stand as sufficient. Resolved upon the Q., 
Mr. Ventnor shall have his certificate upon this examina- 
tion. Ordered That the Committee do draw up reasons 
why they do not examine Mr. Reading to be sent with 
this certificate. 

1 i.e. Dickes. 



340 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 810. Mr. Worley 1 having, according to the order of the 
Ma I 1 6 c j 1 6 l8 ' Assembly, produced a better testimonial, it was 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Worley shall be admitted to 
examination. 

Resolved upon the O., Mr. Allen shall have his certificate 
now. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Shaw shall not be ad- 
mitted to examination for Appleby. Resolved upon the 
Q., Mr. Jonadab Birch shall not be admitted to examina- 
tion upon these testimonials for Esington in Yorkshire. 

Sess. 8 1 1. March 19, 1646. Friday morning. 

Mr. Newcomen and Mr. Good were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That the Committee for Plundered Ministers 
be certified concerning Mr. Jesop that he was duly ex- 
amined, and the Assembly is fully satisfied concerning his 
sufficiency. 

Report was made of the answer to the Committee about 
Mr. Vintner and Mr. Reading ; and it was debated and 
agreed to, and is as followeth . . . Ordered Dr. Smith 
and Mr. Ley do carry it up. 

Resolved upon the O., There shall be a Committee of 
seven to consider of a way of expediting the examination 
of ministers. Ordered Mr. Newcomen, Dr. Burges, Dr. 
Smith, Mr. Ny, Mr. Raynor, Mr. Seaman, and Mr. Valen- 
tine shall be this Committee ; and the care of it is referred 
to Mr. Seaman. They are to meet on Monday afternoon, 
and make report on Wednesday. 

Report was made about Mr. Bacon and Mr. Gone. 
Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Bacon is not fit to officiate 
the cure of 2 Andrew's Wardrobe. Resolved upon the Q., 
It shall be added, ' nor for any other ministerial employ- 
ment in regard of his erroneous and dangerous opinions.' 

Sess. 812. March 22, 1646. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Batchelor be respited till Monday next. 
Ordered Mr. Robert Congham be examined. 

Mr. Tate moved the Assembly by order of the Com- 

1 Or Morley, as in Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 232. 2 Or ' at.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 341 

mittee of the House of Commons for the examination of SKSS. 812. 
those that preach without ordination, that they would ^l^ 22 ' 
appoint some members of the Assembly to confer with 
one Mr. Tiffin according to his own desire to that Com- 
mittee. 

Ordered That Mr. Hall do bring a better testimonial 
of his good conversation from ministers known unto the 
Assembly. 

Ordered Mr. Palmer, Mr. Young, be added to the 
Committee for the consideration of the Examination of 
Ministers. 

Ordered Mr. Boyer be approved upon his former ordi- 
nation. Ordered Mr. Luke Saunders be approved upon 
his former ordination. 

Ordered Mr. Chase be respited because ' sequestered/ 
and the Assembly not satisfied concerning his testi- 
monial. 

Ordered That Mr. Seaman and Mr. Burges do speak 
with Mr. Kiffin 1 according to his desire to speak with 
some members of the Assembly. 

Sess. 813. March 23, 1646. Tiicsday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Congham be returned as in- 
sufficient Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Merricke be returned 
as insufficient. 

Upon a debate about Mr. Dicke, 2 against whom some 
exceptions are brought in by the inhabitants of Croydon, 
it was 

Ordered That Mr. Raynor, Dr. Smith, Mr. Byfield, Dr. 
Temple, Dr. Stanton, Mr. Thorrowgood, Mr. Good, Mr. 
Johnson, shall be a Committee to consider of this business ; 
and the care of this business is referred to Mr. Byfield. 

Ordered Mr. 3 bring a better testimonial of his 

conversation for a longer time. 

Resolved upon the Q., That Mr. Wood shall not be 
examined here. 

Ordered That in case Mr. Worley do not come in by 

1 K or R in this place, though T before. 2 Or Picke. 

3 Blank in MS. Perhaps Dickes, or, as in Fascicle III., Daux. 



suitable- 
ness. 



342 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 813. Friday next to be examined, then Mr. Carre shall have his 

March 2T., , , i 

1646. testimonial. 

Ordered -Mr. Deacon be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered Mr. William Swain be examined. 
Ordered That Mr. Seaman make report to-morrow 
morning the first thing. 

Sess. 814. March 24, 1646. Wednesday morning. 

Mr. Seaman made report of the way for expediting of 
the Examination of Ministers. It was read, debated, and 
assented to, and is as followeth . . . 

Ordered Mr. Swain be approved. Resolved upon the 
Q., Mr. Benjamin Bell be excused from coming up to be 
examined. 

Ordered Mr. Isham 1 (?), Mr. Hall, Mr. Harwood, be 
respited till the afternoon. 

Ministerial Upon a motion to consider of the business of Mr. Hall 
presently, because there was no expectation of an Assembly 
in the afternoon, it was Resolved upon the Q., To go on 
upon Mr. Hall's business ; and upon debate of it, it was 
Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Hall shall not be examined. 
Resolved upon the Q., This answer shall be returned, that this 
Assembly is not satisfied concerning his fitness for Thax- 
stead in Essex. Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no ad- 
dition concerning his fitness or unfitness for any other place. 

Sess. 815. -March 25, 1647. Thursday morning. 
A testimonial was brought for Mr. Chase, and respited. 
Ordered Mr. Cheshire be respited till afternoon on Monday. 
Ordered Mr. Watnough be excused from coming up to be 
examined. 

Sess. 8 1 6. March 26, 1647. Friday morning. 
Mr. Hardwicke and Mr. Young were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered Mr. Lawry be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered Mr. Stephen Mun be approved 
upon his former ordination. Ordered Mr. James Orton 
be approved upon his former ordination. 

1 So also in Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 122. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 343 

Ordered Mr. John Orton be respited till Mr. Burgcs do SESS. Sio. 
speak with Mr. Roberts, and make report on Monday Mi jSl 26 
morning-. Ordered Thomas Gilbert be examined. 

Mr. Gillespic informed the Assembly that the fire in Gillespie 
their kingdom is not yet quenched ; their army is now refe f to . 

warfare in 

gone forth, and they desire the prayers of the Assembly Scotland, 
for their army, both publicly and privately. prayers of 

Ordered Mr. John Taylor be examined. Ordered Mr. the Asscm 
Richard Farrer be examined. Ordered Mr. George Smith 
be examined if he bring a testimonial. 

Sess. 817. March 29, 1647. Monday morning. 

Mr. Surges informed the Assembly concerning Mr. 
Orton that he is a great malignant. Ordered That Mr. 
John Orton be certified as one of whose fitness for that 
sequestration the Assembly is not satisfied. 

Ordered That Mr. Byfield, one of the Scribes, have 
leave from this Assembly to go into the country upon his 
necessary occasions for eight or ten days. 1 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Isham (?) shall be examined. 

Upon debate of the return to the Committee concerning 
Mr. Dix, it was Resolved upon the Q., This answer shall 
be returned to the Committee of Plundered Ministers. It 
is as followeth . . . 

Upon debate about Mr. Collyer, it was Resolved upon 
the O., Mr. Collyer shall not be returned as fit for 
Blockley. 

Upon debate about Mr. Chase, it was Resolved upon the 
Q., Mr. Chase shall not be admitted to examination. 

1 Accordingly, from 2d to 9th April, the penmanship and phraseology of 
the minutes, as given in the primary or original scroll, contained in the 3d 
fascicle of vol. iii. of the MS. in Dr. Williams' library, are markedly different 
from what they are under the preceding and subsequent dates ; while again in 
the revised scroll, of which the present is a copy, some of the phraseology of 
these entries is altered, so as seemingly to make it more nearly conformable to 
what preceded and followed, and the penmanship throughout is obviously by 
the same hand. All these circumstances seem to confirm the prevalent 
belief, that certainly the whole of the 2d fascicle, and all but the whole of 
the others, are the work of Adoniram Byfield, the chief Scribe of the 
Assemblv. S. 



344 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 818. Sess. 818. April I, 1647. Thursday morning. 

^647.*' An or der was brought into the Assembly from the Lords 

and Commons for the admitting of Mr. Bolton into the 

Samuel Assembly as a member thereof. It was read, and is as 

Bolt ? n , followeth. 1 . Mr. Bolton came into the Assembly, and 

admitted a J 

memberof took the protestation ; and Mr. Johnson and Mr. Bolton 

Assembly. ^ ^ Covenant 

Ordered Mr. Woodward be examined. Ordered Mr. 
Isham be approved. 

Ordered That Mr. Davis his business be respited to 
be considered in the Assembly on Monday afternoon. 
Ordered Mr. Hall's business be referred till Monday 
next in the afternoon. Ordered Mr. Death be respited 
till Monday next afternoon. 

Ordered Mr. Baker be approved upon his former ordi- 
nation. 

Ordered Mr. Welding 2 be respited till Monday next. 
Ordered Mr. Foyson be examined. Ordered Mr. 
Palmer's business be respited till Monday next. 

An order was brought for to return Mr. Harwood his 
testimonial to the Committee for Plundered Ministers. 
Ordered That Mr. Harwood's business be respited till 
Monday next. 

Sess, 819. April 2, 1647. Friday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Samuel Smith be respited. Ordered 
Mr. Jonathan Boole be approved upon his ordination by 
the first classis. 

Report Mr. Richard Byfield made report from the Committee 

conce mg a ^ out jyjr r Di c k ej 3 that there were diverse things charged 
Dickes. upon him, and he appointed a time to clear himself, but 
did not appear ; whereupon it was Resolved That a return 
be made that the Assembly is not satisfied concerning Mr. 
Dicke, and it be signified that he appeared not to answer 
exceptions against him upon notice given, and that a par- 
ticular Committee was appointed for it. 

1 Journals of House of Lords, vol. viii. p. 719 ; and Journals of House of 
Commons, vol. v. p. 121. 

2 Or Wilding. 3 Or Picke. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 345 

Mr. Bridge and Mr. Valentine were appointed to pray SESS. 819. 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 1 lei- 2 ' 

Sess. 820. April 5, 1647. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Ward's business be respited, because 
his order is out of date. 

The Confession was finished. 2 

Upon a motion by Mr. Seaman that something be 
annexed by way of caution to show how the proofs are to 
be applied, it was 

Resolved upon the Q., 3 There shall be no further debate 
about cautions to be added about the proofs of Scripture. 
Resolved upon the Q., That the Review of the Confession 
of Faith be considered of by the three Committees of the 
Assembly. Ordered That the Committees appointed for 
the Review of the Confession make report to-morrow 
morning what they have done about it. 

Afternoon. 

Resolved upon the Q., To return a negative about Mr. 
Hall. 

Ordered That Mr. Randolph Davies be examined. 
Ordered That Mr. Death do bring a better testimonial. 
Ordered That Mr. Samuel Smith be approved upon his 
ordination by the first classis of London. 

Resolved That Mr. Thomas Palmer be examined. 
Resolved That Mr. Wm. Wilding be examined. Resolved, 
etc. That Mr. Simon Linch be examined. Resolved, etc. 
Mr. Thomas Cheshire do bring a better testimonial. 

Sess. 821. April6, 164.7. Tuesday morning. 

Upon a report by Mr. Palmer from the Committee of 
Review for the business of Ministers, it was Ordered That 
Mr. Collier be approved upon former examination. Ordered 

1 In Fascicle III. there is the following additional entry in this Session : 
' Proofs voted for chap. 30 and 31 of Confession.' 

2 Between this and the previous entry a blank space is left in the MS. In 
Fascicle III. the entry is : ' Proofs voted for chap. 32, 33, and the Confession 
finished.' 

3 1 R. - K . No further debate,' etc. Fascicle III. 



346 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 821. M r Broome 1 be approved upon his former examina- 

April 6, 

1647. tion. 

Upon a letter from Mr. Proud and Mr. Bradley, who 
were desired to confer with Mr. Wood, and to certify the 
Assembly, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Wood be approved without coming 
up to be examined. 

Mr. Scudder made report of the Review of the proofs of 
the Confession of Faith for the seven first chapters and part 
of the 8th ; and upon debate of it, it was assented to as the 
proofs are entered in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Ordered That the rest of the 8th chapter, and chapt[ers] 
Qth to the 1 7th be referred to the First Committee to 
review ; and from chapter 8th to the 25th to the Second 
Committee, and from chapter 26th to the end of the Con- 
fession to the Third Committee. 2 

Sess. 822. April 7, 1647. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That a return be made to the Committee for 
Plundered Ministers that the Assembly is not satisfied with, 
nor do approve of Mr. Burney as sufficient. 

Ordered That Mr Brian be approved upon his ordina- 
tion by the 7th classis of London. Ordered That Mr. 
Hewet be examined ; and Henry Cooke approved, without 
coming up. 

Upon Mr. Ley's report that it was not clear that Mr. 
Wetherhead had taken the Covenant, it was 

Ordered That he be respited till he bring a testimonial 
of his taking the Covenant. 3 

Mr. Palmer made report from the First Committee of 

1 Or Brome, for Brougham. 

2 In the rough scroll contained in Fascicle III. the minute of this Session, 
which is written by another than the ordinary scribe, is worded somewhat 
differently from the extended minute given above, and in this extended minute 
there are one or two things omitted as being seemingly not deserving of a 
place in the more permanent record. The following are the additional 
entries :- ' Mr. Ley publ. certif. for Tho. Palmer ; Randolph Davies ; Pre- 
sentation of Ambrose Wethered. Ordered That he be examined. Present, 
of Edw. Brome ; approved upon former examination.' S. 

3 In Fascicle III. the entry is : ' Mr. Ley reported that upon examination 
of Ambrose Wethereld, he seemed to hold bishops distinct from presbyters 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 347 

the review of the Scriptures of the residue of the 8th SKSS. 82 
chapter, and it was debated and assented to. as it is Ap l^ lL ' 

1 047. 

entered in the margin. 

Mr. Young reported from the 2d l Committee the Scrip- 
tures reviewed for the i8th chapter. It was debated and 
assented to as it is entered in the margin. 
. Mr. Prophet reported from the 3d Committee the review 
of the 26th chapter, which was debated and voted as it is 
entered in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Sess. 823. Aprils, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Samuel Glover be approved upon his 
ordination by the /th classis of London. Resolved upon 
the Q., Mr. John Leer be examined. Upon testimony that 
Mr. Wetherhead had taken the Covenant, it was 

Resolvcdupon the Q., That Mr. Wetherhed be examined. 

Dr. Gouge reported from the First Committee a review 
of chap[ters] 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, which were de- 
bated and voted as they are entered in the margin of the 
Confession of Faith. 

Sess. 824. April 9, 1647. Friday morning. 

Dr. Hoyle and Mr. Case were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Report was made from the Second and Third Com- 
mittees of the Review, and they were debated and voted as 
they are entered in the margin of the Confession of Faith. 

Ordered That the Committee for the Catechism make 
report on Monday morning of what they have done. 

Ordered Mr. David James be approved upon his former 
ordination if he bring a copy of his testimonial. 

Sess. 825. April 12, 164.7. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Foulkes be respited for a while. Mr. 
Robert Andrews and Mr. Haward are to be examined. 

jure divino, and that it was not clear that he had taken the Covenant. It was 
respited till he brought a testimonial of his taking the Covenant.' 

1 Apparently 3d in MS., but the report of the 3d Committee follows. In 
Fascicle III. it is distinctly 2d. 



34-8 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 825. Mr. Young made report of the review of the 22d and 
^6 4? I2> 2 3^ chapters, and they were debated and assented to. 1 

Ordered That Mr. Wetherhed have an approbation. 

Ordered That there be a Committee to consider of 
something to be presented to the House of Commons, 
together with the former votes of the old Articles. Ordered 
That Dr. Burges, Mr. Palmer, Dr. Temple, Mr. Gower, 
Mr. Calamy, Mr. Greene, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Seaman, Dr. 
Smith, Mr. Sedgwicke, and Mr. Ny shall be this Com- 
mittee. The care of it is referred to Mr. Gower. They 
are to meet in the afternoon. 

Sess. 826. April 13, 1647. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Silverwood be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered Mr. Fen be approved upon his 
former ordination. 

An order was brought for Mr. Hall, and upon debate of 
it, it was 

Ordered That there shall be a Committee to consider 
of an answer to this order concerning Mr. Hall ; and that 
Dr. Temple, Mr. Sedgwicke, Dr. Smith, Mr. Gower, Mr. 
Seaman, Mr. Salway, Mr. Young, Mr. Good, Mr. Johnson, 
Mr. Greene, Mr. Cawdry, to 2 be this Committee. They 
are to meet this afternoon. 

Mr. Prophet made report from the Third Committee of 
review of the Scriptures for the 3ist chapter, and it was 
debated and assented to. 

Mr. Gower made report of the Preface to the old Articles. 

Sess. 827. April 14, 1647. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Kent be examined. Ordered That 
Mr. Foulkes be respited till Monday next. 

Report was made of the answer to the Committee of the 
House of Commons for Plundered Ministers concerning 
Mr. Hall. It was read and debated, and upon debate 
voted, and is as followeth. . . . Ordered To be carried up 

1 In Fascicle III. the following entry immediately succeeds the above : 
~j._; ~^\ c;'t cr ;ri^-ur:' f:r 3::: eL~ r t., and reported just 



nothing.' 
2 Sic in MS. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 349 

by the Committee, and (that) Mr. Lightfoot, Mr. Corbet, SESS. 827. 
Mr. Bolton, Mr. Scudder, Mr. Ny, and Mr. Prophet be ^J? 1 I4 ' 
added to that Committee. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. James be approved upon his 
former approbation. 

The Assembly debated the Report about the Preface to 
the 39 Articles, and upon debate it was recommitted. 

Report was made from the Committee for the Catechism, 
of some part of the Larger Catechism by Dr. Stanton. 

Ordered Mr. Clark be approved upon his ordination. 
Ordered That a return be made concerning Mr. Burney, 
that the Assembly do not think him fit for any ministerial 
employment. Ordered To debate the Catechism to- 
morrow. 

Sess. 828. April 15, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Dr. Smith made report from the Committee for Plun- 
dered Ministers that the Committee did concur with the 
Assembly in both their requests. 

Ordered That Mr. Wilson, Mr. Gower, and Mr. Wallis 
do draw up, in the margin of two books of the Confession 
of Faith, the Scriptures, to be presented to the Parliament. 

Ordered That the Scribes do write out what is done 
upon the old Articles, and insert the Scriptures in the 
margin to be presented to the Parliament. 

The Assembly entered upon debate of the Larger Debate of 
Catechism ; and upon debate it was Catechism. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is the chief and highest 
end of man ? A. Man's chief and highest end is to glorify 
God, and fully to enjoy Him for ever. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How doth it appear that there 
is a God ? A. The very light of nature in man, and the 
works of God, declare plainly that there is a God ; but 
His word and Spirit only do sufficiently and effectually 
reveal Him unto men for their salvation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is the word of God ? 
A. The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament 
are the word of God, the only rule of faith and obedience. 

1 i.e. Scripture-proofs. 



35O MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 828. Resolved upon the O., Q. How doth it appear that the 

^647^' Scriptures are the word of God ? A. The Scriptures 

manifest themselves to be the word of God by their 

Larger . 1-11 r n i j 

Catechism, majesty and purity ; by the consent ot all the parts, and 

the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God ; 
by their light and power to convince and convert sinners, 
to comfort and build up believers unto salvation. 

Upon debate about the next question, 'What is able 
fully to persuade the heart the Scriptures are indeed the 
word of God ?' and the answer to it, it was Resolved 
upon the Q., Not to stand in two answers. Resolved to 
stand in one answer. Resolved upon the Q., This addition 
shall be made unto the former answer : ' But the Spirit of 
God bearing witness by and with the Scriptures in the 
heart of man, is alone able fully to persuade it that they 
are the very word of God.' 

Ordered Q. What do the Scriptures principally teach ? 
A. The Scriptures principally teach, what man is to be- 
lieve concerning God, and what duty God requires of man. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What do the Scriptures make 
known of God? A, The Scriptures make known what 
God is, His properties, the persons in the Godhead. 
Sess. 829. Resolved upon the Q., It shall be added, ' His decrees, 
and the execution of them.' 

Ordered Q. What is God ? A. God is a Spirit, infinite 
in being and perfection. 

Ordered Q. Are there more Gods than one ? A. There 
is but one only, the living and true God. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What are the properties of 
God ? A. God is almighty, all-sufficient, eternal, unchange- 
(Sif) R. able, everywhere present, knowing all things, most wise, 
most holy, most just, most merciful and gracious, long- 
suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How many persons are there 
in the Godhead ? A. There be three persons in the God- 
head, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; and these 
three are one true, eternal God, equal in substance, power, 
and glory. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is proper to each of 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 351 

these persons ? A. It is proper to the Father to beget the SKSS. 828. 
Son, and to the Son to be begotten of the Father, and to A }g' a .. 15 ' 
the Holy Ghost to proceed from the Father and the Son 
from all eternity. 

Ordered Mr. Whelpdale bring a better testimonial. 

Sess. 829. April 16, 1647. Friday morning. 

Dr. Gouge and Mr. Sedgwicke were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered Mr. Arnaker 3 be examined. Ordered Mr. 
Chetwin be approved upon his ordination. Ordered Mr. 
Foulkes be examined. Ordered -Mr. Yaxley 2 be approved 
upon his former approbation. 

The parts of the translation of Martin Luther's last Luther's 
Discourses were delivered to the several members of the ^4^" 
Assembly to read over, and to certify their thoughts of 
them to the Assembly on Thursday next. 

Ordered That Mr. Sedgwicke and Mr. Strong do visit 
Mr. Perne in the name of the Assembly. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism, Larger 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., Q. What Catechism - 
are the decrees of God ? A. God's decrees are the wise, 
free, and holy acts of the counsel of His will, whereby, from 
all eternity, He hath for His own glory, unchangeably fore- 
ordained whatsoever comes to pass in time, especially con- 
cerning angels and men. 

Upon a debate about adjourning, the question was put, 
for 8 and 9 o'clock on Monday morning, and carried nega- 
tive ; and then the question was put for ten o'clock, and 
carried affirmative. 

April 19, 1647. Monday morning. 
Ordered That Mr. Deane be examined. 

April 20, 1647. Tuesday morning. 
[A blank here, and in Fascicle III.] 

April 21, 1647. Wednesday morning. 
Ordered Mr. Packwood be approved. Ordered Mr. 
Ward be examined. 

1 Arwaker in Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 146. -' Or Yasley. 



352 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 829. Ordered -Mr. Estrop be respited till to-morrow morn- 
1 ' in S> and in q uir y be made of the Order of the House of 
Commons. 

Ordered That the former vote for the sitting of the 
Assembly and debating no business of ministers in the 
morning session till the Confession of Faith be finished, 
shall be observed till the finishing of the Catechism. 

The several members that had read over the parts of the 
translation of Martin Luther's last Discourses made report 
of what they observed in the books read by them, to this 
purpose, that 'they did not think them fit to be published, 
though some good things were in them, yet many things 
are unworthy of him.' 

Sess. 830. April 22, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Worthington 1 be approved without 
coming up to be examined. Resolved Mr. Withers 
shall not come up to be examined. Resolved upon the 
Q., Mr. Watson be excused from coming up to be 
examined. 

Ordered Mr. Clark bring a better testimonial. Ordered 
Mr. Crosse be approved upon his former ordination. 
Ordered Mr. Giles be approved upon his former exami- 
nation. 

An Order was brought from the House of Commons 
about the Articles and Confession of Faith. It was read, 
and is as followeth 2 . . . 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism 
concerning the decrees concerning angels and men ; and 

1 Perhaps Worthington, Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, who 
had gone, like Sprigge (Sess. 639), to the Bishop of Lincoln for ordination, and 
had been chosen as one of the University preachers. See his 'Diary,' pp. 
26, 27. 

2 Resolved, etc. That the Assembly be required to send into this House, 
according to former order, the former Articles of the Church of England, so 
far as they have proceeded in them, with the texts of Scripture to them ; and 
that they be sent in by Tuesday next. 

Resolved, etc. That on this day sevennight the House do take into con- 
sideration the Confession of Faith, presented from the Assembly of Divines, 
and that the Assembly be required in the meantime to send in the texts oi 
Scripture to them so far as they have proceeded in them. Journals of House 
of Commons, vol. v. p. 151. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 353 

upon debate the Question and Answer concerning- the said SESS. S;,o. 
decrees were " ifuv"' 

Resolved upon the O., Not to stand as brought in ; and 
Resolved upon the O., To be recommitted. 

The return to the Order of the Hon ble House of Peers 
concerning the Translation of Martin Luther's last divine 
Discourses was debated and assented to, and is as fol- 
io weth 1 . . . 

Sess. 831. April 23, 1647. Friday morning. 

Mr. Ny and Dr. Smith were appointed to pray with the 
Lords and Commons the week following-. 

Ordered That Mr. Withers be approved without coming 
up to be examined. Ordered Mr. Simpkins be approved 
upon former examination. Ordered Mr. Richard Ward 
be approved upon his former examination. Ordered Mr. 
Edmund Hall be examined. Ordered Mr. Robert Cocke 
be examined. 

The Assembly debated the Preface to the old Articles, 
and upon debate it was recommitted ; and some to with- 
draw and alter some things in it. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism 
concerning the decrees of God concerning angels and 
men ; and upon debate it was respited to further con- 
sideration. 

Report was made of the alterations in the Preface to the 
old Articles ; and upon debate it was assented to and 
ordered to be transcribed, and is as followeth 2 . . . 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Battell be examined. 

1 As usual, the return is wanting in the MS. , but has been inserted in the 
Journals of the House of Lords (vol. ix. p. 175). 

' The Assembly of Divines ... do humbly certify that they have perused 
the translation of the said Luther's Discourses (a man whose praise is 
throughout all the churches of Christ), and do find in them many good things, 
the most whereof are extant in his known and approved works ; but withal 
there are very many passages contrary to such gravity and modesty, so as we 
humbly conceive they are very unfit for public use, notwithstanding the great 
pains of the translator.' 

The book appears, notwithstanding this unfavourable opinion of the 
Assembly, to have been published in 1651. 

2 Not inserted in MS. nor in Journals of either House of Parliament. 

Z 



354 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

. Sess. 832. April 26, 1647. Monday morning. 

Ordered That Dr. Smith, Mr. Greene, Mr. Gibson, Mr. 
Corbet, Mr. De la Place, Mr. Sahvay, Mr. De la March, Mr. 
Gower, Mr. Dury, shall be a Committee to carry up the 
Scriptures for the Confession of Faith and the old Articles 
to both Houses of Parliament. 1 

The Assembly debated the Catechism about the De- 
crees ; and upon debate it was 

Larger Resolved upon the Q., Q. What hath God decreed con- 

n ' cerning angels and men ? A. God, by an eternal and im- 
mutable decree, out of his mere love, for the praise of his 
glorious grace, to be manifested in due time, hath elected 
some angels to glory ; and hath in Christ chosen some men 
to eternal life, and the means thereof: and also, according 

1 They were presented to both Houses on 2Qth April. The Journals of the 
House of Lords simply bear that ' a message was brought from the Assembly 
of Divines by Dr. Smyth, etc., to present the proofs of Scripture upon which 
every Article of the Confession of Faith is grounded. ' The Journals of the 
House of Commons contain the following more detailed account of the busi- 
ness : 'The House being informed that, according to the Order on Tuesday 
last, divers of the divines of the Assembly were at the door ; They were called 
in, and Dr. Smyth acquainted the House that, according to two Orders that 
the divines of the Assembly had received from this House, he was commanded 
to present to this House the texts of Scripture applied to the Articles of the 
Confession of Faith, and the proceedings they have made upon the Nine-and- 
thirty Articles. Resolved, etc. That on Wednesday next come sevennight the 
first business, and nothing to intervene, the House do take into consideration 
the Confession of Faith, with the places of Scripture annexed, and the pro- 
ceedings the divines have made in the Nine-and-thirty Articles. Ordered 
That six hundred copies, and no more, of the Advice of the Assembly of 
Divines concerning the Confession of Faith, with the quotations and texts of 
Scripture annexed, presented to this House, and likewise six hundred copies 
of the proceedings of the Assembly of Divines upon the Nine-and-thirty 
Articles of the Church of England, be forthwith printed for the service of 
both Houses and of the Assembly of Divines ; and the printer is enjoined 
at his peril not to print more than six hundred copies of each, or to divulge or 
publish any of them. It is further Ordered That no person presume to 
reprint, divulge, or publish the said Advice or proceedings, or any part of 
them, till further order be taken by both or either of the Houses of Parliament. 
Ordered That thanks be given to the Assembly of Divines for their great 
pains in these services. The divines of the Assembly were called in, and Mr. 
Speaker, by the command of the House, did accordingly give them thanks for 
their great pains in these services, and did acquaint them that this House had 
appointed a day to take into consideration the matters now presented, and 
had made an Order for their printing six hundred of each with all speed as 
may be ' (vol. v. p. 1 56). 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 355 

to his sovereign power, and the unsearchable counsel of his SESS. 832. 
own will (whereby he extendcth or withholdeth favour as " ^.~ ' 
he pleaseth), hath passed by and foreordained the rest to 
dishonour and wrath, to be for their sin inflicted, to the Catechism. 
praise of the glory of his justice. 

Ordered Q. How doth God execute his decrees? A. 
God executeth his decrees in his works of creation and 
providence. 

Ordered Q. What is the work of creation? A. The 
work of creation is that wherein God did in the beginning, 
by the word of his power, make of nothing the world, and 
all things therein, for himself, within the space of six days, 
and all very good. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How did God create the 
angels ? A. God created all the angels spirits, holy, 
immortal, mighty in power, to execute his commandments, 
and to praise his name, yet subject to change. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How did God create man ? 
A. God on the sixth day formed man's body of the dust 
of the ground, breathed into it a living, reasonable, and 
immortal soul, made him after his own image in know- 
ledge, righteousness, and holiness, with dominion over the 
creatures, yet subject to fall. 

Ordered Q. What are God's works of providence ? A. 
God's works of providence are his most holy, wise, and 
powerful preserving and governing of all his creatures, 
ordering them, and all their actions, to his own glory. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is God's providence 
towards the angels ? A. God by his providence permitted 
some of the angels to fall irrecoverably into sin and damna- 
tion, established the rest in holiness and happiness, employ- 
ing them all at his pleasure in the administrations of his 
power, mercy, and justice. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is the providence of God 
towards man ? A. The providence of God towards man 
is the preserving, governing, and ordering him in his several 
estates. 



356 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

Scss. 833. April 29, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Dickenson be examined. Ordered 
Mr. Baylcy be examined. Ordered Mr. Higgenbotham 
be respited till he bring a better testimonial from Mr. 
West. 

Larger The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 

"' and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., Q. What 
was the providence of God towards man in his first 
estate? A. The providence of God towards man in his 
first estate was placing him in paradise, appointing him to 
dress it, giving him liberty to eat of the fruit of the earth, 
putting the creatures under his dominion, and ordaining 
marriage for his help : in affording him communion with 
himself, instituting the Sabbath, entering into a covenant 
of life with him, upon condition of personal, perfect, and 
perpetual obedience, of which the tree of life was a pledge, 
and forbidding to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good 
and evil, upon pain of death. 

Dr. Smith informed the Assembly that they had de- 
livered the Confession of Faith with Scriptures, and the 
old Articles, to both Houses of Parliament ; and that the 
House of Commons had appointed the Assembly to print 
600 copies of them both. 

The Earl of Lauderdale 1 came into the Assembly, and 
presented a letter from the Parliament of Scotland to the 
Assembly. It was read, and is as followeth 2 . . . Upon 
the reading of the letter, the Prolocutor, in the name and 
by the order of the Assembly, declared to that noble Lord 
how thankfully the Assembly doth take the great honour 
the Parliament of Scotland hath been pleased to put upon 
this Assembly in writing to them ; and that what is want- 

1 In MS., Lotherdaile. The notes of the Prolocutor's address, found in 
Fascicle III., are even more brief than the summary given above. 

2 Not in printed proceedings of Scotch Parliament of 1647. Probably it 
was of the same tenor as the letter to the English Parliament inserted in the 
Journals of the House of Lords on 27th April 1647. This letter intimates that 
the Commissioners of the Scotch Parliament are authorized to join with those 
of the English in urging forward a treaty of peace, and expresses the earnest 
desire of the former, ' that reformation of religion and uniformity, which was 
the chief ground of our engagement in the cause, may be speedily settled and 
put in practice.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 357 

ing in our return shall be supplied in our prayers for them, SESS 
and in our endeavours for expedition in the work that is ^ 
before us. 

Upon a testimonial for Mr. Higgenbotham from Mr. 
West, it was 

Ordered That Mr. Higgenbotham be examined. 

S?$r-2-3^. April 30, 1647. Friday morning. 

Mr. Guibon and Dr. Surges were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Higgenbotham be respited 
till Wednesday next. Ordered Mr. Dickenson be re- 
spited till the next afternoon. 

Ordered A return be made concerning Mr. Wilson, that 
the Assembly hath already passed another for the same 
place by a presentation. 

Ordered That Mr. Gone be respited till satisfaction 
concerning the reasons of his remove. 

A letter was brought from Utrecht concerning Mr. 

Remington ; it was read, and is as followeth . . . Ordered 

That Dr. Burges, Mr. Johnson, Dr. Gouge, and Dr. 

Smith, shall be a Committee to prepare an answer to this 

letter. 1 

Ordered That a return be made to the Committee for 
Plundered Ministers that Mr. Ward is not a presbyter, and 
so the Assembly cannot examine or approve the fitness of 
the said Mr. Ward for the cure mentioned in the Order of 
that Committee. 

Sess. 834. May 3, 1647. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Lawson be approved upon his former 
examination. Ordered Mr. Greene be respited till the 
Assembly be better satisfied with his testimonial. Ordered 
Mr. Crabb be approved upon his ordination. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was 

1 In Fascicle III., the following additional entry is made : ' Upon a motion 
from the Committee for expediting the work of Assembly [/f.] ; the said Com- 
mittee do meet and consider of this business, and make report on Wednesday 
next.' 



358 



MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SKSS. 834. Resolved upon the Q., Q. How did man fall from that 

^_ 3 ' first estate of innocency ? A. Our first parents being left 

to [the] freedom of their own will, through the temptation 

Catechism, of Satan, transgressed the commandment of God in eating 

the forbidden fruit, and thereby fell from the state of 

innocency. 

The Answer to the next question, viz. ' Did all mankind 
fall in that first transgression ?' was recommitted. 

Ordered Mr. Rees 1 Price be respited till a better testi- 
monial from ministers. Ordered Mr. Smith be approved 
upon his former ordination. 

Ordered Mr. Gere 2 be respited till satisfaction about 
his taking of the covenant. 

Ordered Mr. Higgenbotham be approved. Ordered 
Mr. Chaplyn be approved upon his former examination. 

Sess. 835. May 4, 1647. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Lloyd, Mr. Greene, Mr. Clarke be 
examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism, 
and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What estate did the fall bring 
mankind into ? A. The fall brought mankind into an 
estate of sin and misery. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is sin? A. Sin is any 
want of conformity unto, and 3 transgression of, the law of 
God, given as a rule to the reasonable creature. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Wherein consisteth the sinful- 
ness of that estate whereinto man fell ? A. The sinfulness 
of that estate whereinto man fell, consisteth in the guilt of 
Adam's first sin, the want of that righteousness wherein he 
was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he 
is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all 
that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and 
that continually ; which is commonly called Original Sin, 
and from which do proceed all actual transgressions. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How is original sin conveyed 
from our first parents unto their posterity? A. Original 
1 Or Rice. 2 Or Gore. 3 Sic in MS. 



Altered 
Sess. 
839- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 359 

sin is conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity SESS. 835. 
by natural generation, so as all that proceed from them in ^j 1 ^,, 4 ' 
that way are conceived and born in sin. 

Ordered Q. What misery did the fall bring upon man- Catechism 
kind? A. The fall brought upon mankind the loss of 
communion with God, his displeasure and curse ; so as we 
are by nature children of wrath, bond slaves to Satan, and 
justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that 
which is to come. 

Ordered Q. What are the punishments of sin in this 
world? A. The punishments of sin in this world are 
either inward, as blindness of mind, a reprobate sense, strong 
delusions, hardness of heart, horror of conscience, and vile 
affections ; or outward, as the curse of God upon the crea- 
tures for our sakes, and all other evils that befall us in our 
bodies, names, estates, relations, and employments, together 
with death itself. 

Resolved upon the O., Q. What are the punishments of 
sin in the world to come ? A. The punishments of sin in 
the world to come, are everlasting separation from the 
comfortable presence of God, and most grievous torments, 
without intermission, in hell-fire for ever. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Doth God leave all mankind to 
perish in the estate of sin and misery? A. God doth not 
leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery, 
into which they fell by the breach of the first covenant, 
commonly called the Covenant of Works, but of his mere 
love and mercy delivereth his elect out of it, and bringeth 
them into an estate of salvation by the second covenant, 
commonly called the covenant of grace. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. With whom was the covenant 
of grace made ? A. The covenant of grace was made with 

o <~* 

Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect 
as his seed. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How is the grace of God mani- 
fested in the second covenant? A. The grace of God is 
manifested in the second covenant, in that freely offering 
life and salvation to sinners by Jesus Christ, and requiring 
of them faith in him and obedience to him, he giveth to 



360 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 835. all the elect his Holy Spirit to work in them that faith, 
1647! which he requireth, and all other graces accompanying 
salvation. 

Ordered^ That Dr. Stanton, Mr. Arrowsmith, Mr. Tuck- 
ney, and Mr. Ash be added to the Committee for expedi- 
tion of the business of the Sacrament. 

Sess. 836. May 5, 1647. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Price be examined. Resolved upon the Q., 
Mr. Nevill be examined. 

Larger The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 

' and considering the question and answer recommitted [in] 
sess[ion] 834, it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. Did all man- 
kind fall in the first transgression ? A. The covenant being 
made with Adam as a publick person, not for himself only, 
but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by 
ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in 
that first transgression. 

Ordered Q. Was the covenant of grace always admini- 
stered after one and the same manner? A. The covenant 
of grace was differently administered under the Old Testa- 
ment and under the New. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How was the covenant of grace 
administered under the Old Testament ? A. The covenant 
of grace was administered under the Old Testament by 
promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, passover, and 
other types and ordinances, which did all fore-signify Christ 
then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up 
the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, by whom they 
then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How was the covenant of grace 
administered under the New Testament ? A. Under the 
New Testament, when Christ the substance was exhibited, 
the same covenant of grace was and still is to be admini- 
stered in the preaching of the word, and the administration 
of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper ; in 
Sic. which grace and salvation is held forth in more fulness, 
evidence, and efficacy, to all nations. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q, Who is the Mediator of the 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 361 

covenant of grace ? A. The only Mediator of the covenant SESS. 836. 

of grace is the Lord Jesus Christ, who, being the eternal A ^ y 5 ' 

Son of God, of one substance and equal with the Father, 

in the fulness of time became man, and so was and con- Catechism 

tinues to be God and man, in two entire distinct natures, 

and one person, for ever. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How doth it appear that Jesus 
Christ is the very and true God ? A. The Scriptures mani- 
fest that Jesus Christ is the very and true God, ascribing 
to him such names, attributes, works, and worship as are 
proper to God only. 1 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How did Christ, being the Son 
of God, become man ? A. Christ the Son of God became 
man, by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable 
soul, being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost in 
the womb of the Virgin Mary, of her substance, and born 
of her, yet without sin. 

An order was made authorizing Mr. Byfield, one of the 
Scribes, to receive the Revenues of the Archbishopric of 
Canterbury from the Trustees of London for the use of 
the Assembly. It is as followeth . . . 

Dr. Stanton made report of some alterations in the Cate- 
chism committed. 

Ordered Mr. Dickenson be approved. 

Sess. 837. May 6, 164.7. Thursday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Rees Price have his certificate 
upon the testimonial of his taking the covenant. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Clarke shall be examined 
again. 

The Assembly debated the Catechism ; and upon debate 
it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. Why was it requisite that 
the Mediator should be God ? A. It was requisite that the 
Mediator should be God, that he might sustain and keep 
the human nature from sinking under the infinite wrath of 
God, give worth and efficacy to his sufferings, obedience, 
and intercession, and so satisfy God's justice, procure his 
favour, purchase a peculiar people, give his Spirit to them, 

1 Subsequently included in the answer to Q. n. 



362 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 837. conquer all their enemies, and bring them to everlasting 
% 6 ' salvation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Why was it requisite that the 
Catechism. Mediator should be man? A. It was requisite that the 
Mediator should be man, that he might advance the nature 
of man, perform obedience to the law, suffer and intercede 
for us in our nature, have a fellow-feeling of our infirmities, 
that we might receive the adoption of sons, and have com- 
fort and access with boldness unto the throne of grace. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Why was it requisite that the 
Mediator should be God and man in one person? A. It 
was requisite that the Mediator, who was to reconcile God 
and man, should himself be both God and man, and this 
in one person, that the proper works of each nature might 
be accepted of God for us, and relied upon by us, as the 
works of the whole person. 

Ordered Q. Why was our Mediator called Jesus ? A. 
Our Mediator was called Jesus, because he saveth his 
people from their sins. 

Ordered Q. Why was our Mediator called Christ ? A. 
Our Mediator was called Christ, because he was anointed 
with the Holy Ghost above measure, and so set apart, and 
fully furnished with all authority and ability, to execute 
the offices of prophet, priest, and king of his church, in the 
estate both of his humiliation and exaltation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How doth Christ execute the 
office of a prophet? A. Christ executeth the office of a 
prophet, in his revealing to the church, in all ages, by his 
Spirit and word, in divers ways of administration, the 
whole will of God, in all things concerning their edification 
and salvation. 

A letter was brought into the Assembly by the Commit- 
tee to be sent to the Classis of Utrecht, in answer to their 
letter concerning Mr. Remington. It was debated and 
assented to, and is as followeth . . . 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 363 

Sess. 838. May 7, 1647. Friday morning. SKSS. 838. 

Resolved upon the O., That the Assessors be excused 1647'.' 
from praying [with the Lords and Commons]. 

Ordered Mr. Lightfoot and Mr. Raynor were appointed 
to pray with the Lords and Commons, the week following. 

Mr. Assessor Palmer, notwithstanding the former vote, 1 
tendered himself to pray with the House of Commons the 
week following, and accordingly he supplied Mr. Raynor's' 
turn. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; Larger 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Cj., Q. How Catecm ' sm - 
doth Christ execute the office of a priest ? A. Christ 
executeth the office of a priest, in his once offering himself 
a sacrifice without spot to God, to be a reconciliation for 
the sins of his people, and by making continual interces- 
sion on their behalf. 

The next question, How doth Christ execute the office 
of a priest ? 2 and the answer to it, was recommitted. 

Sess. 839. May 10, 1647. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. John Hanley 3 be respited. Ordered Mr. 
Robert Powell be examined. Ordered Mr. Newman be 
approved upon his former ordination and examination, 

An order was brought from the Committee for Plundered 
Ministers to certify the causes of the Assembly's refusing 
to approve of Mr. Warren ; and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be a Committee to 
consider of an answer ; but upon further debate it was 
Ordered That the information received now in the hands 
of Mr. Gower be drawn up by Mr. Gower against to-morrow 
morning. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. What 
was the state of Christ's humiliation? A. The estate of 
Christ's humiliation was that low condition, wherein he for 
our sakes, emptying himself of his glory, took upon him 

1 i.e. the vote exempting the Assessors from taking their turn with other 
members in praying with the Lords and Commons. 

2 Put by a clerical error for ' king,' as appears from minute of Sess. 841. 

3 Or Stanley, as in Sess. 849, and Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 209. 



364 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 839. the form of a servant, in his conception and birth, life, death, 
1647' an d after his death, until his resurrection. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How did Christ humble himself 

Ltrfcr 

Catechism, in his conception and birth ? A. Christ humbled himself 
in his conception and birth, in that, being the Son of God 
from all eternity, in the bosom of the Father, he was pleased 
in the fulness of time to become the Son of man, made of 
a woman of low estate, and to be born of her with divers 
circumstances of more than ordinary abasement. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How did Christ humble him- 
self in his life? A. Christ humbled himself in his life, by 
subjecting himself to the law, which he perfectly fulfilled, 
and by conflicting with the indignities of the world, tempta- 
tions of Satan, and infirmities in his flesh, whether common 
to the nature of man, or particularly accompanying that 
his low condition. 

Sess. 840. May II, 1647. Tuesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. John Bennet be approved upon his former 
examination and ordination. Ordered Mr. Bankes be ap- 
proved upon his former ordination. Ordered Mr. Smal- 
wood be approved upon his former approbation. 

Mr. Gower reported the reasons of the refusal of Mr. 
Warren. It was debated and assented to. 

Resolved upon the Q., That this be transcribed and sent 
to the Committee. It is as followeth . . . 

Upon Mr. Hodges his suggestion that he had some 
letters at home that would serve to the clearing of Mr. 
Warren, it was Ordered That Mr. Hodges do bring his 
letters to clear Mr. Warren to-morrow morning if he have 
any. 

Sess. 841. May 12, 1647. Wednesday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Mawdit be approved upon his ordination. 
Ordered Mr. Gladman be approved upon his former exa- 
mination. 

Mr. Scudder had leave to go into the country. 

Mr. Hodges being desired to produce any letters that he 
had in behalf of Mr. Warren, he said he had before de- 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 365 

livered the letters and testimonial to the party whom it did SESS. 841. 

concern. Ma / I2 ' 

1647. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate of the former question about the kingly Catechism, 
office of Christ formerly recommitted, it was 

Resolved upon the O., Q. How cloth Christ execute the 
office of a king ? A. Christ executes the office of a king, 
in calling out of the world a people for his name, and giving 
them officers, laws, and censures, by which he visibly governs 
them ; in bestowing saving grace upon his elect, rewarding 
their obedience, and correcting them for their sins, preserv- 
ing and supporting them under all their temptations and 
sufferings, restraining and overcoming all their enemies, and 
powerfully ordering all things for his own glory and their 
good ; and also in taking vengeance on the rest, who know 
not God, or obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Mr. Ny and Mr. Simpson enter their dissent to these Ny and 
words, ' by which he visibly governs them.' dissent? 1 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How did Christ humble him- 
self in his death ? A. Christ humbled himself in his 
death, in that, having been betrayed by Judas, forsaken 
by his disciples, scorned and rejected by the world, con- 
demned by Pilate, and tormented by his persecutors, 
having also conflicted with the terrors of death and the 
powers of darkness, felt and borne the weight of God's 
wrath, he laid down his life an offering for sins, enduring 
the painful, shameful, and cursed death of the cross. 

Resolved upon the O., Q. Wherein consisted Christ's 
humiliation after death ? A. Christ's humiliation after his 
death consisted in his being buried, and continuing in the 
state of the dead, and under the power of death till the 
third day, which hath been otherwise expressed in these 
words, He descended into hell. 

Mr. Ny enters his dissent. dissent 

Sess. 842. May 13, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Ordered That Mr. Gale be approved upon his ordination. 
Upon an order for approbation of Mr. Crosse, a member 
of this Assembly, for a sequestration, it was 



366 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 842. Ordered That 1 it be signified to Mr. Crosse that he is 
164.7'*' a mem ber of the Assembly, and the Assembly doth desire 
his presence, and then they shall speak with him about 
the business. 

Upon a debate concerning Mr. Wilson, ordered by the 
Committee for Plundered Ministers, to be examined, it 
was 

Resolved upon the Q., That a return be sent to the 
Committee for Plundered Ministers, That the Assembly 
had approved another for the same place upon a presen- 
tation before their order for Mr. Wilson was received. 
Lar er ^ e Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism, 

Catechism, and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. What 
was the estate of Christ's exaltation ? A. The estate of 
Christ's exaltation comprehends his resurrection, ascen- 
sion, sitting at the right hand of God 2 the Father, and his 
coming again to judge the world. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How was Christ exalted in his 
resurrection ? A. Christ was exalted in his resurrection, 
in that, not having seen corruption in death (of which it 
was not possible for him to be held), and having the very 
same body in which he suffered, with the essential pro- 
perties thereof (but without mortality, and other common 
infirmities belonging to this life), really united to his soul, 
he rose again from the dead the third day by his own 
power ; whereby he declared himself to be the Son of 
God, to have satisfied divine justice, to have vanquished 
death, and him that had the power of it, to be Lord of 
quick and dead : all which he did as a publick person, 
the head of his church, for their justification, quickening 
in grace, support against enemies, and to assure them of 
their resurrection from the dead at the last day. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How was Christ exalted in 
his ascension ? A. Christ was exalted in his ascension, in 
that having often appeared unto and conversed with His 
apostles, speaking to them of the things pertaining to the 

1 In MS. 'that that.' 

2 In MS. the word 'God' had originally stood before ' the Father,' but it 
seems to have been erased by a stroke of the pen. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 367 

kingdom of God, and giving them commission to preach SESS. 842. 
the gospel to all nations, forty days after his resurrection, '^ 

he, in our nature, and as our head, triumphing over 

. ., , . , , . , Sess. 846, 

enemies, visibly went up into the highest heavens, there 847. 

to receive gifts for men, to raise up our affections thither, 
and to prepare a place for us, where himself is, and 
is to continue till his second coming at the end of the 
world. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How is Christ exalted in his 
sitting at the right hand of God ? A. Christ is exalted in 
his sitting at the right hand of God, in that as God-man he 
is advanced to [the] highest favour with God the Father, 



with all fulness of joy, glory, (authority and power over Sess - 



all things in heaven and earth ; and doth gather and 
defend his church, and subdue their enemies ; furnisheth 
his ministry and people with gifts and graces, and maketh 
intercession for them. 

Sess. 843. May 14, 1647. Friday morning; 

Mr. Greene and Mr. Rayner were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Floate and Mr. Eve 2 be approved 
upon their former examination. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism, Larger 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. How C 
doth Christ make intercession ? A. Christ makes inter- 
cession, by his appearing in our name 3 continually before 
the Father in heaven, in the merit of his obedience and 
sacrifice on earth, declaring his will to have it applied to 
all believers ; answering all accusations against them, pro- 
curing for them quiet of conscience, notwithstanding daily 
failings, access with boldness to the throne of grace, and 
acceptance of their persons and services. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How is Christ to be exalted 

1 Neg. or negative, i.e. the vote was not to retain 'authority' in the Answer, 
and the word authority was struck out in one of the Sessions named on the 
margin. 

2 See Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 197. :! Sic in MS. 



368 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 843. in his coming again to judge the world ? A. Christ is to 

I647* 4 ' ke exalted in his coming again to judge the world, in that 

he, who was unjustly judged and condemned by wicked 

Catechism. men j shall come again at the last day in the full manifes- 
tation of his great power and glory, and of his Father's, 
with all his holy angels, with a shout, with the voice of the 
archangel, and with the trumpet of God, to judge the world 
in righteousness. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How do we come to be made 
partakers of the benefit[s] which Christ hath purchased for 
us? A. We are made partakers of the benefits which 
Christ hath purchased for us by the application of them 
to us, which is the work especially of God the Holy Ghost, 
the very and true God. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How doth it appear that the 
Holy Ghost is God ? A. The Scriptures manifest that the 
Holy Ghost is God, the very and true God, ascribing to 
him such names, attributes, works, and worship as are 
proper to God only. 1 

Sess. 844. May 17, 1647. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Marshall be approved upon his former 
ordination. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Browne be excused from com- 
ing up to be examined. Ordered Mr. Hanly 2 be respited 
till Wednesday. 

Ordered The two assessors and scribes do consider how 
much money hath been received by the Assembly, and 
what is due in arrear to the Assembly. Ordered That 
there be another Committee to audit the accounts of the 
Assembly for all the members of it. 3 Ordered That Dr. 
Smith, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Rayner, Mr. Spurstow, Mr. 
Hickes, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Price, Mr. Prophet, Mr. Good, 
shall be this Committee, and the care [of it] to be referred 
to Mr. Seaman. 

1 Subsequently embraced in the Answer to Question II. 

2 Or Stanly. See note 3, p. 363. 

3 Fascicle III. here adds, ' See Mr. Robrough's book,' which seems to show 
the scribes had other books than those still extant in Byfield's handwriting. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 369 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism, and SESS. 844. 
upon debate it was 1647 7> 

Resolved upon the Q., These two questions and answers, 

' Q. Do all men equally partake of the benefits of Christ ? Catechism. 
A. Although from Christ some common favours redound to 
all mankind, and some special privileges to the visible church, 
yet none partake of the principal benefits of his mediation 
but only such as are members of the church invisible. 

' Q. What common favours redound from Christ to all 
mankind ? A. Besides much forbearance and many sup- 
plies for this life, which all mankind receive from Christ as 
Lord of all, they by him are made capable of having salva- 
tion tendered to them by the gospel, and are under such 
dispensations of providence and operations of the Spirit as 
lead to repentance,' 

shall stand for debate in order to the Catechism. 

Dr. Burges made report of the arrears to be certified 
to the Treasurers ; and it was assented to, and is as fol- 
loweth . . . 

Ordered Mr. Esthorpe be approved and his approba- 
tion certified to the Hon ble House of Commons. 

Sess. 845. May 18, 1647. Tiiesday morning. 

The order of the Assembly for Mr. Byfield to receive 
the money from the Trustees had some alterations in it, 
and it was assented to by the Assembly. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism, 
and upon debate it was 

Resolved upon the Q., The two former questions and 
answers shall be recommitted ; x and the Commissioners 
from the Church of Scotland are desired to be present. 

Ordered Mr. Miles be respited. Ordered Mr. Wilson 
be approved upon his former examination. 

An Order was brought from the House of Lords con- 
cerning Mr. Hall. It is as followeth 2 .... The former 
Committee were appointed to prepare an answer. 

1 Fascicle III. adds, ' Mr. Delmy, Mr. Raynor, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Guibon, 
Mr. Strong, Dr Gouge the Committee.' 

2 Printed in the Journals of the House of Lords, vol. ix. p. 192. 

2 A 



37 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 846. Sess. 846. May 19, 1647. Wednesday morning. 

' io47. 9 ' An an swer to the Lords of an Order concerning Mr. Hall 
was read, and upon debate 1 ordered to be sent to the 
House of Lords. Ordered That Dr. Smith, Dr. Burges, 
Mr. Gower, and Mr. Greene shall carry it up. 2 

Ordered That Mr. Batchelor be certified as one whom 
the Assembly cannot approve of, because they have received 
from the Committee of Kent his name as 3 one who was a 
principal actor and abettor of the insurrection in Kent. 

Ordered Mr. Burrell be approved upon his former ex- 
amination. 

Sess. 847. May 20, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Latham be approved upon his former 
ordination. Ordered Mr Hopkins approved upon his 
former ordination. Ordered Mr. Vaughan be respited 
from examination for the present for a better testimonial. 
Larger The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism, 

"' and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is 
effectual calling ? A. Effectual calling is the work of 
God's almighty power and grace, whereby (out of his free 
and special love to his elect, and from nothing in them 
moving him thereunto) he doth, in his accepted time, 
invite and draw them to Jesus Christ, by his word and 
Spirit, savingly enlightening their minds, renewing and 
powerfully determining their wills, so as they (although in 
themselves dead in sin) are hereby made willing and able 
freely to answer his call, and to accept and embrace the 
grace offered and conveyed in it. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Are the elect only effectually 
called? A. All the elect, and they only, are effectually 
called, although others may be, and often are, outwardly 
called by the ministry of the word, and have some com- 
mon operations of the Spirit, who, for their wilful neglect 
and contempt of the grace offered to them, being justly 
left in their unbelief, do never truly come unto Jesus Christ. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is the communion in 

1 In MS. 'debated.' 

3 Given at length in the Journals of the House, vol. ix. pp. 201 and 202. 

3 In MS. 'as as,' or ' as of.' 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 371 

grace which the members of the invisible church have with SESS. 847. 
Christ? A. The communion in grace which the members M ,Y 2 ' 
of the invisible church have with Christ, is their partaking 
of the virtue of his mediation, in their justification, adop- Catechism. 
tion, sanctification, and whatever else in this life manifests Sc " s - 8 55- 
their union with him. 

Resolved upon the O., Q. What is justification ? A. 
Justification is an act of God's free grace unto sinners, in 
which he pardoneth all their sins, accepteth and accounteth 
their persons righteous in his sight, not for anything 
wrought in them, or done by them, but only for the per- 
fect obedience and full satisfaction of Christ, by God 
imputed to them, and received by faith alone. 

Resolved upon the O., Q. How is justification an act of 
God's free grace ? A. Although Christ, by his obedience 
and death, did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to 
God's justice in the behalf of them that are justified ; yet 
inasmuch as God accepteth the satisfaction from a surety, 
which he might have demanded of them, [and] did provide 
this surety, his own only Son, imputing his righteousness 
to them, and requiring nothing of them for their justifica- 
tion but faith, which also is his gift, their justification is to 
them of free grace. 

Resolved upon the Q., The old Committee shall stand 
for the distribution of the money now received for the use 
of the Assembly. Resolved upon the Q., This Committee 
shall proceed according [to] the late rules for distribution. 
Ordered The Committee to meet this afternoon. 

Ordered Mr. Whelpdale be examined. 

Sess. 848. May 21, 1647. Friday morning. 

Mr. Hickes and Mr. Gower were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons. 

Ordered That Mr. Mell 1 be approved upon his former 
examination. 

A letter was brought into the Assembly from the 
Churches of Switzerland. 2 It was read, and is as fol- 

1 So also in Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 203. 

2 In Fascicle III., 'the divines of Tigurine,' i.e. Zurich, town or canton, 
or perhaps East Switzerland generally. 



37 2 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 848. loweth . . . Ordered That Mr. Marshall, Mr. Seaman, Dr. 
1 1647*' Burges, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Arrowsmith, and Mr. Sedgwick, 

or any 3 of them, shall be a Committee to consider of this 

letter, and to give an account of it on Friday next. Mr. 
Marshall is to take care of it. 

Ordered Mr. Blichard 1 be approved upon his former 
ordination. 

Scss. 849. May 24, 1647. Monday morning. 

Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Stanly be examined. 
Larger The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism, 

Catechism. J L 

and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., Q. What is 
justifying faith ? A. Justifying faith is a saving grace, 
wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit and word of 
God, whereby he, being convinced of his sin and misery, 
and of the disability of himself and all other creatures to 
recover him out of his lost condition, not only assenteth to 
the truth of the promise of the gospel, but receiveth and 
resteth upon Christ and his righteousness, therein held 
forth, for pardon of sin, and for accepting and accounting 
of his person righteous in the sight of God for salvation. 

Sess. 850. May 27, 1647. Thursday morning. 

Mr. Burney brought an order for the certificate of his 
examination to be returned. The order did bear date 
March 25. Ordered That Mr. Byfield, one of the scribes, 
do acquaint Mr. Burney that the Assembly doth take it 
ill, that he should thus abuse them and trouble them with 
an order of so old a date, after a return hath been made 
from this Assembly concerning him. 

Ordered That the Assembly do constantly sit at 9 
o'clock ; and that the scribes do [see] to that, and attend 
to call names. 

Ordered That the former Order of the Assembly be 
observed, to debate no business concerning ministers in 
the morning session, but only the Catechism till it be 
finished. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 

1 Blickard in Journals of House of Lords, vol. ix. p. 208. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 373 

and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., Q. How SESS. 850. 
doth faith justify a sinner in the sight of God ? A. Faith M ^ 2 7 7 ' 
justifieth a sinner in the sight of God, not because of those 
other graces which do always accompany it, or of good Catechism. 
works which are the fruits of it, nor as if the grace of faith, 
or any act thereof, were imputed to his justification ; but 
only as it is an instrument by which he receiveth and 
applieth Christ and his righteousness. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is adoption ? A. Adop- 
tion is an act of the free grace of God, in and for his only 
Son Jesus Christ, whereby all those that are justified are 
received into the number of his children, have his name 
put upon them, the Spirit of his Son given to them, are 
under his fatherly care and dispensations, admitted to all 
the liberties and privileges of the sons of God, made heirs 
of all the promises, and fellow-heirs with Christ in glory. 

Sess. 851. May 28, 1647. Friday morning. 

Mr. Delmy and Mr. Johnson were appointed to pray 
with the House[s] of Lords and Commons the week fol- 
lowing. 

Ordered Mr. Burton be excused from coming up to be 
examined. Ordered Mr. Nehemiah Holmes be approved 
upon his former examination. Ordered Mr. Ringwood 
be excused from coming up. Ordered Mr. Tompson 
be respited. 

The Assembly proceed upon debate of the Catechism ; (Sic.) 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is 
sanctification ? A. Sanctification is the work of God's 
grace, whereby all those that are justified, having, in their 
effectual calling and regeneration, received the seeds of all 
graces, are, through the powerful operation of the Spirit 
dwelling in them, and applying the death and resurrection 
of Christ unto them, further renewed in the whole man 
after the image of God, and have all their graces so 
quickened, strengthened, and increased, as that they die 
unto sin and live unto righteousness, perfecting holiness in 
the fear of God. 

Upon further consideration of this question and answer, 



374 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SKSS. 851. it was in session 852 recommitted ; and something instead 
I04; 2 ' f it was offered session 853 ; and afterwards, upon further 
debate in 1 session 85 5, 2 it was 

Larger 

Catechism. Resolved upon the Q., This answer to the former ques- 
tion shall stand instead of the former answer ' Sanctifi- 
cation is a work of God's grace, whereby they whom God 
hath, before the foundation of the world, chosen to be holy, 
are in time, through the powerful operation of the Holy 
Spirit applying the death and resurrection of Christ unto 
them, renewed in their whole man after the image of God, 
having the seeds of all saving graces put into their hearts, 
and those graces so stirred up, increased, and strengthened, 
as that they more and more die unto sin, and rise unto 
newness of life.' 

Sess. 852. May 31, 1647. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Congham 3 be examined. Ordered Mr. 
Humphry Lloyd and Mr. Knoles be examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. Wherein 
doth justification and sanctification differ? A. Although 
sanctification be inseparably joined with justification, and 
is the evidence thereof, yet they differ, in that justifica- 
tion is by righteousness imputed, sanctification by grace 
inherent ; in the one sin is pardoned, in the other it is 
subdued : the one is equal in all believers, and perfect in 
this life ; the other, not being equal in all believers, groweth 
up in every one of them by degrees unto perfection. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Are any of the regenerate 
perfectly sanctified in this life ? A. As all the regenerate 

1 Mr. Thompson says the MS. has here ' on ' instead of ' in.' 
3 The account here given regarding the amendment of the answer to the 
foregoing question, plainly shows that these extended MS. Minutes must have 
been drawn up at some short distance of time, possibly a week or two, after 
the brief scroll contained in 3d fasciculus of vol. iii., which may have been 
taken during session. It would appear also that the author of these extended 
MS. Minutes must have had in his possession reports of committees, or other 
separate and full details of the conclusions arrived at in each debate; inasmuch 
as the brief scroll already referred to contains simply the remark under the 
sessions mentioned, 'The Catechism debated.' S. 

3 So also in Journals of House of Lords, vol. ix. p. 352, though Cougham, 
p. 267. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 375 

are not equally, so none of them arc perfectly sanctified in SKSS. 85, 

this life ; but through the remnants of sin abiding in every Ma ^ 2 1 ' 

part of them, and the perpetual lustings of the flesh against 

the spirit, 1 they are often foiled with temptations, and fall 

into many sins, are hindered in all their spiritual services, 

and their best works are imperfect and denied in the sight 

of God. 

Resolved upon the O., Q. May not true believers, by 
reason of their imperfection and the many temptations and 
sins they are overtaken with, fall away from the state of 
grace? A. True believers, by reason of the unchangeable 
love of God, and his decree and covenant to give them 
perseverance, their inseparable union with Christ, his con- 
tinual intercession for them, and the seed of God abiding 
in them, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the 
state of grace, but are kept by the power of God through 
faith unto salvation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Can true believers be in- 
fallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and 
that they shall persevere therein unto salvation ? A. Such 
as truly believe in Christ, and endeavour to walk in all 
good conscience before him, may, without extraordinary 
revelation, by faith grounded [upon] the truth of God's 
promises, and by the Spirit enabling them to discern in 
themselves those graces to which the promises of life are 
made, and bearing witness with their spirits that they are 
the children of God, be infallibly assured that they are in 
the state of grace, and shall persevere therein to salvation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. Are all true believers at all 
"times assured of their present being in the state of grace, 
and that they shall be saved ? A. Assurance of grace and 
salvation not being of the essence of faith, true believers 
may wait long before they obtain it ; and, after the enjoy- 
ment thereof, may have it weakened and intermitted, 
through manifold distempers, sins, temptations, and deser- 
tions ; yet are they never left without such a presence and 
support of the Spirit of God as keeps them from sinking 
into utter despair. 

1 Sic in MS. and in early editions of the Catechism. 



76 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 



SESS. 853. Sess. 853. June i, \6^j .Tuesday morning. 

Ordered Wt. Hawkins be approved upon his former 
examination. Resolved upon the Q., Mr. Tompson be 
approved upon former examination. Ordered Mr Cong- 
ham be approved. 

Sess. 854. June 2, 1647. Wednesday morning. 
Ordered Mr. Rolt be approved upon his ordination by 
the 5th classis. 



Larger -pjjg Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 

Catechism. ,_. .. , ^\ ^ ttn. L 

and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is 

the communion in glory which the members of the invisible 
church have with Christ? A. Besides the sense of God's 
love, peace of conscience, and joy in the Holy Ghost com- 
municated from Christ to the saints as the first-fruits of 
glory in this life, their souls immediately after death enter 
into a state of eternal happiness and glory with Christ in 
heaven, to be further completed in the glorification of the 
whole man at the resurrection. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What are the outward and 
ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to his church 
the benefits of his mediation ? A. The outward and ordi- 
nary means whereby Christ communicates to his church the 
benefits of his mediation, are all his ordinances ; especially 
the word, sacraments, and prayer ; all which are made 
effectual to the elect for their salvation. 

The Committee for the Catechism made further report 
of it. 

Ordered Mr. Clarke be respited for a day or two. 
Ordered-^- Mr, Watts come up to be examined. 

Sess. 855. June 3, 1647. Thursday morning. 

An order was brought from the Lords concerning Mr. 
Hall. It is as followed! . . . Ordered That Mr. Marshall, 
Dr. Smith, Mr. Ny, and Mr. Gower shall be a Committee 
for this business. 

Ordered Mr. Laite have his order back again, because 
not directed to the Assembly. 

The Assembly proceeded in the debate of the Catechism ; 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 377 

and upon debate it was Resolved upon the O., Q. How is SF.SS. 855. 

the word made effectual to salvation? A. The Spirit of 

God maketh the reading, but especially the preaching of 

the word, an effectual means of enlightening, convincing, Catechism. 

and humbling sinners, of driving them out of themselves, 

and drawing them unto Christ, of conforming them to his 

image and subduing them to his will, of strengthening 

them against temptations and corruptions, of building 

them up in grace, and establishing their hearts in holiness 

and comfort through faith unto the coming of the Lord. 

Mr. Wilson, Mr. Rayner, Dr. Hoyle, dissent to that of Dissents. 
' reading.' 

Mr. Marshall made report of the answer to the Order of 
the Lords concerning Mr. Hall. It was read and debated, 
and assented to, and is as followeth 1 . . . Ordered Mr. 
Becke be respited for a fortnight. Ordered Mr. Estman 
be approved upon his ordination by the 5th classis, only 
he is to bring a copy of his testimonial from the classis. 

Sess. 856. June 4, 1647. Friday morning, 
Mr. Clayton and Mr. Foxcroft were appointed to pray 
with the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Resolved upon the Q., To proceed to the work of the 
day ; and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. Is 
the word of God to be read by all ? A. Although all are 
not to be permitted to read the word publicly to the con- 
gregation, yet all sorts of people are bound to read it 
apart by themselves, and with their families : to which end 
the holy Scriptures are to be translated out of the original 
into vulgar languages. 

Ordered Q. How is the word of God to be read ? A. 
The holy Scriptures are to be read with an high and 
reverent esteem of them, with a firm persuasion that they 
are the very word of God, and that he only can enable us 
to understand them, with desire to know, believe, and 
obey the will of God revealed in them, with diligence, and 
attention to the matter and scope of them, with medita- 
tion, application, self-denial, and prayer. 

1 They offer to make good their exceptions against Mr. Hall. A Committee 
is appointed to hear them. Lords' Journals, vol. ix. p. 236. 



37 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 856. Resolved upon the O., Q. By whom is the word of God 

^i^; 4 ' to b e preached ? A. The word of God is to be preached 

only by such as being sufficiently gifted are duly approved 

Catechism. an d called unto that office. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How is the word of God to be 
preached by those that are called thereunto? A. They 
that are called to labour in the ministry of the word are 
to preach sound doctrine, diligently, in season and out of 
season ; plainly, not in the enticing words of man's wisdom, 
but in demonstration of the Spirit, and power ; faithfully, 
making known the whole counsel of God ; wisely, apply- 
ing themselves to the necessities and capacities of their 
hearers ; zealously, with fervent love to God and the souls 
of his people ; sincerely, aiming at his glory, and their 
conversion, edification, and salvation. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is required of those that 
hear the word preached ? A. It is required of those who 
hear the word preached, that they attend upon it with 
diligence, preparation, and prayer, examine what they 
hear by the Scriptures, receive the truth with faith, love, 
meekness, and readiness of mind, as the word of God, 
meditate, and confer of it, hide it in their hearts, and 
bring forth the fruit of it in their lives. 

Sess. 857. June 7, 1647. Monday morning. 

Ordered Mr. Clarke be examined. 

The Assembly proceeded in debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was Ordered Q. How do the sacra- 
ments become effectual means of salvation ? A. The 
sacraments become effectual means of salvation, not by 
any power in themselves, or any virtue derived from the 
piety or intention of him by whom they are administered, 
but only by the working of the Holy Ghost, and the bless- 
ing of Christ by whom they are instituted. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. What is a sacrament? A. 
A sacrament is a holy ordinance instituted by Christ in his 
church, to signify and seal unto those that are in the cove- 
nant of grace, the benefits of his mediation to strengthen 
and increase their faith, and all other graces, to oblige 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 379 

them to obedience, to testify and cherish their love and SESS. 857. 
communion one with another, and to distinguish them -'j 1 ^- 7 ' 
from those that are without. 

Larger 

Sess. 858. June 8, 1647. Tuesday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded upon debate of the Catechism ; 
and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., Q. What 
are the parts of a sacrament ? A. The parts of a sacra- 
ment are two, the one an outward and sensible sign, used 
according to Christ's own appointment, the other an in- 
ward and spiritual grace thereby signified. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How many sacraments hath 
Christ instituted in his church under the New Testament ? 
A. Under the New Testament, Christ hath instituted in 
his church only two sacraments, baptism and the Lord's 
Supper. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. .What is baptism ? A. Baptism 
is a sacrament of the New Testament, wherein Christ 
hath ordained washing with water in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, to be a 
sign and seal of ingrafting into himself, of remission of 
sins by his blood and regeneration by his Spirit, of 
adoption, and resurrection unto everlasting life, and 
whereby the parties baptized are solemnly admitted into 
the visible church, and enter into an open and professed 
engagement to be wholly and only the Lord's. 

Resolved upon the Q., There shall be no addition. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How is our baptism to be Sess. 874. 
improved by us? A. The needful but much neglected 
duty of improving our baptism is to be performed by -us 
all our life long, especially in the time of temptation, and 
when we are present at the administration of it to others, 
by serious and thankful consideration of the nature of it, 
and of the ends for which Christ instituted it, the privileges 
and benefits conferred and sealed thereby, and our solemn 
vow made therein ; by being humbled for our sinful de- 
filement, our falling short of, and walking contrary to, the 
grace of baptism, and our engagements ; by growing up 
to assurance of pardon of sins, and of all other blessings 



380 MINUTES OF THE SESSIONS OF 

SESS. 858. sealed to us in that sacrament ; by drawing strength from 

J i647 8 ' the death and resurrection of Christ, into whom we are 

baptized, for the mortifying of sin and quickening of grace ; 

Catechism, and by endeavouring to live by faith, to have our conver- 
sation in holiness and righteousness, as those that have 
therein given their names to Christ ; and to walk in 
brotherly love, as being baptized by the same Spirit into 
one body. 

Ordered Mr. Williams be examined. Ordered Mr. 
Gone 1 be approved upon his former examination. 

Sess. 859. June 10, 1647. Thursday morning. 

The Assembly proceeded upon the debate of the Cate- 
chism ; and upon debate it was Resolved upon the Q., 
Q. What is the Lord's Supper? A. The Lord's Supper is 
a sacrament of the New Testament, wherein, by giving 
and receiving bread and wine according to the appointment 
of Jesus Christ, his death is showed forth ; and they that 
worthily communicate feed upon his body and blood, to 
their spiritual nourishment and growth in grace, have 
their union and communion with him confirmed, testify 
and renew their thankfulness, and engagement to God, 
and their mutual love and fellowship each with other, as 
members of the same mystical body. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How hath Christ appointed 
bread and wine to be given and received in the sacrament ? 
A. Christ hath appointed the ministers of the word, in the 
administration of the sacrament, to set apart the bread and 
wine from common use, by the word of institution, thanks- 
giving, and prayer : to take and break the bread, and to give 
both the bread and the wine to the communicants ; who 
are, by the same appointment, to take and eat the bread, 
and to drink the wine, in thankful remembrance that the 
body of Christ was broken and given, and his blood shed, 
for them. 

Resolved upon the Q., Q. How do they that worthily 
communicate in the Lord's Supper feed upon the body 
and blood of Christ therein ? A. As the body and blood 

1 Perhaps should be read Gore, for in Fascicle III. it is written Gower. 



THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 38 I 

of Christ are not corporally or carnally present in, with, SF.SS. 859. 
or under the bread and wine in the Lord's Supper, and yet 1^' 
are spiritually present to the faith of the receiver, no less 
truly and really than the elements themselves are to their Catechism. 
outward senses ; so they that worthily communicate in the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper do therein feed upon the 
body and blood of Christ, not after a corporal and carnal, 
but in a spiritual manner, yet truly and really, whilst by 
faith they receive and apply unto themselves Christ cruci- 
fied, and all the benefits of his death. 

Sess. 860. June n, 1647. Friday morning. 

Mr. Calamy and Mr. Gipps were appointed to pray with 
the Lords and Commons the week following. 

Ordered That Mr. Hackes worth 1 bring a better testi- 
monial. 

Mr. Tuckney made report of the Catechism concerning 
' The Lord's Supper.' The Assembly proceeded in the 
debate of it ; and upon debate it was Resolved upon the 
Q., Q. How are they that receive the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper to prepare themselves before they come 
unto it ? A. They that receive the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper are, before they come, to prepare themselves there- 
unto, by examining themselves of their being in Christ, 
of t